1887
Volume 4, Issue 3
  • ISSN 0272-2690
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9889
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Abstract

SUMMARYThe Status of Languages in Different States, Especially in EuropeA typology of linguistic characteristics of each territory can be established. Such territories do not generally coincide with political states, which are generally heterogeneous. To grasp the linguistic character of states, these must be divided into distinct linguistic territories.In considering a linguistic terrain, a sociolinguistic approach identifies the actual language in use, whereas a jurolinguistic approach notes the language imposed or recognized by law. Both approaches are legitimate, but must be distinguished. The term "status" in the title indicates a juridical approach. But a sociolinguistic or ethno-political perspective cannot be omitted. The two approaches are epistemologically linked and serve to define each other. By comparing and confronting the legal status of languages with sociolinguistic reality in each territory, a measure of adequacy or inadequacy of linguistic statuses may be developed.Linguistic statuses are examined under three headings: qualification (how linguistic status is implemented —constitutionally, in civil law, or administratively); quality (status of a given language, e.g., national, auxiliary, state language, regional language, territorial language not used in administration); and linguistic characterization of a territory or a political state.Examining a homogeneous element of state territory, a typology of linguistic super-imposition or of linguistic juxtaposition can be identified, in addition to possible simple unilingualism. Looking at an entire state, unilingualism is possible, as are personal bilingualism or multilingualism and territorial bilingualism or multilingualism.Switzerland, Belgium and Finland are typical cases.The present study is limited to the level of general jurolinguistic typology. It does not undertake in-depth studies of individual situations, but it does provide an introduction to the general field of the law of language.RESUMOLa Statuso de la Lingvo) en Diversaj Statoj, aparte en EuropoEblas starigi klasigon de la lingvaj karakterizoj de ciu opa teritorio. Tia teritorio ne generale respondas al politika stato, kiu estas kutime lingve diversa. Por rekoni la lingvan karakteron de stato, necesas dividi gin en opajn lingvajn teritoriojn.Prijugante lingvan teritorion, socilingvisto identigas la faktan lingvouzon; male, ling-vojuristo notas la lingvon almetitan aǔ rekonitan de la legaro. Ambaǔ aliroj estas pravigeblaj, sed necesas distingi inter ili. La termino statuso en la titolo montras al lingvojura aliro. Sed ne eblas ellasi socilingvistikan aǔ etnopolitikan perspektivon. Per interkomparo de la lega statuso de lingvoj kun la socilingvistika realo en ciu opa teritorio, eblas disvolvi mezurilon de la taǔgeco aǔ netaǔgeco de lingvaj statusoj.Oni prikonsideras lingvajn statusojn laǔ tri rubrikoj; la kvalifiko (kiel oni realigas lingvan statuson —cu konstitucie, cu per la civila juro, cu administracie) ; la kvalito (la statuso de iu lingvo, ekz. nacia, helpa, štata, regiona, teritoria lingvo ne uzata en la administrado); kaj la lingva karakterizo de teritorio aǔ stato.Eblas identigi la lingvan karakterizon de unueca ero de štata teritorio; ekzistas lingvo-supermeto kaj la almeto de lingvoj flank-al-flanke, krom la simpla unulingveco. En tuta štato, eblas unulingveco, personaj dulingveco au plurlingveco, kaj teritoriaj dulingveco au plurlingveco. Svislando, Belgujo kaj Finnlando estas tipaj kazoj.La nuna studo estas limigita al la nivelo de generala lingvojura tipologio. Gi ne studas profunde opajn situaciojn, sed gi ja provizas enkondukon al la generala fako de la lingva juro.
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/content/journals/10.1075/lplp.4.3.02her
1980-01-01
2019-10-18
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References

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  • Article Type: Research Article
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