1887
Volume 46, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0272-2690
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9889
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This article posits a new framework in relation to language rights in post-conflict settings, giving a key position to dialogue, which we see as a multidimensional process central in most reconciliation processes. Yet this notion is seldom utilised with regard to language rights, and subsequently in language policies. Instead, powerful stakeholders such as governments or transnational organisations often consider the introduction of language rights as ‘enough’ to resolve language disputes. We discuss the impact of this in a variety of settings, arguing that a static interpretation of language rights, such as in the text of a peace agreement or a constitution, is not sufficient. The application of language rights without follow-on dialogue can antagonise rather than reconcile the very disputes they claim to settle. We argue that a more fluid consideration is required that captures the complex and changing dynamics of linguistic identities in the volatile context of a peace process. A neglected aspect in the debate on language rights in post-conflict settings is the way dialogue can, over time, alter the relationship language communities have with their own language and potentially with the language of their ‘other’. We draw on international examples that indicate dialogue should be a central consideration in post-conflict settings at all levels, from transnational organisations to governments’ national policies, and finally to grassroots initiatives within and across communities.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.00091.mcd
2022-11-17
2024-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Barbour, S., and Carmichael, C.
    (Eds.) (2000) Language and Nationalism in Europe. Oxford: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barrett, R.
    (2008) Linguistic differentiation and Mayan language revitalization in Guatemala. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 12(3), 275–305. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00368.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00368.x [Google Scholar]
  3. Brutt-Griffler, J.
    (2002) Class, ethnicity, and language rights: an analysis of British colonial policy in Lesotho and Sri Lanka and some implications for language policy. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 1(3), 207–234. 10.1207/S15327701JLIE0103_3
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327701JLIE0103_3 [Google Scholar]
  4. Canadian International Development Agency
    Canadian International Development Agency (2013) National languages project – Sri Lanka report on the visit of Graham Fraser, official languages commissioner of Canada to Sri LankaMay12–17. Available on WWW athttps://olbi.uottawa.ca/sites/olbi.uottawa.ca/files/fraserreportfinal13.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Carlá, A.
    (2007) Living apart in the same room: analysis of the management of linguistic diversity in Bolzano. Ethnopolitics, 6(2), 285–313. 10.1080/17449050701345041
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17449050701345041 [Google Scholar]
  6. Choi, C.
    (2002, April). The role of language in ideological construction of Mayan identities in Guatemala. InTenth Annual Symposium about Language and Society. Austin, TX. Available on WWW atstudentorgs.utexas.edu/salsa/proceedings/2002/papers/choi.Pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Delap, B.
    (2017) “Úsáid na Gaeilge agus Caitheamh an Fháinne i bPríosúin an Tuaiscirt.” Comhar: 12–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. De Sousa Santos, B.
    (2007) Opening up the canon of knowledge and recognition of difference. InB De Sousa Santos (Ed), Another knowledge is possible: Beyond northern epistemologies (pp.vii–xvix). London: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. DeVotta, N.
    (2003) Ethnolinguistic nationalism and ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. InM. Brown and S. Ganguly (Eds.), Fighting words: Language policy and ethnic relations in Asia (pp105–140). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fanon, F.
    (1967) Black Skin, White Masks. New York: Grove.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fenton, N., and Downey, J.
    (2003) Counter Public Spheres and Global Modernity. Javnost-The Public, 10(1), 15–32. 10.1080/13183222.2003.11008819
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13183222.2003.11008819 [Google Scholar]
  12. Fraser, N.
    (2000) Rethinking Recognition. New Left Review. pp107–120.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Giordano, C.
    (2019) The recognition of ethnic and language diversity in nation-states and consociations. InG. Hogan-Brun and B. O’Rourke (Eds.) The Palgrave Handbook of Minority Languages and Communities (pp.133–158). Basingstoke: Palgrave. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑54066‑9_5
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-54066-9_5 [Google Scholar]
  14. Gjorgjevski, G.
    (2020) Nurturing the Culture of Dialogue: a Macedonian Experience, Interdisciplinary Journal for Region and Transformation in Contemporary Society, 61, 385–412. 10.30965/23642807‑00602008
    https://doi.org/10.30965/23642807-00602008 [Google Scholar]
  15. Governments of the Republic of Greece and Republic of North Macedonia
    Governments of the Republic of Greece and Republic of North Macedonia (2019) Final Agreement for the Settlement of the Differences as Described in the United Nations Security Council Resolutions 817 (1993) and 845 (1993), the Termination of the Interim Accord of 1995, and the Establishment of a Strategic Partnership Between the Parties. Available on WWW athttps://vlada.mk/sites/default/files/dokumenti/spogodba-en.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Greenberg, R.D.
