Volume 41, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0272-2690
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9889
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


The roles of language policy and language practice and use in education have been regarded to influence the efficacy of teaching and learning in the school setting. With the rise of globalisation and internationalisation of services in education, the objective of producing manpower that is equipped to the demands of the knowledge-based economy has realigned government policies worldwide to put education at the forefront of its development plans. From the rise of English language as ‘the’ language for globalisation calls for a more inclusive and locally- oriented mother-tongue based multilingual education (MTB-MLE), this article will discuss broadly the dynamics of language, access and influence, and will look at the Philippines as a country case study of explicit and implicit declarations in language policy and use, as affecting the education sector, and access to the labour market.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Bernardo, A. B.
    (2004) McKinley’s questionable bequest: Over 100 years of English in Philippine education. World Englishes, 23(1), 17–31. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2004.00332.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2004.00332.x [Google Scholar]
  2. Bourdieu, P.
    (1991) Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. BSP
    BSP (2015) Economics and financial statistics. Available at: www.bsp.gov.ph/statistics/efs_ext3.asp [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Burton, L.
    (2013) Mother tongue-based multilingual education in the Philippines: Studying top-down policy implementation from the bottom up. Unpublished Phd dissertation. University of Minnesota.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. CHED Memorandum Order 59
    CHED Memorandum Order 59 (1996) New general education curriculum. Pasig: CHED.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. DECS order 52
    DECS order 52 (1987) The 1987 policy on bilingual education. Manila: Department of Education, Culture and Sports.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. DepEd
    DepEd (2015) Department of Education datasets. Available atdeped.gov.ph/datasets [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  8. DepEd Order 16
    DepEd Order 16 (2012) Guidelines on the Implementation of the Mother Tongue-Based- Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). Pasig: Department of Education
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Deped Advisory 398
    Deped Advisory 398 (2012) Masters of Arts in Education program with specialisation in mother tongue-based multilingual education. Pasig: Department of Education.
  10. Dumanig, F. , David, M. and Symaco, L. P.
    (2010) Competing roles of the national language and English in Malaysia and the Philippines: Planning, policy and use. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 1(2), 104–115. doi: 10.14425/00.45.77
    https://doi.org/10.14425/00.45.77 [Google Scholar]
  11. England, K.
    (1996) “They think you’re as stupid as your English is”: constructing foreign domestic workers in Toronto. Environment and Planning, 29, 195–215. doi: 10.1068/a290195
    https://doi.org/10.1068/a290195 [Google Scholar]
  12. Espiritu, C.
    (2015) Lanaguage policy in the Philippines. Available at: ncca.gov.ph/subcommissions/subcommission-on-cultural-disseminationscd/language-and-translation/language-policies-in-the-philippines/ [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Executive Order 335
    Executive Order 335 (1988) Enjoining all departments/bureaus/offices/agencies/instrumentalities of the government to take such steps as are necessary for the purpose of using Filipino language in official transactions, communications and correspondence. Manila: Office of the President.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fishman, J.
    (1968) Nationality-nationalism and nation-nationism. In J. Fishman , C. Ferguson and J. Dasgupta (Eds). Language problems of developing nations. New York, Wiley, pp.39–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. (1977) Advances in the creation and revision of writing systems. The Hague and Paris: Mouton doi: 10.1515/9783110807097
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110807097 [Google Scholar]
  16. Frignal, E.
    (2007) Outsourced call centers and English in the Philippines. World Englishes, 26(3), 331–345. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑971X.2007.00512.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.2007.00512.x [Google Scholar]
  17. Geronimo, J.
    (2014) No Filipino subjects in college? ‘Tanggol Wika’ opposes CHED memo, RapplerAvailable at: www.rappler.com/nation/110910-filipino-kolehiyo-reporma-kwf [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (2015) Pagtuturo at paggamit ng Filipino sa kolehiyo limitado pa rin (The use and teaching of Filipino in college is still limited), RapplerAvailable at: www.rappler.com/nation/110910-filipino-kolehiyo-reporma-kwf [accessed, 8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Graddol, D.
    (1997) The future of English?London: The British Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hobsbawm, E.
    (1996) Language, culture and national identity. Social Research, 63(4), 1065–1080.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Holborow, M.
    (1999) The politics of English. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Johnson, A.
    (2009) The rise of English: The language of globalization in China and the European Union,” Macalester International, 22(12). Available at: digitalcommons.macalester.edu/macintl/vol22/iss1/12 [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kitsing, D.
    (2012) Namibia’s language policy is ‘poisoning’ its children, The Guardian. Available at: www.theguardian.com/education/2012/jan/10/namibia-english-crisis [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  24. KWF
    KWF (2015) Mandato. Available at: kwf.gov.ph/test/mandato/ [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kress, G.
    (1995) Writing the future. Sheffield: National Association for the Teaching of English.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lan, P. C.
