Volume 1, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2589-2053
  • E-ISSN: 2589-207x
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study investigates the relative effects of enhanced and unenhanced recasts on young learners’ question development in L2 English, examining whether enhanced recasts can contribute to disambiguation. Forty-six Secondary One students in Hong Kong were evenly divided into an enhanced recast group and an unenhanced recast group. Each participant participated in a pretest, followed by three treatment sessions in three consecutive weeks. Participants in the enhanced recast group received enhanced recasts with prosodic (tonal stress) and extra-linguistic (gestures and facial expressions) cues from the teacher, whereas those in the unenhanced recast group received normal recasts when they made mistakes when asking questions. After that, an immediate post-test and a two-week delayed post-test were carried out to examine participants’ progress in L2 question formation. The results of the immediate post-test showed that both types of recasts contributed to L2 advancement, but the effects of enhanced recasts were relatively strong as compared with unenhanced recasts. Both groups performed significantly better in the delayed post-test than in the pretest, indicating the robust effects of recasts (enhanced or unenhanced) on learning L2 question formation. However, the differences between the two groups were significantly reduced in the delayed post-test. In addition, the enhanced group scored significantly lower in the delayed post-test than in the immediate post-test, suggesting a greater degenerating effect of enhanced recasts than unenhanced recasts.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Ammar, A., & Spada, N.
    (2006) One size fits all?: Recasts, prompts, and L2 learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(4), 543–574. 10.1017/S0272263106060268
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060268 [Google Scholar]
  2. Braidi, S. M.
    (2002) Reexamining the role of recasts in native speaker/nonnative-speaker interactions. Language Learning, 52(1), 1–42. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00176
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00176 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bui, G.
    (2014) Task readiness: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence from topic familiarity, strategic planning, and proficiency levels. InP. Skehan (Ed.), Processing perspectives on task performance (pp.63–93). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (2019) Task-readiness conditions and L2 task performance across proficiency levels. InZ. Wen & M. Ahmadian (Eds.), Researching L2 task performance and pedagogy: In honour of Peter Skehan (pp.253–277). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.13.12bui
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.13.12bui [Google Scholar]
  5. Bui, G., & Huang, Z.
    (2018) L2 fluency as influenced by content familiarity and planning: Performance, methodology and pedagogy. Language Teaching Research, 22(1), 94–114. 10.1177/1362168816656650
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168816656650 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bui, G., Skehan, P., & Wang, Z.
    (2018) Task condition effects on advanced level foreign language performance. InP. A. Malovrh & A. Benati (Eds.), The handbook of advanced proficiency in second language acquisition (pp.219–237). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 10.1002/9781119261650.ch12
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119261650.ch12 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bui, G., & Teng, F.
    (2018) Exploring learners’ behavioral patterns in two task-readiness conditions: A qualitative study. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 41(2), 129–149. 10.1515/cjal‑2018‑0008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cjal-2018-0008 [Google Scholar]
  8. Doughty, C., & Varela, E.
    (1998) Communicative focus on form. InC. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.197–261). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ellis, R.
    (2019) Task preparedness. InZ. Wen & M. Ahmadian (Eds.), Researching L2 task performance and pedagogy: In honour of Peter Skehan (pp.15–38). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tblt.13.02ell
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tblt.13.02ell [Google Scholar]
  10. Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R.
    (2006) Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 339–368. 10.1017/S0272263106060141
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060141 [Google Scholar]
  11. Ellis, R., & Sheen, Y.
    (2006) Reexamining the role of recasts in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 575–600. 10.1017/S027226310606027X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310606027X [Google Scholar]
  12. Han, Z.-H.
    (2002) A study of the impact of recasts on tense consistency in L2 output. TESOL Quarterly, 36, 543–572. 10.2307/3588240
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3588240 [Google Scholar]
  13. Ishida, M.
    (2004) Effects of recasts on the acquisition of the aspectual form-te i-(ru) by learners of Japanese as a foreign language. Language Learning, 54(2), 311–394. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2004.00257.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00257.x [Google Scholar]
  14. Iwashita, N.
    (2003) Negative feedback and positive evidence in task-based interaction: Differential effects of L2 development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 1–36. 10.1017/S0272263103000019
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263103000019 [Google Scholar]
  15. Kong, A., & Bui, G.
    (2019) Reader stances and writer responses in L2 peer review: A study of L2 writing literacy among Hong Kong secondary school students. The Asian EFL Journal, 23(5), 139–186.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Leeman, J.
