1887
Volume 44, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0731-3500
  • E-ISSN: 2214-5907
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The present study is a phonological analysis of the segments and tones of the Tawrã language (ISO 69-3: mhu; Glottolog: Diga1241), a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Arunachal Pradesh, India, and in Tibet, China. This paper, the first collaboration between a Tawrã-speaking non-linguist and a non-Tawrã-speaking linguist, attempts to clear up some confusion in the existing literature. For example, previous studies did not note that stop codas /-p, -k/ are in free variation with glides [-w, -j, ɰ], and that the morpheme, rather than the syllable, is the tone-bearing unit. Acoustic analyses provide justification for the phonemic representation of the vowels and the tones. Finally, the paper is designed to introduce Tawrã speakers to the recently standardized (2020) orthography, and to show how the letters and letter combinations function together as a system.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.20013.eva
2021-05-11
2021-08-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aiyadurai, Ambika
    2011 The Meyor: A least studied frontier tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. The Eastern Anthropologist64(4): 459–469.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bird, Steven
    1999 When marking tone reduces fluency: An orthography experiment in Cameroon. Language and Speech42: 83–115. 10.1177/00238309990420010401
    https://doi.org/10.1177/00238309990420010401 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bird, Steven
    2001 Orthography and identity in Cameroon. Written Language & Literacy4(2): 131–162. 10.1075/wll.4.2.02bir
    https://doi.org/10.1075/wll.4.2.02bir [Google Scholar]
  4. Benedict, Paul K.
    1972Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus. James A. Matisoff, contributing editor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511753541
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753541 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blench, Roger
    . n.d.Proposal for a writing system for Tawra, a language of Arunachal Pradesh. https://www.academia.edu/12868198/Proposal_for_a_writing_system_for_Tawra_a_language_of_Arunachal_Pradesh (accessed21 June 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 2015The classification of Meyor (Zakhring). www.rogerblench.info/RBOP.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 2017A dictionary of Tawrã, a language of Arunachal Pradesh. rogerblench.info/Language/NEI/Mishmi/Tawra/Tawra%20Dictionary.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chakravarty, L. N.
    1963A dictionary of the Taraon language. Shillong: Philology Section, Research Department, Northeast Frontier Agency.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Coupe, Alexander. R.
    2020 Northern Sangtam phonetics, phonology and word list. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area43(1): 147–189. 10.1075/ltba.19014.cou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ltba.19014.cou [Google Scholar]
  10. Driem, van George
    2007 Endangered languages of South Asia. In Matthias Brenzinger (ed.), Language diversity endangered, 303–341. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. International Phonetic Association and International Phonetic Association Staff
    International Phonetic Association and International Phonetic Association Staff 1999Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Jiang, Di , Daqin Li & Hongkai Sun
    2013 Darangyu yanjiu [A study of Taraon]. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House.
  13. Konow, Sten
    1902 Note on the languages spoken between the Assam Valley and Tibet. The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1902: 127–137. 10.1017/S0035869X00157119
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0035869X00157119 [Google Scholar]
  14. Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons & Charles D. Fennig
    (eds.) 2015Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Eighteenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online: www.ethnologue.com.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Lindblom, Björn & Ian Maddieson
    1988 Phonetic universals in consonant systems. In Larry M. Hyman , Victoria Fromkin & Charles N. Li (eds.), Language, speech, and mind: Studies in honour of Victoria A. Fromkin, 6278. Taylor & Francis.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Luce, Gordon H.
    1944Hiroi-Tarao lexicon by C. Ginson prepared for Robert Shafer, dated 12/11/1944. In Luce Collection, MS 6574-7, 029a–029b. Canberra: National Library of Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Matisoff, James A.
    1973 Tonogenesis in Southeast Asia. Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics1: 73–95.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Matisoff, J. A.
    1996 The cognate noun/verb construction in Lahu. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area19(1): 97–101.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Morey, Stephen D.
    2008 Working with tones in Northeast India-the tonal system of Numhpuk Singpho. In Stephen D. Morey & Mark W. Post (eds.), North East Indian linguistics, 26–44. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/UPO9788175968431.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/UPO9788175968431.004 [Google Scholar]
  20. Manyu, Johakso , Naina Chai , Jabralum Chaitom , Sowingso Tayang , Buglelum Tega , Khope Thalai & Baritlum Ama
    2020Tawrã (Digaru) Mishmi orthography (primer). Tinsukia: Signage & Graphics.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mielke, Jeff
    2009 Segment inventories. Language and Linguistics Compass3(2): 700–718. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2008.00117.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00117.x [Google Scholar]
  22. Modi, Yankee
    2013 The nearest relatives of the Tani group. Paper presented at the19th Himalayan Languages Symposium. Canberra, Australian National University, 6–8 September, 2013.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Mya, Tu , U. Ko Ko , U. Aung Than Batu , U. Kywe Thein , C. J. R. Francis & U. Than Tun Aung Hlaing
    1966The Tarons in Burma. Rangoon: Burma Medical Research Institute.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Needham, Jack F.
    1978 [1886]A few Digaro (Taraon), Jiju (Mju) and Tibetan words collected during a trip from Sadiya to Rima and back in December 1885 and January 1886. Shillong: Nishi, Toshio.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Nyunt Nunt Win
    Nyunt Nunt Win 2004 Family and kinship systems of Taron. Karoung Village. Kachin State. The Jour. Myan. Acad. Arts & Sc. Vol.II (Part Two) No.4 (Arts): 1–9.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nyunt Nunt Win
    Nyunt Nunt Win 2015 The Taron: one of the hidden groups of hill ethnic groups in Myanmar. Mandalay University Research Journal6: 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Post, Mark W.
    2015 Tones in Northeast Indian languages, with a focus on Tani: A fieldworker’s guide. In Mark W. Post , Stephen Morey & Scott DeLancey (eds.), Language and culture in Northeast India and beyond: In honor of Robbins Burling, 182–210. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Post, Mark W. and Yankee Modi
    2011 Language contact and the genetic position of Milang (Eastern Himalaya). Anthropological Linguistics53(3): 215–258. 10.1353/anl.2011.0014
    https://doi.org/10.1353/anl.2011.0014 [Google Scholar]
  29. Pulu, Jatan
    1978Idu phrase-book. Shillong: Director of Information and Public Relations, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Pulu, Jatan
    1991A phrase book on Taraon language. Shillong: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Rabinowitz, Alan
    2001Beyond the last village: A journey of discovery in Asia’s forbidden wilderness. Washington, DC: Island Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Rice, Keren
    2011 Documentary linguistics and community relations. Language Documentation & Conservation5: 187–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Sastry, G. Devi Prasada
    1984aMishmi phonetic reader. Phonetic Reader Series 25. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 1984bMishmi grammar. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Shafer, R.
    1974Introduction to Sino-Tibetan. Wiesbaden, Germany: Otto Harrassowitz.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sun, Hongkai , Lu, Shaozun , Zhang Jichuan & Ouyang Jueya
    1980Menba, Luoba, Dengren de yuyan (The languages of the Menba, Luoba and Deng peoples). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social Science Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sun, Hongkai
    1991 Zangmianyu Yuyin he Cihui (Tibeto-Burman phonology and lexicon). Beijing: Chinese Academy of Social Science Press.
  38. Sun, Tian-Shin Jackson
    1993A historical-comparative study of the Tani (Mirish) branch of Tibeto-Burman. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley PhD Dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.20013.eva
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.20013.eva
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Arunachal Pradesh; Digaru; Mishmi; phonology; Taraon; tone
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error