Volume 45, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0731-3500
  • E-ISSN: 2214-5907
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There are four distinct forms conveying the meaning of ‘human, person, man’ across Gyalrongic languages. The default type (Japhug the rounded type (Khroskyabs ), the Stau type (Geshiza and the uvular type (Geletuo ). Except for the default type, which has cognates in many other Sino-Tibetan languages, the origins of the other types are to date obscure and understudied. This paper first studies the phenomena of preinitial denasalisation and palatal fortition in the history of Khroskyabs, and then puts forward etymological solutions to the rounded and Stau types based on these sound changes. Both types are historical compounds with the first element related to the default type. The second element of the rounded type is cognate with Tangut ‘man’, and the second element of the Stau type is cognate with Proto-Loloish * ‘man’ (Bradley 1979).


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): etymology; Gyalrongic; historical linguistics; man; person; Sino-Tibetan; Tibeto-Burman
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