    (2003) Recasts and second language development: Beyond negative evidence. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 37–63. 10.1017/S0272263103000020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263103000020 [Google Scholar]
  17. Loewen, S., & Philp, J.
    (2006) Recasts in the adult English L2 classroom: Characteristics, explicitness, and effectiveness. The Modern Language Journal, 90(4), 536–556. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2006.00465.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2006.00465.x [Google Scholar]
  18. Long, M.
    (2007) Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Long, M. H., Inagaki, S., & Ortega, L.
    (1998) The role of implicit negative feedback in SLA: Models and recasts in Japanese and Spanish. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 357–371. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb01213.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01213.x [Google Scholar]
  20. Lyster, R.
    (1998a) Negotiation of forms, recasts, and explicit correction in relation to error types and learner repair in immersion classrooms. Language Learning, 48 (2), 183–218. 10.1111/1467‑9922.00039
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00039 [Google Scholar]
  21. (1998b) Recasts, repetition and ambiguity in L2 classroom discourse. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20(1), 51–81. 10.1017/S027226319800103X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226319800103X [Google Scholar]
  22. (2004) Differential effects of prompts and recasts in form-focused instruction. Studies in second language acquisition, 26(3), 399–432. 10.1017/S0272263104263021
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263104263021 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lyster, R., & Ranta, L.
    (1997) Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 37–66. 10.1017/S0272263197001034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263197001034 [Google Scholar]
  24. Mackey, A., & Philp, J.
    (1998) Conversational interaction and second language development: Recasts, responses, and red hearings?Modern Language Journal, 82(3), 338–356. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.1998.tb01211.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1998.tb01211.x [Google Scholar]
  25. McDonough, K., & Mackey, A.
    (2006) Responses to recasts: Repetitions, primed production, and linguistic development. Language Learning, 56(4), 693–720. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2006.00393.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00393.x [Google Scholar]
  26. Morris, F. A.
    (2002) Negotiation moves and recasts in relation to error types and learner repair in the foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 35(4), 395–404. 10.1111/j.1944‑9720.2002.tb01879.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2002.tb01879.x [Google Scholar]
  27. Nassaji, H.
    (2009) Effects of recasts and elicitations in dyadic interaction and the role of feedback explicitness. Language learning, 59(2), 411–452. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2009.00511.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00511.x [Google Scholar]
  28. (2017) The effectiveness of extensive versus intensive recasts for learning L2 grammar. The Modern Language Journal, 101(2), 353–368. 10.1111/modl.12387
    https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12387 [Google Scholar]
  29. Neath, I.
    (2018) Effect size calculator. Retrieved from https://memory.psych.mun.ca/models/stats/effect_size.shtml
  30. Nicholas, H., Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N.
    (2001) Recasts as feedback to language learners. Language Learning, 51(4), 719–758. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00172
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00172 [Google Scholar]
  31. Plonsky, L. D., & Oswald, F. L.
    (2014) How big Is “big”? Interpreting effect sizes in L2 research. Language Learning, 64(4), 878–912. doi:  10.1111/lang.12079
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12079 [Google Scholar]
  32. Rahimi, M., & Zhang, L. J.
    (2016) The role of incidental unfocused prompts and recasts in improving English as a foreign language learners’ accuracy. The Language Learning Journal, 44(2), 257–268. 10.1080/09571736.2013.858368
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2013.858368 [Google Scholar]
  33. Révész, A.
    (2012) Working memory and the observed effectiveness of recasts on different L2 outcome measures. Language Learning, 62(1), 93–132. 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2011.00690.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00690.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Saito, K.
    (2013) The acquisitional value of recasts in instructed second language speech learning: Teaching the perception and production of English/ɹ/to adult Japanese learners. Language learning, 63(3), 499–529. 10.1111/lang.12015
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12015 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error