1887
Volume 46, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0272-2690
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9889
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This article focuses on the advocacy of social justice through the implementation of language policies in South African universities. Noting the multilingual complexity of South Africa with 111 official languages and the intricacies surrounding South Africa’s political and sociocultural borders, the submission explores the advocacy of social justice in informing the reappraisal and the ensuing implementation of such a language policy by exploring constitutive dimensions (specifically identity) and instrumental dimensions (non-identity/functional aspects) from a linguistic justice perspective. The institution used as a case study is the North-West University (NWU) which is a by-product of three campuses that were merged in 2004. The authors use survey data eliciting opinions about revising the institution’s language policy. Central to the analysis is how linguistic justice could be exercised in consideration of constitutive vs instrumental dimensions based on the work of De Schutter (2007). With 20, 000 responses, the authors used a qualitative analysis, supplemented by frequencies, to tease apart identity and non-identity aspects to determine which of these had a closer relationship with linguistic justice and the selected institution’s language policy. The results of this study aim to offer insight into future revisions of higher education language policies in order to fulfil the mandate of linguistic justice.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.21053.rav
2022-10-10
2024-04-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alcalde, J.
    (2018) Linguistic justice: An interdisciplinary overview of the literature. Language Policy and Linguistic Justice, 65–149. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑75263‑1_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75263-1_2 [Google Scholar]
  2. Alexander, N.
    (2004) The politics of language planning in post-apartheid South Africa. Language Problems and Language Planning, 28(2), 113–130. 10.1075/lplp.28.2.02ale
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.28.2.02ale [Google Scholar]
  3. Altbach, P. G.
    (2005, May23–May25). The political economy of international higher education cooperation: Structural realities and global inequalities. [Paper presentation]. Nuffic Conference on ‘A Changing Landscape’, The Netherlands. www.nuffic.nl/pdf/os/em/altbach.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Avineri, N., Graham, L. R., Johnson, E. J., Riner, R. C., & Rosa, J.
    (Eds.) (2019) Language and social justice in practice. 10.4324/9781315115702
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315115702 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bangani, S.
    (2018) The linguistic-cultural impact of the institutional repository of North-West University, South Africa. African Journal of Library, Archives & Information Science, 28(2), 159–209.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Blommaert, J.
    (2006) Language policy and national identity. In: T. Ricento (Ed.), An introduction to language policy: Theory and method (pp.238–254). Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bonotti, M., & Chríost, D.
    (2019) Introduction: Linguistic justice in an interdisciplinary context. Sociolinguistica, 33(1), 1–8. 10.1515/soci‑2019‑0001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/soci-2019-0001 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bourdieu, P.
    (1991) Language and symbolic power. Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brock-Utne, B.
    (2001) Education for all – in whose language?Oxford review of education, 27(1), 115–134. 10.1080/03054980125577
    https://doi.org/10.1080/03054980125577 [Google Scholar]
  10. Brubaker, R., & Cooper, F.
    (2000) Beyond “identity”. Theory and Society, 29(1), 1–47. 10.1023/A:1007068714468
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007068714468 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bunting, I.
    (2006) The higher education landscape under apartheid. InTransformation in higher education (pp.35–52). Springer, Dordrecht. 10.1007/1‑4020‑4006‑7_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4006-7_3 [Google Scholar]
  12. Cele, N.
    (2021) Understanding language policy as a tool for access and social inclusion in South African Higher Education: a critical policy analysis perspective. South African Journal of Higher Education, 35(6), 25–46. 10.20853/35‑6‑3730
    https://doi.org/10.20853/35-6-3730 [Google Scholar]
  13. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa
    Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996.
  14. Corson, D.
    (1996) Language, minority education and gender: Linking social justice and power. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. DeGraff, M.
    (2020) Toward racial justice in linguistics: The case of Creole studies (Response to Charity Hudley et al.). Language, 96(4), e292–e306. 10.1353/lan.2020.0080
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2020.0080 [Google Scholar]
  16. De Schutter, H.
    (2007) Language policy and political philosophy: On the emerging linguistic justice debate. Language Problems and Language Planning, 31(1), 1–23. 10.1075/lplp.31.1.02des
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.31.1.02des [Google Scholar]
  17. De Schutter, H., & Robichaud, D.
    (2015) Van Parijsian linguistic justice–context, analysis and critiques. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 18(2), 87–112. 10.1080/13698230.2015.1023627
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13698230.2015.1023627 [Google Scholar]
  18. Docrat, Z., & Kaschula, R. H.
    (2015) ‘Meaningful engagement’: Towards a language rights paradigm for effective language policy implementation. South African Journal of African Languages, 35(1), 1–9. 10.1080/02572117.2015.1056455
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02572117.2015.1056455 [Google Scholar]
  19. eNCA
    eNCA (2014) Language debate continues in SA schools. www.enca.com/language-debate-continues-sa-schoolsAccessed25 May 2022.
