Volume 39, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0731-3500
  • E-ISSN: 2214-5907
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


Lataddi Narua is the first reported variety of a Naish language having only two tonal levels; all other Naish languages described to date have three. The language uses a system in which level tones are primary, and tones are associated to lexical items rather than to individual syllables. Four tone categories are identified for nouns and adjectives, and six for verbs. Processes of tonal interaction across word boundaries are discussed, from tonal morphology to observations about syntactic and semantic factors influencing the placement of tone group boundaries within a sentence.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Chirkova, Katia
    2009 Shǐxīng, a Sino-Tibetan language of south-west China: A grammatical sketch with two appended texts. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area32(1):1–89.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chirkova, Katia & Michaud, Alexis
    2009 Approaching the prosodic system of Shǐxīng. Language and Linguistics10(3): 539–568.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Daudey, Henriëtte
    2014 A grammar of Wadu Pumi. PhD dissertation, La Trobe University. https://www.academia.edu/8879093/A_Grammar_of_Wadu_Pumi
  4. Ding, Picus Sizhi
    2001 The pitch accent system of Niuwozi Prinmi. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area24(2): 57–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 2014A Grammar of Prinmi: Based on the central dialect of Northwest Yunnan, China. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Evans, Jonathan
    2008 “African” tone in the Sinosphere. Language and Linguistics9(3). 463–490.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hé Jírén (和即仁) & Jiāng Zhúyí
    (姜竹仪) 1985 纳西语简志 (A Brief Outline of the Naxi Language). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hyman, Larry M
    2007 Elicitation as experimental phonology: Thlangtlang Lai tonology. InExperimental Approaches to Phonology, Patrice Speeter Beddor , Maria Josep Solé & Manjari Ohala (eds), 7–24. Oxford: OUP.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 2014 How to study a tone language, with exemplification from Oku (Grassfields Bantu, Cameroon). Language Documentation & Conservation8: 525–562.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hyman, Larry M. & VanBik, Kenneth
    2002 Tone and stem2 formation in Hakha Lai. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area25: 113–121.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jacques, Guillaume
    2011 A panchronic study of aspirated fricatives, with new evidence from Pumi. Lingua121(9): 1518–1538. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2011.04.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2011.04.003 [Google Scholar]
  12. Jacques, Guillaume & Michaud, Alexis
    2011 Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze. Diachronica28: 468–498. doi: 10.1075/dia.28.4.02jac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.28.4.02jac [Google Scholar]
  13. Lidz, Liberty A
    2010 A Descriptive Grammar of Yongning Na (Mosuo). PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/ETD-UT-2010-12-2643
  14. Michailovsky, Boyd , Mazaudon, Martine , Michaud, Alexis , Guillaume, Séverine , François, Alexandre & Adamou, Evangelia
    2014 Documenting and researching endangered languages: The Pangloss Collection. Language Documentation & Conservation8: 119–135.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Michaud, Alexis
    2006 Tonal reassociation and rising tonal contours in Naxi. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area29(1).61–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 2008 Phonemic and tonal analysis of Yongning Na. Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale37(2):159–196. doi: 10.1163/1960602808X00064
    https://doi.org/10.1163/1960602808X00064 [Google Scholar]
  17. 2009 The prosodic system of Muli Shuitian (Laze). Minority Languages of China6 : 28–33. halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00436463
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 2013 Studying level-tone systems in Asia: The case of the Naish languages. Proceedings of International Conference on Phonetics of the Languages in China (ICPLC-2013) , 1–6. Hong Kong.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 2015 Phrasing, prominence, and morphotonology: How utterances are divided into tone groups in Yongning Na. Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics8: 112–152.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Michaud, Alexis & He Likun
    2015 Phonemic and tonal analysis of the Pianding dialect of Naxi (Dadong County, Lijiang Municipality). Cahiers de linguistique — Asie Orientale244(1): 1–35plus online Appendices. doi: 10.1163/19606028‑00441p01.
    https://doi.org/10.1163/19606028-00441p01. [Google Scholar]
  21. Michaud, Alexis & He Xueguang
    2007 Reassociated tones and coalescent syllables in Naxi (Tibeto-Burman). Journal of the International Phonetic Association37(3): 237–255. doi: 10.1017/S002510030700309X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S002510030700309X [Google Scholar]
  22. Pinson, Thomas M
    1997 Naxi Phonology: A Flat Phonemic Statement of the Longquan Dialect. Ms.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Sun, Jackson T.-S
    1997 The typology of tone in Tibetan. InChinese Languages and Linguistics IV: Typological studies of languages in China, 485–521. Taipei, Taiwan: Symposium Series of the Institute of History and Philology-Academia Sinica.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Yáng Zhènhóng
    (杨振洪) 2006 An overview of the Mosuo language. Lātāmī Dáshí (拉 他咪达石)(ed.). A collection of essays on Mosuo society and culture 1960–2005, Vol. 2, 28–64. Kunming: Yunnan University Publishing House.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (杨振洪), transl. Liberty Lidz 2009 An overview of the Mosuo Language. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area32(2): 1–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): level tone; Mosuo; Naish languages.; Narua; tonal morphology; tone; Yongning Na
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error