    (2004) Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its Disintegration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hegel, G.
    (1807) (1977)Phenomenology of the Spirit. Translated byA. V. Miller. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Heraclides, A.
    (2020) The Settlement of the Greek-Macedonian Naming Dispute: the Prespa Agreement. Bezbednosni dijalozi, 11(2), 49–60. 10.47054/SD202049h
    https://doi.org/10.47054/SD202049h [Google Scholar]
  19. Herath, S.
    (2015) Language Policy, ethnic tensions, and linguistic rights in post war Sri Lanka. Language Policy14(3), 245–261. 10.1007/s10993‑014‑9339‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-014-9339-6 [Google Scholar]
  20. Holmlund, A.
    (1999) Indigenous Rights in Guatemala: The Observance of the Agreement on Identity and Rights of the Indigenous Peoples. Unpublished Thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hutchinson, W.
    (2002) La langue Irlandaise en Irlande du Nord : Vers une possible neutralité ?, Hérodote, (105), p.142–153. 10.3917/her.105.0142
    https://doi.org/10.3917/her.105.0142 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kabel, L.
    (1997) Das Irische als kulturelle Zweitsprache in Belfast. InA. Wiggar (Hg.), Akten des Zweiten Deutschen Keltologen-Symposiums, Niemeyer: Tubingen, 96–104.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kymlicka, W.
    (1995) Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Laganà, G., and White, T.
    (2021) Cross-Border Cultural Cooperation in European Border Regions: Sites and Senses of ‘Place’ across the Irish Border, Anthropological Journal of European Cultures, 30(1), 153–162. 10.3167/ajec.2021.300112
    https://doi.org/10.3167/ajec.2021.300112 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lo Bianco, J.
    (2016) Conflict, language rights, and education: building peace by solving language problems in Southeast Asia, Language Policy Research Network Brief. Available on WWW athttps://www.cal.org/lpren/pdfs/briefs/conflict-language-rights-and-education.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Marinov, T.
    (2003) In defense of the native tongue: The standardization of the Macedonian language and the Bulgarian-Macedonian linguistic controversies. InR. Daskalov and T. Marinov (Eds) Entangled Histories of the Balkans (pp.419–487). Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Martin, A., Coolsaet, B., Corbera, E., Dawson, N. M., Fraser, J. A., Lehmann, I., & Rodriguez, I.
    (2016) Justice and conservation: The need to incorporate recognition. Biological Conservation, 1971, 254–261. 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.03.021
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.03.021 [Google Scholar]
  28. May, S.
    (2001) Language and minority rights: ethnicity. nationalism, and the politics of language. London: Pearson.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. McCall, C.
    (2013) Reduce the place to rubble or go and live there yourself: European Union cross-border cooperation and conflict amelioration. Working Papers inConflict Transformation and Social Justice. Available on WWW athttps://www.qub.ac.uk/Research/GRI/mitchell-institute/FileStore/Filetoupload,379849,en.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  30. McDermott, P. and Nic Craith, M.
    (2019) Linguistic recognition in deeply divided societies: antagonism or reconciliation?InG. Hogan-Brun and B. O’Rourke (Eds) The Palgrave Handbook of Minority Languages and Communities (pp.159–179) Basingstoke: Palgrave. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑54066‑9_6
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-54066-9_6 [Google Scholar]
  31. McDermott, P., and McDowell, S.
    (2021) Cultural Heritage Across European Borders: Bridges or Walls?Anthropological Journal of European Cultures, 30(1), 96–103. 10.3167/ajec.2021.300106
    https://doi.org/10.3167/ajec.2021.300106 [Google Scholar]
  32. McKay, S.
    (2021) Northern Protestants: On Shifting Ground. Belfast: Blackstaff.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mignolo, W. D.
