1887
Volume 1, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2589-2053
  • E-ISSN: 2589-207x
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

There has been little research investigating the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI) on the second language acquisition of children. This article reports a quasi-experimental study of integrated form-focused instruction for 33 children aged 9–12 years. They completed four dictogloss tasks designed to elicit the use of the Present Perfect Tense and received instruction consisting of either explicit metalinguistic explanation (group 1), direct written correction (group 2) or no form-focused instruction (the comparison group) between performing the tasks. Accuracy in the production of the target structure across the four tasks was variable and showed no improvement from the first to the last. Nor were there any statistically significant differences in accuracy among the three groups. The results support some earlier studies of young children (e.g. Fazio, 2001) that have failed to show that FFI benefits young children. This may be because children fail to make use of their metalinguistic knowledge of grammatical features when undertaking meaning-focused writing tasks.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ltyl.00005.gor
2019-03-22
2019-12-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ammar, A., & Spada, N.
    (2006) One size fits all?: Recasts, prompts, and L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(04), 543–574. doi:  10.1017/S0272263106060268
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060268 [Google Scholar]
  2. Andrews, A.
    (2004) The effect of grammar teaching (sentence combining) in English on 5 to 16 year olds’ accuracy and quality in written composition. Department of Educational Studies Research Paper, University of York.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bardovi-Harlig, K.
    (2000) Tense and aspect in second language acquisition: Form, meaning and use. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Biber, D., Nekrasova, T., & Horn, B.
    (2011) The effectiveness of feedback for L1-English and L2-writing development: A meta-analysis. ETS Research Report Series, 1, 1–99. doi:  10.1002/j.2333‑8504.2011.tb02241.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2333-8504.2011.tb02241.x [Google Scholar]
  5. Bitchener, J., & Ferris, D.
    (2012) Written corrective feedback in second language acquisition and writing. New York, NY: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203832400
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203832400 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bitchener, J., & Storch, N.
    (2016) Written corrective feedback for L2 development. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783095056
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783095056 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bouffard, L., & Sakar, M.
    (2008) Training 8-year-Ood French immersion students in metalinguistic analysis: An innovation in form-focused pedagogy. Language Awareness, 17, 3–24. 10.2167/la424.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/la424.0 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bryant, P., Devine, M., Ledward, A. & Nunes, T.
    (1997) Spelling with apostrophes and understanding possession. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 91–110. 10.1111/j.2044‑8279.1997.tb01229.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1997.tb01229.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Cameron, L.
    (2001) Teaching languages to young learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511733109
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511733109 [Google Scholar]
  10. Chang, J.
    (2001) Chinese speakers. InM. Swan & B. Smith (Eds.), Learner English: A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667121.022
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667121.022 [Google Scholar]
  11. Doughty, C.
    (2001) Cognitive underpinnings of focus on form. InP. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp.206–257). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524780.010
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524780.010 [Google Scholar]
  12. Doughty, C., & Varela, E.
    (1998) Communicative focus on form. InC. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.114–138). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Fazio, L.
    (2001) The effect of corrections and commentaries on the journal writing accuracy of minority- and majority-language students. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(4), 235–249. doi:  10.1016/S1060‑3743(01)00042‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(01)00042-X [Google Scholar]
  14. Frear, D. & Chiu, Y.-H.
    (2015) The effect of focused and unfocused indirect written corrective feedback on EFL learners’ accuracy in new pieces of writing. System, 53, 24–34. 10.1016/j.system.2015.06.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.06.006 [Google Scholar]
  15. Hanan, R.
    (2015) The effectiveness of explicit grammar instruction for the young foreign language learner: A classroom-based experimental study (Unpublished PhD dissertation). University of York, UK.
  16. Harley, B.
    (1998) The role of focus-on-form tasks in promoting child L2 acquisition. InC. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.156–173). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Inhelder, B., Piaget, J.
    (1958) The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence (Parsons, A., Milgram, S.Trans.), New York, NY: Basic Books. 10.1037/10034‑000
    https://doi.org/10.1037/10034-000 [Google Scholar]
  18. Laval, C.
    (2013) The age factor on the primary, secondary and cumulative transfer-of-training effects of processing instruction on the acquisition of French as a second language. InJ. Lee & A. Benati (Eds.), Individual differences and processing instruction (pp.105–130). London: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Liu, Q., & Brown, D.
    (2015) Methodological synthesis of research on the effectiveness of corrective feedback in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 30, 66–81. doi:  10.1016/j.jslw.2015.08.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2015.08.011 [Google Scholar]
  20. Lyster, R.
    (2004) Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(3), 399–432. doi:  10.1017/S0272263104263021
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104263021 [Google Scholar]
  21. Lyster, R., & Ranta, L.
    (1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 37–66. doi:  10.1017/S0272263197001034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001034 [Google Scholar]
  22. McCawley, J.
    (1971) Tense and time reference in English. InFillmore, C. & Langendoen, D. T. (Eds), Studies in linguistic semantics (pp.97–113). New York: Holt Rinehart.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. McNamara, J.
