1887
Volume 45, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0731-3500
  • E-ISSN: 2214-5907
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

There are four distinct forms conveying the meaning of ‘human, person, man’ across Gyalrongic languages. The default type (Japhug the rounded type (Khroskyabs ), the Stau type (Geshiza and the uvular type (Geletuo ). Except for the default type, which has cognates in many other Sino-Tibetan languages, the origins of the other types are to date obscure and understudied. This paper first studies the phenomena of preinitial denasalisation and palatal fortition in the history of Khroskyabs, and then puts forward etymological solutions to the rounded and Stau types based on these sound changes. Both types are historical compounds with the first element related to the default type. The second element of the rounded type is cognate with Tangut ‘man’, and the second element of the Stau type is cognate with Proto-Loloish * ‘man’ (Bradley 1979).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.22006.lai
2022-11-04
2022-12-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bailey, Thomas Grahame
    1911Kanauri vocabulary in two parts: English-Kanauri and Kanauri-English. (RAS Monograph 13). London: Royal Asiatic Society. Accessed via STEDT database >stedt.berkeley.edu/search/< on2022-06-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baxter, William H. & Laurent Sagart
    2014Old Chinese: a new reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945375.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199945375.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  3. Benedict, Paul
    1972Sino-Tibetan: a conspectus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511753541
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753541 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bradley, David
    1979Proto-Loloish. [Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies monograph series no. 39]. London: Curzon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 2008 The position of Namuyi in Tibeto-Burman. Paper presented at theWorkshop on the Namuyi language, Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, November 23, 2008.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chen, Kang
    1986 A comparative study of vowels among the dialects of the Yi language. 2 mss. delivered atSTC Lund, Sweden. Accessed viaSTEDT database > Accessed via STEDT database >stedt.berkeley.edu/search/< on2022-05-30.
  7. Chou, Fa-Kao
    1972 上古漢語和漢藏語Shànggǔ Hànyǔ hé Hànzàngyǔ [Old Chinese and Sino-Tibetan]. 中國文化研究所學報Journal of Chinese studies5(1). 159–244.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dai, Qingxia
    1991 嘎卓语Gāzhuóyǔ [The Gazhuo language]. InQingxia Dai, Bufan Huang, Allan Fu, Renzeng Wangmu & Ju Liu (eds.), 藏缅语十五种Zàngmiǎnyǔ shíwǔzhǒng [Fifteen Tibeto-Burman languages], 249–280. Beijing: Yanshan chubanshe.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gates, Jesse
    2021 A grammar of Mazur Stau. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales PhD dissertation.
  10. Gates, Jesse, Sami Honkasalo & Yunfan Lai
    2022 From transitive to intransitive and voiceless to voiced in Proto-Sino-Tibetan: New evidence from Stau, Geshiza, and Khroskyabs. Language and Linguistics23(2). 212–239.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gong, Hwang-cherng
    2003 Tangut. InRandy LaPolla & Graham Thurgood (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan Languages, 602–620. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gong, Xun
    2017 Grade II in Tangut and Hexi Late Middle Chinese. Paper presented atRecent Advances in Tangut Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, London, 24 January, 2017.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 2018 Le rgyalrong zbu, une longue tibéto-birmane de Chine du Sud-ouest: une étude descriptive, typologique et comparative. Paris: Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales PhD dissertation.
  14. 2020 Uvulars and uvularization in Tangut phonology. Language and Linguistics21(2). 175–212.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2021 Nasal preinitials in Tangut Phonology. Archiv orientdlni89(3). 443–482. 10.47979/aror.j.89.3.443‑482
    https://doi.org/10.47979/aror.j.89.3.443-482 [Google Scholar]
  16. Hill, Nathan W.
    2019The historical phonology of Tibetan, Burmese, and Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781316550939
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316550939 [Google Scholar]