  20. Fearon, J. D.
    (1999) What is identity (as we now use the word)?Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. García, O.
    (2009) Education, multilingualism and translanguaging in the 21st century. Social justice through multilingual education, pp.140–158. 10.21832/9781847691910‑011
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691910-011 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gazzola, M., Templin, T., & Wickström, B.
    (eds.) (2018) Language policy and linguistic justice. Economic, philosophical and sociolinguistic approaches. Springer International Publishing. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑75263‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75263-1 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gobbo, F.
    (2018) How to measure linguistic justice: theoretical considerations and the South Tyrol case study of the Calvet Language Barometer. InP. Kraus, & F. Grin (Eds.), The politics of multilingualism: Europeanisation, globalisation and linguistic governance (pp.145–165). John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/wlp.6.07gob
    https://doi.org/10.1075/wlp.6.07gob [Google Scholar]
  24. Granville, S., Janks, H., Mphahlele, M., Reed, Y., Watson, P., Joseph, M., & Ramani, E.
    (1998) English with or without g(u)ilt: A position paper on language in education policy for South Africa. Language and Education, 12(4), 254–272. 10.1080/09500789808666753
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500789808666753 [Google Scholar]
  25. Grin, F.
    (2006) Economic considerations in language policy. An introduction to language policy: Theory and method, pp.77–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (2011) Using territoriality to support genuine linguistic diversity, not to get rid of it. The linguistic territoriality principle: Right violation or parity of esteem, pp.28–33.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Head, T.
    (2022) South Africa is getting a new official language – taking us up to 12!The South African. https://www.thesouthafrican.com/news/offbeat/breaking-what-is-new-official-language-south-africa-12-total/Accessed: 27 May 2022.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hornberger, N. H.
    (1998) Language policy, language education, language rights: Indigenous, immigrant, and international perspectives. Language in Society, 27(4), 439–458. 10.1017/S0047404500020182
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500020182 [Google Scholar]
  29. Kymlicka, W.
    (1995) Multicultural citizenship. A liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kymlicka, W., & Patten, A.
    (2003) Language rights and political theory. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 23(1), 3–21. 10.1017/S0267190503000163
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190503000163 [Google Scholar]
  31. Margalit, A., & Raz, J.
    (1995) National self-determination. InW. Kymlicka (Ed.), The rights of minority cultures (pp.439–461). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Mayaba, N. N., Ralarala, M. K., & Angu, P.
    (2018) Student voice: Perspectives on language and critical pedagogy in South African higher education. Educational Research for Social Change, 7(1), 1–12. 10.17159/2221‑4070/2018/v7i1a1
    https://doi.org/10.17159/2221-4070/2018/v7i1a1 [Google Scholar]
  33. Mkhize, D., & Balfour, R.
    2017 Language rights in education in South Africa. South African Journal of Higher Education, 31(6), 133–150. 10.20853/31‑6‑1633
    https://doi.org/10.20853/31-6-1633 [Google Scholar]
  34. Mowbray, J.
    (2012) Linguistic justice: International law and language policy. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646616.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646616.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  35. Mwaniki, M.
    (2012) Language and social justice in South Africa’s higher education: insights from a South African university. Language and Education, 26(3), 213–232. 10.1080/09500782.2011.629095
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2011.629095 [Google Scholar]
  36. Namyalo, S., & Nakayiza, J.
    (2015) Dilemmas in implementing language rights in multilingual Uganda. Current Issues in Language Planning, 16(4), 409–424. 10.1080/14664208.2014.987425
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14664208.2014.987425 [Google Scholar]
  37. North-West University
    North-West University 2020 Our unique language policy. services.nwu.ac.za/language-directorate
  38. Orman, J.
    (2008) Language policy and nation-building in post-apartheid South Africa (Vol.101). Springer Science & Business Media.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ortega, L.
