1887
Volume 4, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2589-2053
  • E-ISSN: 2589-207x
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In the context of additional language (AL) learning, teachers need to focus on the development of language proficiency as well as on high-level literacy skills, for example, comprehending and evaluating information and creating new meaning. From a plurilingual perspective, AL learners’ first language (L1) is conceputalised as a useful tool in the development of target language proficiency; however, limited information exists concerning AL teachers’ beliefs towards the use of the L1 for high-level literacy instruction despite its potential utility for complex skill development. The aim of the present exploratory study was to examine the beliefs of in-service teachers of English as an additional language (EAL) working in the Quebec primary and secondary school system in francophone Canada regarding plurilingual approaches for classroom literacy practices and to uncover the factors that influence their beliefs. An online survey was distributed to in-service EAL teachers ( = 57) working in the province of Quebec, Canada. Findings suggest that teachers believe that it is most beneficial to adopt a monolingual lens to literacy instruction, a belief that denies learners’ use of their L1 and this, in a bilingual country. Implications for teacher education programs that challenge a monolingual lens are explored.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ltyl.21004.pay
2021-12-06
2022-05-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ballinger, S. Brouillard, M. Ahooja, A., Kircher, R., Polka, L. & Byers-Heinlein, K.
    (2020) Intersections of official and family language policy in Quebec. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development,   10.1080/01434632.2020.1752699
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1752699 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bell, P., Fortier, V., & Gauvin, I.
    (2020) Using L1 knowledge about language during L2 error correction: Do students make cross-linguistic connections?, Language Awareness, 29(2), 95–113,   10.1080/09658416.2020.1729783
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2020.1729783 [Google Scholar]
  3. Borg, S.
    (2015) Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bourhis, R. Y.
    (ed.) (1984) Conflict and language planning in Quebec. Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. (2019) Evaluating the impact of Bill 101 on the English-speaking communities of Quebec. Language Problems and Language Planning, 43(2), 198–229, 198–229,   10.1075/lplp.00042.bou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.00042.bou [Google Scholar]
  6. Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., & Snow, M. A.
    (eds.) (2014) Teaching English as a second or foreign language. National Geographic Learning.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D.
    (2013) Toward plurilingual approach in English language teaching: Softening the boundaries between languages. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 591–599.   10.1002/tesq.121
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.121 [Google Scholar]
  8. (2015) Towards a holistic approach in the study of multilingual education. InJ. Cenoz and D. Gorter. (eds). Multilingual Education: Between Language Learning and Translanguaging, pp, 1–15. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781009024655.001
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781009024655.001 [Google Scholar]
  9. (2020) Pedagogical translanguaging: An introduction. System, 92, 102269. 10.1016/j.system.2020.102269
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102269 [Google Scholar]
  10. Clark, S., & LeBlanc, S.
    (n.d.). Près d’un Québécois sur deux veut protéger davantage le français. TVA Nouvelles. https://www.tvanouvelles.ca/2021/06/07/pres-dun-quebecois-sur-deux-veut-proteger-davantage-le-francais-1
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cumming, A.
    (2013) Multiple dimensions of academic language and literacy development. Language Learning, 63(s1), 130–152.   10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2012.00741.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00741.x [Google Scholar]
  12. Dault, C., & Collins, L.
    (2016) L’utilisation des langues connues des apprenants en classe de français langue seconde. Canadian Modern Language Review, 72(4), 504–529.   10.3138/cmlr.3387
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.3387 [Google Scholar]
  13. Doiz, A., & Lasagabaster, D.
    (2018) Teachers’ beliefs about translanguaging practices. InTranslanguaging in higher education (pp.157–176). Multilingual Matters.   10.21832/9781783096657‑011
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783096657-011 [Google Scholar]
  14. Fajardo, M. F.
    (2015) A review of critical literacy beliefs and practices of English language learners and teachers. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 10, 29–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Farrell, T. S. C.
    (2013) Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups: From practices to principles. Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137317193
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137317193 [Google Scholar]
  16. Farrell, T. S. C., & Yang, D.
    (2019) Exploring an EAP teacher’s beliefs and practices in teaching L2 speaking: A case study. RELC Journal, 50(1), 104–117.   10.1177/0033688217730144
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217730144 [Google Scholar]
  17. Fleming, D., René, C., Bangou, F., & Sarwar, G.
    (2015) The conflation of adult ESL and literacy: The views of experienced teachers. TESL-EJ, 19(1).
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Frankel, K. K., Becker, B. L. C., Rowe, M. W., & Pearson, P. D.