    (2003) “They have more money but I speak better English!” Transnational encounters between Filipina domestics and Taiwanese employers. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 10, 133–161. doi: 10.1080/10702890304325
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10702890304325 [Google Scholar]
  27. Menken, K. and Garcia, O.
    (2010) Negotiating language policies in schools: educators as policymakers. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Montecillo, P.
    (2015) Structural shift in revenues to keep PH stable, InquirerAvailable at: business.inquirer.net/199310/bpos-seen-to-surpass-ofw-remittances [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Mustafa, Z.
    (2015) The Tyranny of Language in Education. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  30. Nolasco, R.
    (2008) The prospects of multilingual education and literacy in the Philippines. Available at: www.seameo.org/_ld2008/doucments/Presentation_document/NolascoTHE_PROSPECTS_OF_MULTILINGUAL_EDUCATION.pdf [accessed8 November 2015].
  31. Parrenas, R.
    (2001) Servants of globalisation: Women, migration, domestic work. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Pennycook, A.
    (1998) English and the discourse of colonialism. London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Phan, L. H. , Kho, J. and Chng, B.
    (2013) Nation building, English as an international language, medium of instruction, and language debate: Malaysia and possible ways forward. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 2(2), pp.58–71. doi: 10.14425/00.50.27
    https://doi.org/10.14425/00.50.27 [Google Scholar]
  34. Philippine Malolos Constitution
    Philippine Malolos Constitution 1899 (article 93).
  35. Philippine (Republic of) Constitution
    Philippine (Republic of) Constitution 1935 (article XVIII, Section 3).
  36. Philippine (Republic of) Constitution
    Philippine (Republic of) Constitution 1943 (article IX, Section 2).
  37. Philippine (Republic of) Constitution
    Philippine (Republic of) Constitution 1973 (article XV, Sections 2 and 3).
  38. Philippine (Republic of) Constitution
    Philippine (Republic of) Constitution 1987 (article XIV, Section 7).
  39. Phillipson, R.
    (1992) Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. (2015) Linguistic imperialism of and in the European Union. In H. Behr and Y. Stivachtis , (Eds) (2015) Revisiting the European Union as Empire. London: Routledge, pp.134–163.
  41. POEA
    POEA (2015) About POEA. Available at: www.poea.gov.ph/about/aboutus.html [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Rappa, A. and Wee, HA
    (2006) Language policy and modernity in Southeast Asia: Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. New York: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Republic Act (RA) 8042
    Republic Act (RA) 8042 (1995) Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995. Republic of the Philippines.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Samuel, M. and Tee, M. Y.
    (2013) Malaysia: Ethnocracy and education. In L. P. Symaco (Ed). Education in South East Asia. London: Bloomsbury Academic, pp.137–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Spolsky, B.
    (2004) Language policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Symaco, L. P.
    (2011) Philippines: education for development?In C. Brock and L. P. Symaco (Eds). Education in South East Asia. Oxford: Symposium Books, pp.139–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Tan, J.
    (2011) Singapore” school for the future?In C. Brock and L. P. Symaco (Eds) Education in South East Asia. Oxford: Symposium Books, pp.157–175.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Tan, N.
    (2014) What the PH constitutions say about the national language, Rappler. Available at: www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/65477-national-language-philippine-constitutions?cp_rap_source=ymlScrolly#cxrecs_s [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tollefson, J.
    (2002) Language policies in education: critical issues. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. (1993) Language policy and power: Yugoslavia, the Philippines, and Southeast Asian refugees in the United States, International Journal of the Sociology of Languages, 103, 73–95.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. (1989) Alien winds: The re-education of American’s Indochinese refugees. New York: Praeger.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. (1991) Language planning and language inequality. New York: Longman
  53. Tupas, R.
    (2015) In equalities in multilingualism: challenges to mother-tongue based multilingual education. Language and Education, 29(2), 112–124. doi: 10.1080/09500782.2014.977295
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2014.977295 [Google Scholar]
  54. UNESCO
    UNESCO (2011) Enhancing learning of children from diverse language backgrounds. Paris: UNESCO.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. UNESCO
    UNESCO (1953) The use of vernacular languages in education. Paris: UNESCO
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Watson, K.
    (2011) Education and language policies in south east Asian countries. In C. Brock and L. P. Symaco (Eds). Education in South East Asia. Oxford: Symposium Books, pp.283–304.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Whitehead, D.
    (2013) Lobbying for English in Indonesia denies children mother-tongue education, the GuardianAvailable at: www.theguardian.com/education/2013/feb/26/indonesia-mother-tongue-english-debate?INTCMP=SRCH [accessed8 November 2015].
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Woldemariam, H. and Lanza, E.
    (2014) Language contact, agency and power in the linguistic landscape of two regional capitals in Ethiopia. International Journal of the Sociology of Languages, 228, 79–103.
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error