    (2008) Preamble: The Historical Foundation of Modernity/Coloniality and the Emergence of Decolonial Thinking. A Companion to Latin American Literature and Culture. pp12–52. 10.1002/9780470696446.cha
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470696446.cha [Google Scholar]
  34. Modood, T.
    (2007/2013) Multiculturalism: A Civic Idea. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Muller, J.
    (2010) Language and conflict in Northern Ireland and Canada: a silent war. Basingstoke: Palgrave. 10.1057/9780230281677
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230281677 [Google Scholar]
  36. Nic Craith, M. and McDermott, P.
    (2022) Dialogues and Peace Agreements: Language and Identities in a Divided Society, Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power. (Online First10.1080/1070289X.2022.2063498)
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1070289X.2022.2063498 [Google Scholar]
  37. Nic Craith, M.
    (2003) Culture and Identity Politics in Northern Ireland. Basingstoke: Palgrave. 10.1057/9781403948113
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781403948113 [Google Scholar]
  38. O’Reilly, C.
    (1999) The Irish Language in Northern Ireland: The politics of culture and identity. Palgrave: Basingstoke. 10.1007/978‑1‑349‑27423‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-27423-9 [Google Scholar]
  39. Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe
    Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (2012) The Ljubljana Guidelines on Integration of Diverse Societies. The Hague: OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Orjuela, C.
    (2008) The Identity Politics of Peace Building: Civil Society in War-torn Sri-Lanka, New Delhi: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Parekh, B.
    (2000/2006) Rethinking multiculturalism: cultural diversity and political theory, 2nd edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Patten, A.
    (2020) “Populist multiculturalism: Are there majority cultural rights?”, Philosophy and Social Criticism, 46(5) 539–552. 10.1177/0191453720903486
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453720903486 [Google Scholar]
  43. Price, G.
    (2020) Language policy and transitional justice: rights and reconciliation, Language Policy, 191485–503. 10.1007/s10993‑019‑09533‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-019-09533-0 [Google Scholar]
  44. Pritchard, R. M.
    (2004) Protestants and the Irish language: Historical heritage and current attitudes in Northern Ireland, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25(1) 62–82. 10.1080/01434630408666520
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630408666520 [Google Scholar]
  45. Raheem, R.
    (2006) Configuring the mosaic: investigating language use and attitude in Sri Lanka. In: S. Herath and H. Ratwatte (Eds), English in the Multilingual Environment: Proceedings of the 2004 International SLELTA Conference (pp13–27). Colombo: Sri Lanka English Language Teachers’ Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Reid, A.
    (2021) Heritage, reconciliation, and cross-border cooperation in Cyprus. Anthropological Journal of European Cultures, 30(1), 144–152. 10.3167/ajec.2021.300111
    https://doi.org/10.3167/ajec.2021.300111 [Google Scholar]
  47. Roe, P.
    (2002) Misperception and Ethnic Conflict: Transylvania’s Societal Security Dilemma. Review of International Studies, 28(1), 57–74. 10.1017/S0260210502000578
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210502000578 [Google Scholar]
  48. Ross, M. H.
    (2009) Cultural contestation and the symbolic landscape: politics by other means?InM. H. Ross (Ed) Culture and Belonging in Divided Societies: Contestation and Symbolic Landscapes (pp.1–24). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 1–24. 10.9783/9780812203509.1
    https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812203509.1 [Google Scholar]
  49. Salli, A.
    (2019) Role of motivation and attitude: learning Turkish and Greek in Cyprus. InInternational Journal of Bilingualism23(4). 831–842. 10.1177/1367006917703456
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006917703456 [Google Scholar]
  50. Tum, D. Ozras and Kunt, N.
    (2021) Language Learning under the shadow of the conflict: teachers’ beliefs about teaching the language of the “other’, Teaching and Teacher Education, 1071 (online first). 10.1016/j.tate.2021.103485
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2021.103485 [Google Scholar]
  51. Weerakoon, B.
    (2006) “Initiating and Sustaining the Peace Process: Origins and Challenges”, In. K. Rupesingheed.Negotiating Peace in Sri Lanka: Efforts, Behaviours and Lessons. Colombo: Foundation for Co-Existence, pp. 1–39.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.00091.mcd
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error