    (2016) From “what is reading?” to what is literacy?Journal of Education, 196(3), 7–17. 10.1177/002205741619600303
    https://doi.org/10.1177/002205741619600303 [Google Scholar]
  19. Galante, A.
    (2020) Pedagogical translanguaging in a multilingual English program in Canada: Student and teacher perspectives of challenges. System, 92.   10.1016/j.system.2020.102274
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102274 [Google Scholar]
  20. Galante, A., Okubo, K., Cole, C., Elkader, N. A., Carozza, N., Wilkinson, C., Wotton, C., & Vasic, J.
    (2020) “English-Only is not the way to go”: Teachers’ perceptions of plurilingual instruction in an English program at a Canadian university. TESOL Quarterly, 54(4), 980–1009.   10.1002/tesq.584
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.584 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gallagher, F.
    (2020) Considered in context: EFL teachers’ views on the classroom as a bilingual space and codeswitching in shared-L1 and in multilingual contexts. System, 91.   10.1016/j.system.2020.102262
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102262 [Google Scholar]
  22. García, O., Johnson, S. I., & Seltzer, K.
    (2017) The translanguaging classroom: Leveraging student bilingualism for learning. CaslonPhiladelphia, PA.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. García, O., & Otheguy, R.
    (2020) Plurilingualism and translanguaging: commonalities and divergences. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(1), 17–35.   10.1080/13670050.2019.1598932
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1598932 [Google Scholar]
  24. García, O., & Wei, L.
    (2015) Translanguaging, bilingualism, and bilingual Education. InThe Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education (pp.223–240).   10.1002/9781118533406.ch13
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118533406.ch13 [Google Scholar]
  25. Gebhard, M., Chen, I. A., Graham, H., & Gunawan, W.
    (2013) Teaching to mean, writing to mean: SFL, L2 literacy, and teacher education. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22(2), 107–124.   10.1016/j.jslw.2013.03.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2013.03.005 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gorter, D., & Arocena, E.
    (2020) Teachers’ beliefs about multilingualism in a course on translanguaging. System, 92, 102272.   10.1016/j.system.2020.102272
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102272 [Google Scholar]
  27. Haukås, Å.
    (2016) Teachers’ beliefs about multilingualism and a multilingual pedagogical approach. International Journal of Multilingualism, 13(1), 1–18.   10.1080/14790718.2015.1041960
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2015.1041960 [Google Scholar]
  28. Horst, M., White, J., & Bell, P.
    (2010) First and second language knowledge in the language classroom. International Journal of Bilingualism, 14(3), 331–349.   10.1177/1367006910367848
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006910367848 [Google Scholar]
  29. Iversen, J. Y.
    (2019) Negotiating language ideologies: Pre-service teachers’ perspectives on multilingual practices in mainstream education. International Journal of Multilingualism, 0(0), 1–14.   10.1080/14790718.2019.1612903
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2019.1612903 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kartchava, E., Gatbonton, E., Ammar, A., & Trofimovich, P.
    (2020) Oral corrective feedback: Pre-service English as a second language teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Teaching Research, 24(2), 220–249. 10.1177/1362168818787546
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818787546 [Google Scholar]
  31. Koda, K.
    (2005) Insights into second language reading: A cross-linguistic approach. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139524841
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524841 [Google Scholar]
  32. Krasny, K., & Sachar, S.
    (2017) Legitimizing linguistic diversity: The promise of plurilingualism in Canadian schools. Language and Literacy, 19(1), 34–47. 10.20360/G2G02K
    https://doi.org/10.20360/G2G02K [Google Scholar]
  33. Lasagabaster, D.
    (2013) The use of the L1 in CLIL classes: The teachers’ perspective. Latin American Journal of Content & Language Integrated Learning, 6(2), 1–21. 10.5294/laclil.2013.6.2.1
    https://doi.org/10.5294/laclil.2013.6.2.1 [Google Scholar]
  34. Lau, S. M. C., & Van Viegen, S.
    (2020) Plurilingual Pedagogies. Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑36983‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36983-5 [Google Scholar]
  35. Le Devoir
    Le Devoir (2021, May15). Legault écrit à Trudeau pour défendre sa Réforme de la Loi 101. Le Devoir. https://www.ledevoir.com/politique/601727/legault-ecrit-a-trudeau-pour-defendre-sa-reforme-de-la-loi-101
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lightbown, P. M.
    (2014) Making the minutes count in L2 teaching. Language Awareness, 23(1–2), 3–23.   10.1080/09658416.2013.863903
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2013.863903 [Google Scholar]
  37. Lin, A.
    (2013) Toward paradigmatic change in TESOL methodologies: Building plurilingual pedagogies from the ground up. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 521–545.   10.1002/tesq.113
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.113 [Google Scholar]
  38. Lindquist, J., & Seitz, D.
    (2008) The elements of literacy.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Louie, B., & Davis-Welton, K.