  17. Honkasalo, Sami
    2019 A grammar of Eastern Geshiza. Helsinki: University of Helsinki PhD dissertation.
  18. Jacques, Guillaume
    2004 Phonologie et morphologie du japhug (rgyalrong). Paris: Université Paris VII – Denis Diderot PhD dissertation.
  19. 2012 A new transcription system for Old and Classical Tibetan. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area35(2). 89–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2014Esquisse de phonologie et de morphologie historique du tangoute. Leiden: Brill. 10.1163/9789004264854
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004264854 [Google Scholar]
  21. (ed.) 2015Dictionnaire Japhug-Chinois-Francais. Paris: Projet HimalCo.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2021A grammar of Japhug. Berlin: Language Science Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jacques, Guillaume & Thomas Pellard
    2020 Phylogenies based on lexical innovations refute the Rung hypothesis. Diachronica38(1). 1–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lai, Yunfan
    2016 Causativisation in Wobzi and other Khroskyabs dialects. Cahiers de Linguistique -Asie Orientale45(2). 148–175. 10.1163/19606028‑00452p03
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19606028-00452p03 [Google Scholar]
  25. 2017 Grammaire du khroskyabs de Wobzi. Paris: Université Paris III PhD dissertation.
  26. 2021a The complexity and history of verb-stem ablauting patterns in Siyuewu Khroskyabs. Folia Linguistica55(1). 75–126. 10.1515/flin‑2020‑2071
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin-2020-2071 [Google Scholar]
  27. 2021bSupplementary material for Lenition alternation in West Gyalrongic and its implication for Southeast Asian panchronic phonology. Zenodo. 10.5281/zenodo.5751801
    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5751801 [Google Scholar]
  28. 2022 When internal reconstruction goes further: Proposing the vowel system of Proto-Khroskyabs through examining bound state apophony. Folia Linguistica Historica. Published ahead of print. 10.1515/flin‑2022‑2015
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin-2022-2015 [Google Scholar]
  29. . Forthcoming. Lenition alternation in West Gyalrongic and its implication for Southeast Asian panchronic phonology. Diachronica.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lai, Yunfan, Xun Gong, Jesse Gates & Guillaume Jacques
    2020 Tangut as a West Rgyalrongic language. Folia Linguistica Historica41(1). 171–203. 10.1515/flih‑2020‑0006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flih-2020-0006 [Google Scholar]
  31. Li, Fanwen
    1997夏漢字典Xià Hàn zìdián [A Tangut-Chinese dictionary]. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Matisoff, James A.
    2003Handbook of Proto-Tibeto-Burman. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Nagano, Yasuhiko & Marielle Prins
    2013 rGyalrongic languages database. https://htq.minpaku.ac.jp/databases/rGyalrong/ (accessed15/12/2021).
  34. Rose, Françoise
    2015 Mojeño trinitario. Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Published ahead of print.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sagart, Laurent
    1999The roots of Old Chinese. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.184
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.184 [Google Scholar]
  36. Sagart, Laurent, Guillaume Jacques, Yunfan Lai, Robin J. Ryder, Valentin Thouzeau, Simon J. Greenhill & Johann-Mattis List
    2019 Dated language phylogenies shed light on the ancestry of Sino-Tibetan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116(21). 10317–10322. 10.1073/pnas.1817972116
    https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1817972116 [Google Scholar]
  37. Schuessler, Axel
    2007ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Sun, Jackson T.-S.
    2000a Parallelisms in the verb morphology of Sidaba rGyalrong and Lavrung in rGyalrongic. Language and Linguistics1(1). 161–190.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 2000b Stem alternations in Puxi verb inflection: Toward validating the rGyalrongic subgroup in Qiangic. Language and Linguistics1(2). 211–232.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Sun, Jackson T-S & Bstan’dzin Blogros
    2019Tshobdun Rgyalrong spoken texts with a grammatical introduction. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Van Bik, Kenneth
    2009Proto-Kuki-Chin: A reconstructed ancestor of the Kuki-Chin languages. (STEDT Monograph Series #8). Berkeley, CA: STEDT. Accessed viaSTEDT database >stedt.berkeley.edu/search/< on2022-06-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Yang, Chih-Fan
    2021 巴旺霍爾語時、體、示證、情態範疇的型態句法Bāwàng Huò’ěr yǔ shí, tǐ, shìzhèng, qíngtài fànchóu de xíngtài jùfǎ [The morpho-syntax of tense, aspect, evidentiality and modality in Bawang Horpa]. Taipei: National Taiwan Normal University PhD dissertation.
  43. Zhang, Shuya
    2020 Le rgyalrong situ de Brag-bar et sa contribution à la typologie de l’expression des relations spatiales: l’orientation et le mouvement associé. Paris: Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales PhD dissertation.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.22006.lai
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ltba.22006.lai
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): etymology; Gyalrongic; historical linguistics; man; person; Sino-Tibetan; Tibeto-Burman
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error