1887
Volume 47, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0731-3500
  • E-ISSN: 2214-5907
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper discusses the ritual language of Thadou-Kuki, a Tibeto-Burman language of the Kuki-Chin subgroup spoken in Northeastern India and the Chin State of Myanmar. The paper examines 13 ritual texts to determine the nature of language use and the types of structure that ritual language provides. The paper discusses the general belief surrounding the traditional religion as background information to the types of ritual language discussed in the paper. This is followed by a discussion on the structure of ritual language in terms of composition, grammatical constructions, and the choices of words used in the ritual language of Thadou-Kuki, including archaic expressions that are characteristic of ritual language. From the analysis of the ritual texts, the paper discusses the types of repetition at the level of syllables and paragraphs/stanzas. Each stanza is further divided into couplets of repetitive phrases (differing mostly in the initial words of a phrase or sentence). The paper divides the ritual language of Thadou-Kuki into two, namely invocation and direct address to the spirits. The former makes use of imperatives, namely the request –, the invitational –, and the hortative –. Direct address to the spirits, on the other hand, makes use of the declarative mood, namely, a clause or sentence-final marker .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.00017.hao
2024-05-17
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Appell, G. N. & Laura W. R. Appell
    (undated). The Sabah oral literature project: Theory and method. https://firebirdresearchgrants.org/PDFs/Sabah-Oral-Literature-Project-Theory-and-Methods-with-Pictures.pdf. Access on26.06.2022.
  2. Barkataki-Ruscheweyh, M. & Stephen Morey
    (2013) Wihu song of the Pangwa Tangsa: Poetry and linguistic forms, meaning and the transformation into a symbol of identity. InGwendolyn Hyslop, Stephen Morey & Mark Post (eds.), North East Indian linguistics, v.51, 283–303. Delhi: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9789382993285.015
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9789382993285.015 [Google Scholar]
  3. Census of India
    Census of India 2011 New Delhi: office of the Registrar General, India. https://censusindia.gov.in/2011Census/C-16_25062018_NEW.pdf.
  4. Gaenszle, Martin
    2018 Ritual speech in the Himalayas: Oral texts and their contexts. InMartin Gaenszle (ed.), Ritual speech in the Himalayas: Oral texts and their contexts, 1–14. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Haokip, D. Sonkhojang
    2019Traditional beliefs and practices of the Kukis: Before the advent of Christianity. New Delhi: Mittal Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Haokip, Letkhojam
    2000Thempu ho thu [The words of religious priests]. Manipur: The Directorate for Development of Tribals & Backward Classes.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Haokip, Pauthang
    2011 The languages of Manipur: A case study of the Kuki-Chin languages. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area34(1). 85–118.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 2012 Negation in Thadou. Himalayan Linguistics11(2). 1–20.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2021 May you fall [dead] while standing!: Curses and abuses in Thadou-Kuki. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area, 44(2).197–213. 10.1075/ltba.20010.hao
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltba.20010.hao [Google Scholar]
  10. 2022 Fish die of number, animals of footprints, but humans by mouths [words]!: Diminishing cultural knowledge from the margin: The case of Thadou-Kuki. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area45(2). 262–299. 10.1075/ltba.21026.hao
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltba.21026.hao [Google Scholar]
  11. Jakobson, Roman
    1987Language in literature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Matisoff, James A.
    1973The grammar of Lahu. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Peterson, David A.
    2010 Khumi elaborate expressions. Himalayan Linguistics9(1). 81–100.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Shaw, William
    1997 [1929]Notes on Thadou Kukis. Guwahati and New Delhi: Spectrum Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Solnit, David
    1995 Parallelism in Kayah Li discourse: elaborate expressions and beyond. InLeela Bilmes, Anita Lang & Weera Ostapirat (eds.), Berkeley Linguistics Society 21, Special session on discourse in Southeast Asian languages, 127–140. Berkeley: Linguistic Society of America. 10.3765/bls.v21i2.1383
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v21i2.1383 [Google Scholar]
  16. Stewart, R.
    1855 Notes on Northern Cachar. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal24(3). 582–701.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Tavárez, David
    2014 Ritual language. InN. J. Enfield, Paul Kockelmen & Jack Sidnell (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic anthropology, 516–536. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139342872.024
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139342872.024 [Google Scholar]
  18. Thirumalai
    Thirumalai 2013 Linguistic characteristic of oral literature in Thadou Kuki: A Tibeto-Burman Pre-Literature Language. 〈e-pao.net/epSubPageExtractor.asp?src=manipur.Ethnic_Races_Manipur.Linguistic_characteristics_of_oral_literature_in_Thadou_Kuki〉 Accessed4 March 2023.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.00017.hao
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.00017.hao
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Northeast India; ritual language; Thadou-Kuki; Tibeto-Burman
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error