    (2016) Family literacy project. The Reading Teacher, 69(6), 597–606.   10.1002/trtr.1444
    https://doi.org/10.1002/trtr.1444 [Google Scholar]
  40. Lüdi, G., & Py, B.
    (2009) To be or not to be … a plurilingual speaker. International Journal of Multilingualism, 6(2), 154–167.   10.1080/14790710902846715
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710902846715 [Google Scholar]
  41. Lyster, R.
    (2017) Content-based language teaching. InS. Loewen & M. Sato. (eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp.87–107). Taylor & Francis. 10.4324/9781315676968‑6
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315676968-6 [Google Scholar]
  42. Lyster, R., Collins, L., & Ballinger, S.
    (2009) Linking languages through a bilingual read-aloud project. Language Awareness, 18(3–4), 366–383.   10.1080/09658410903197322
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410903197322 [Google Scholar]
  43. Ma, L. P. F.
    (2019) Examining the functions of L1 use through teacher and student interactions in an adult migrant English classroom. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(4), 386–401.   10.1080/13670050.2016.1257562
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1257562 [Google Scholar]
  44. Macaro, E.
    (2009) Teacher use of codeswitching in the second language classroom: Exploring ‘optimal’ use. InM. Turnbull & J. Dailey-O’Cain. (eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp.35–49), Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691972‑005
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691972-005 [Google Scholar]
  45. Mason, A., & Payant, C.
    (2018) Experienced teachers’ beliefs and practices toward communicative approaches in teaching English as a foreign language in rural Ukraine. TESOL Journal.   10.1002/tesj.377
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.377 [Google Scholar]
  46. May, S.
    (ed.) (2014) The multilingual turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL and bilingual education. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. McMillan, B., & Turnbull, M.
    (2009) Teachers’ use of the first language in French immersion: Revisiting a core principle. InM. Turnbull & J. Dailey-O’Cain. (eds.), First language use in second and foreign language learning (pp.15–34). Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847691972‑004
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847691972-004 [Google Scholar]
  48. Ministère de l’Éducation
    Ministère de l’Éducation (2006) Programme de formation de l’école québécoise:English as a second language: Cycle one. Retrieved fromthe Ministère de l’Éducation: www.education.gouv.qc.ca/en/teachers/quebec-education-program/elementary/languages/english-as-a-second-language/
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Murray, D. E.
    (2011) Vocational ESL. InHandbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp.93–106). Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Pahl, K., & Rowsell, J.
    (2012) Literacy and education. SAGE Publications Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Payant, C.
    (2020) Exploring multilingual learners’ writing practices during an L2 and an L3 individual writing task. Canadian Modern Language Review, 76(4), 313–334.   10.3138/cmlr‑2020‑0030
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr-2020-0030 [Google Scholar]
  52. Payant, C., & Kim, Y.
    (2019) Impact of task modality on collaborative dialogue among plurilingual learners: a classroom-based study. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(5), 614–627.   10.1080/13670050.2017.1292999
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1292999 [Google Scholar]
  53. Payant, C. & Galante, A.
    (Eds.) (2021) Plurilingualism and translanguaging: Pedagogical approaches for empowerment and validation (Special Issue). TESL Canada Journal, 38(2). 10.18806/tesl.v38i2.1363
    https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v38i2.1363 [Google Scholar]
  54. Portolés, L., & Martí, O.
    (2020) Teachers’ beliefs about multilingual pedagogies and the role of initial training. International Journal of Multilingualism, 17(2), 248–264.   10.1080/14790718.2018.1515206
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2018.1515206 [Google Scholar]
  55. Québec Education Program
    Québec Education Program (2021, 9November). Québec Education Program. www.education.gouv.qc.ca/en/teachers/quebec-education-program/
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Rocafort, M. C.
    (2019) The development of plurilingual education through multimodal narrative reflection in teacher education: A case study of a pre-service teacher’s beliefs about language education. Canadian Modern Language Review, 75(1), 40–64,   10.3138/cmlr.2017‑0080
    https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.2017-0080 [Google Scholar]
  57. Storch, N., & Aldosari, A.
    (2010) Learners’ use of first language (Arabic) in pair work in an EFL class. Language Teaching Research, 14(4), 355–375.   10.1177/1362168810375362
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168810375362 [Google Scholar]
  58. Street, B. V.
    (1984) Literacy in theory and practice. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Taylor, S. K., & Snoddon, K.
    (2013) Plurilingualism in TESOL: Promising controversies. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 439–445. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43268027. 10.1002/tesq.127
    https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.127 [Google Scholar]
  60. Winer, L.
    (2007) No ESL in English schools: Language policy in Quebec and implications for TESL teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 41(3), 489–508,   10.1002/j.1545‑7249.2007.tb00082.x
    https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2007.tb00082.x [Google Scholar]
  61. Woll, N.
    (2020) Towards crosslinguistic pedagogy: Demystifying pre-service teachers’ beliefs regarding the target-language-only rule. System, 92.   10.1016/j.system.2020.102275
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102275 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ltyl.21004.pay
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ltyl.21004.pay
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error