    (2020) The study of heritage language development from a bilingualism and social justice perspective. Language Learning, 701, 15–53. 10.1111/lang.12347
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12347 [Google Scholar]
  40. Patten, A.
    (2001) Political theory and language policy. Political Theory, 29(5), 683–707. 10.1177/0090591701029005005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0090591701029005005 [Google Scholar]
  41. Perry, T.
    (2004) The case of the toothless watchdog: Language rights and ethnic mobilization in South Africa. Ethnicities, 4(4), 501–521. 10.1177/1468796804047471
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796804047471 [Google Scholar]
  42. Prah, K. K.
    (2008, May2–May3). The language of instruction conundrum in Africa (Keynote address), Implications of Language for Peace and Development (IMPLAN). University of Oslo.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Ravyse, N.
    (2018) Against All Odds: The Survival of Fanagalo in South African Mines. Language Matters, 49(1), 3–24. 10.1080/10228195.2018.1440319
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10228195.2018.1440319 [Google Scholar]
  44. Rawls, J.
    (1999) A theory of justice. Harvard University Press. 10.4159/9780674042582
    https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674042582 [Google Scholar]
  45. Reagan, T., Penn, C., & Ogilvy, D.
    (2006) From policy to practice: Sign language developments in post-apartheid South Africa. Language Policy, 5(2), 187–208. 10.1007/s10993‑006‑9002‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10993-006-9002-y [Google Scholar]
  46. Reddy, T.
    (2004) Higher education and social transformation: South Africa case study. Pretoria, South Africa: Council on Higher Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Rhodes University
  48. Skutnabb-Kangas, T.
    (2006) Language policy and linguistic human rights. InT. Ricento (Ed.), An introduction to language policy: Theory and method (pp.273–291). Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Phillipson, R.
    (Eds) (1994) Linguistic human rights: Overcoming linguistic discrimination. Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sol Plaatje University
  51. Stellenbosch University
    Stellenbosch University 2018 Language at SU. https://www0.sun.ac.za/international/language-at-su.htmlDate of access: 1 Sep. 2021.
  52. Tan, Y.
    (2018 July5–July10). Linguistic imperialism meets linguistic justice: Coming to terms with new English worlds. ICL20 [Conference]. Cape Town, South Africa.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Taylor, C.
    (1994) The politics of recognition. InA. Gutmann (Ed.), Multiculturalism and the politics of recognition (pp.25–73). Princeton University Press. 10.2307/j.ctt7snkj.6
    https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt7snkj.6 [Google Scholar]
  54. Ugwu, E. O.
    (2020) Language policy and planning in Nigeria: moving beyond rhetoric. Language Problems and Language Planning, 44(1), 1–9. 10.1075/lplp.00053.okw
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.00053.okw [Google Scholar]
  55. University of Cape Town
  56. University of Kwazulu-Natal
  57. University of Limpopo
    University of Limpopo (2021) Admission requirements. https://www.ul.ac.za/index.php?Entity=International%20Students
  58. University of Pretoria
  59. University of the Free State
    University of the Free State (2016) University of the Free State language policy. https://www.ufs.ac.za/docs/default-source/policy-institutional-documents/language-policy.pdf?sfvrsn=ea4dc321_0
  60. University of the Witwatersrand
    University of the Witwatersrand (2020) Wits Language Policy. https://www.wits.ac.za/about-wits/governance/language-policy/
  61. Van Parijs, P.
    (2004) Europe’s Linguistic Challenge. European Journal of Sociology, 45(1), 113–154. 10.1017/S0003975604001407
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003975604001407 [Google Scholar]
  62. (2010) Linguistic justice and the territorial imperative. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 13(1), 181–202. 10.1080/13698230903326323
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13698230903326323 [Google Scholar]
  63. (2011) Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World. 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199208876.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199208876.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  64. (2012) On linguistic territoriality and Belgium’s linguistic future. InP. Popelier, D. Sinardet, J. Velaers, & B. Cantillon (Eds.), België: Quo Vadis? Waarheen na de zesde staatshervorming ? (pp.35–60). Intersentia.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Webb, V.
    (2009) Multilingualism in South Africa: The challenge to below. Language Matters, 40(2), 190–204. 10.1080/10228190903188591
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10228190903188591 [Google Scholar]
  66. Wee, L.
    (2010) Language without rights. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737437.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199737437.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  67. Weinstock, D.
    (2003) The antinomy of language rights. InW. Kymlicka & A. Patten (Eds.), Language rights and political theory (pp.250–270). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Zikode, N. P.
    (2017) An evaluation of the implementation of the language policy for higher education: African languages as medium of instruction at selected South African universities (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).
  69. Zembylas, M., & Keet, A.
    (2019) Critical human rights education: Advancing social-justice-oriented educational praxes (Vol.131). Springer Nature. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑27198‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-27198-5 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.21053.rav
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.21053.rav
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error