    (1972) Cognitive basis of language learning in infants. Psychological Review, 79(1), 1–13. doi:  10.1037/h0031901
    https://doi.org/10.1037/h0031901 [Google Scholar]
  24. Michaelis, L.
    (1994) The ambiguity of the English present perfect. Journal of Linguistics, 30(1), 111–157. doi:  10.1017/S0022226700016200
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226700016200 [Google Scholar]
  25. Mollestam, E., & Hu, L.
    (2016, March18). Corrective feedback on L2 students’ writing. Degree project; Malmo Hogskola. Retrieved from https://dspace.mah.se/bitstream/handle/2043/20687/Corrective%20feedback%20on%20L2%20students%20%20writing.pdf?sequence=3
  26. Muñoz, C.
    (2006) The effects of age on foreign language learning. InC. Muñoz (Ed.), Age and the rate of foreign language learning (pp.1–40). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781853598937‑003
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853598937-003 [Google Scholar]
  27. Myhill, D., Jones, S., Watson, A. & Lines, H.
    (2013) Playful explicitness with grammar: A pedagogy for writing. Literacy, 47, 103–111. 10.1111/j.1741‑4369.2012.00674.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-4369.2012.00674.x [Google Scholar]
  28. Myhill, D., Jones, S. & Wilson, A.
    (2016) Writing conversations: fostering metalinguistic discussion about writing. Research Papers in Education, 31, 23–44. 10.1080/02671522.2016.1106694
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02671522.2016.1106694 [Google Scholar]
  29. Norris, J. M., & Ortega, L.
    (2000) Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50, 417–528. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00136
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00136 [Google Scholar]
  30. Pica, T.
    (1984) Methods of morpheme quantification: Their effect of the interpretation of second language data. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 6, 69–78. 10.1017/S0272263100000309
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100000309 [Google Scholar]
  31. Pinter, A.
    (2006) Teaching young language learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Reyes, M.
    (1991) A process approach to literacy using dialogue journals and literature logs with second language learners. Research in the Teaching of English, 25(3), 291–313.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Rummel, S.
    (2014) Student and teacher beliefs about written CF and the effect those beliefs have on uptake: A multiple case study of Laos and Kuwait. (Unpublished PhD dissertation). Auckland University of Technology, Auckland.
  34. Shak, J., & Gardner, S.
    (2008) Young learner perspectives on four focus-on-form tasks. Language Teaching Research, 12, 387–408. 10.1177/1362168808089923
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168808089923 [Google Scholar]
  35. Shintani, N., & Aubrey, S.
    (2016) The effectiveness of synchronous and asynchronous written corrective feedback on grammatical accuracy in a computer-mediated environment. The Modern Language Journal, 100(1), 296–319. doi:  10.1111/modl.12317
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12317 [Google Scholar]
  36. Shintani, N., & Ellis, R.
    (2013) The comparative effect of direct written corrective feedback and metalinguistic explanation on learners’ explicit and implicit knowledge of the English indefinite article. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22(3), 286–306. doi:  10.1016/j.jslw.2013.03.011
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2013.03.011 [Google Scholar]
  37. Shintani, N., Ellis, R., & Suzuki, W.
    (2013) Effects of written feedback and revision on learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures. Language Learning, 64(1), 103–131. doi:  10.1111/lang.12029
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12029 [Google Scholar]
  38. Spada, N., & Lightbown, P.
    (2008) Form-focused instruction: isolated or integrated?TESOL Quarterly, 42(2), 181–207. doi:  10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2008.tb00115.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2008.tb00115.x [Google Scholar]
  39. Swain, M., & Lapkin, S.
    (2001) Focus on form through collaborative dialogue: Exploring task effects. InM. Bygate, P. Skehan, & M. Swain (Eds.), Researching pedagogic tasks: Second language learning, teaching, and testing (pp.99–118). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Talif, R., & Edwin, M.
    (1989) Error analysis of form four English compositions. RetrievedSeptember 20, 2017, from www.melta.org.my/index.php/11-melta-articles/140-error-analysis-of-form-four-english-compositions
  41. Truscott, J.
    (1996) The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46(2), 327–369. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1996.tb01238.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1996.tb01238.x [Google Scholar]
  42. Van Beuningen, C.
    (2010) Corrective feedback in L2 writing: theoretical perspectives, empirical insights, and future directions. International Journal of English Studies, 8(2), 1–27. 10.6018/ijes/2010/2/119171
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/2010/2/119171 [Google Scholar]
  43. Van Beuningen, C., de Jong, N., & Kuiken, F.
    (2012) Evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive error correction in second language writing. Language Learning, 62(1), 1–41. doi:  10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00674.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00674.x [Google Scholar]
  44. VanPatten, B.
    (1996) Input processing and grammar instruction in second language acquisition. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. VanPatten, B. & Oikkenon, S.
    (1996) Explanation vs. structured input in processing instruction. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 495–510. 10.1017/S0272263100015394
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100015394 [Google Scholar]
  46. Wajnryb, R.
    (1990) Resource books for teachers: grammar dictation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. White, J., & Ranta, L.
    (2002) Examining the interface between metalinguistic knowledge and oral production in a second language. Language Awareness, 11, 259–290. 10.1080/09658410208667060
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410208667060 [Google Scholar]
  48. White, L., Spada, N., Lightbown, P. M. & Ranta, L.
    (1991) Input enhancement and L2 question formation. Applied Linguistics, 12, 416–432. 10.1093/applin/12.4.416
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/12.4.416 [Google Scholar]
  49. Williams, J.
    (2012) The potential role(s) of writing in second language development. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21(4), 321–331. doi:  10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.09.007 [Google Scholar]
  50. Yang, Y., & Lyster, R.
    (2010) Effects of form-focused practice and feedback on Chinese EFL learners’ acquisition of regular and irregular past tense forms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 235–263. doi:  10.1017/S0272263109990519
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109990519 [Google Scholar]
  51. Yong, J.
    (2001) Malay/Indonesian speakers. InM. Swan & B. Smith (Eds), Learner English. A teacher’s guide to interference and other problems (pp.279–295). Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511667121.020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667121.020 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ltyl.00005.gor
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ltyl.00005.gor
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error