1887
Volume 17, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2211-6834
  • E-ISSN: 2211-6842
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

English is not canonically considered a pro-drop language. Despite this, it does allow null pronouns, although less freely than traditional pro-drop languages like Italian and Japanese. The focus of this paper is the instructional register (characteristic of recipes) where we claim that object pronouns are obligatorily null in English: “Take 3 eggs. Break _ into a bowl.”. We present an analysis of Instructional Register Null Objects that also accounts for obligatorily null pronouns in certain radical pro-drop languages like Niuean. In this language, most pronouns are optionally null, however 3rd person inanimate pronouns are obligatorily null. We argue that the obligatorily null nature of such pronouns (whether register-specific like in English, or general as in Niuean) is a result of their lack of φ-features, which leaves them with only the option of being realized through Neeleman & Szendrői’s (2007) general Zero Spell-out Rule.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lv.15017.mas
2018-01-26
2019-11-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Baltin, Mark
    2012 Structural signature of pronouns. Manuscript. New York University, New York. lingbuzz/001598.
  2. Barbosa, Pilar
    2011 Pro drop and theories of pro in the Minimalist Program. Language and Linguistics Compass5. 551–587. Wiley Online Library.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Benveniste, Émile
    1971 Problems in General Linguistics. Coral Gables, Fa: University of Miami Press. (Translated by Mary Elizabeth Meek ).
  4. Bošcović, Želko
    2008 What will you have, DP or NP?Proceedings of NELS37. 101–114. GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cardinaletti, Anna
    1994 On the internal structure of pronominal DPs. Linguistic Review11. 191–219. doi: 10.1515/tlir.1994.11.3‑4.195
    https://doi.org/10.1515/tlir.1994.11.3-4.195 [Google Scholar]
  6. Chierchia, Gennaro
    1998 Reference to kinds across languages. Natural Language Semantics6. 339–405. doi: 10.1023/A:1008324218506
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008324218506 [Google Scholar]
  7. Chomsky, Noam
    1982Some concepts and consequences of the theory of Government and Binding. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cowper, Elizabeth
    2005 A note on number. Linguistic Inquiry36. 441–455. doi: 10.1162/0024389054396935
    https://doi.org/10.1162/0024389054396935 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cowper, Elizabeth , & Daniel Currie Hall
    2009 Argumenthood, pronouns, and nominal feature geometry. In Jila Ghomeshi , Ileana Paul , and Martina Wiltschko (eds.), Determiners: Universals and variation, 97–122. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.147.03cow
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.147.03cow [Google Scholar]
  10. 2009 Where—and what—is number?Proceedings of the 2009 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cummins, Sarah , & Yves Roberge 2004 Null objects in French and English. In Julie Auger, J. Clancy Clements , & Barbara Vance (eds.), Contemporary approaches to Romance linguistics, 121–138. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.258.07cum
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.258.07cum [Google Scholar]
  12. Déchaine, Rose-Marie , & Martina Wiltschko
    2002 Decomposing pronouns. Linguistic Inquiry33. 409–442. doi: 10.1162/002438902760168554
    https://doi.org/10.1162/002438902760168554 [Google Scholar]
  13. Dresher, B. Elan
    2009The contrastive hierarchy in phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511642005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511642005 [Google Scholar]
  14. Erteschik-Shir, Nomi , Lena Ibnbari & Sharon Taube
    2013 Missing objects as Topic Drop. Lingua136. 145–169. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2013.07.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2013.07.009 [Google Scholar]
  15. Gorrie, Colin , Alexandra Kellner , & Diane Massam
    2010 Determiners in Niuean. Australian Journal of Linguistics30. 349–365. doi: 10.1080/07268602.2010.498805
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07268602.2010.498805 [Google Scholar]
  16. Haegeman, Liliane
    1987 Register variation in English: Some theoretical observations. English Linguistics. 20. 230–248. doi: 10.1177/007542428702000207
    https://doi.org/10.1177/007542428702000207 [Google Scholar]
  17. Harley, Heidi , & Elizabeth Ritter
    2002 Person and number in pronouns: A feature-geometric analysis. Language78. 482–526. doi: 10.1353/lan.2002.0158
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2002.0158 [Google Scholar]
  18. Huang, James
    1984 On the distribution and reference of empty pronouns. Linguistic Inquiry15. 531–574.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kučerová, Ivona
    2014 The syntax of null subjects. Syntax17. 132–167. doi: 10.1111/synt.12015
    https://doi.org/10.1111/synt.12015 [Google Scholar]
  20. Levin, Juliette , & Diane Massam
    1985 Surface ergativity: Case/theta relations re-examined. Proceedings of NELS15. 286–301. GLSA, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Longobardi, Guiseppe
    1994 Reference and proper names. Linguistic Inquiry25. 609–665.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 2008 Reference to individuals, person, and the variety of mapping parameters. In Henrik Müller & Alex Klinge (eds.), Essays on nominal determination: From morphology to discourse management, 189–211. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.99.11lon
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.99.11lon [Google Scholar]
  23. Martin, Txuss , & Wolfram Hinzen
    2014 The grammar of the essential indexical. Lingua148. 95–117. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2014.05.016
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2014.05.016 [Google Scholar]
  24. Massam, Diane
    2006 Neither absolutive nor ergative is nor accusative. In Alana Johns , Diane Massam , & Juvenal Ndayiragije (eds.), Ergativity: Emerging issues, 27–46. Springer Press. doi: 10.1007/1‑4020‑4188‑8_2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4188-8_2 [Google Scholar]
  25. Massam, Diane & Yves Roberge
    1989 Recipe context null objects in English. Linguistic Inquiry20. 134–139.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Massam, Diane , Victoria Peter , & Lianna Wang
    2012 Radical pro-drop in Niuean. Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Mathie, Jessica
    2014 Number markedness: Evidence from Gangalidda. Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. McGinnis, Martha
    2005 On markedness asymmetries in person and number. Language81. 699–718. doi: 10.1353/lan.2005.0141
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2005.0141 [Google Scholar]
  29. Neeleman, Ad & Kriszta Szendrői
    2007 Radical pro drop and the morphology of pronouns. Linguistic Inquiry38. 671–714. doi: 10.1162/ling.2007.38.4.671
    https://doi.org/10.1162/ling.2007.38.4.671 [Google Scholar]
  30. Nevins, Andrew
    2011 Marked targets versus marked triggers and impoverishment of the dual. Linguistic Inquiry42(3). 413–444. doi: 10.1162/LING_a_00052
    https://doi.org/10.1162/LING_a_00052 [Google Scholar]
  31. Noyer, Rolf
    1997Features, positions, and affixes in autonomous morphological structure. New York: Garland Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Pérez-Leroux, Ana Teresa , Mihaela Pirvulescu & Yves Roberge
    2008 Null objects in child language: Syntax and the lexicon. Lingua118. 370–398. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2007.07.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.07.002 [Google Scholar]
  33. Progovac, Ljiljana
    1998 Determiner phrase in a language without determiners. Journal of Linguistics34. 165–179. doi: 10.1017/S0022226797006865
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226797006865 [Google Scholar]
  34. Rizzi, Luigi 1982Issues in Italian syntax. Dordrecht: Foris. doi: 10.1515/9783110883718
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110883718 [Google Scholar]
  35. 1986 Null objects in Italian and the theory of pro. Linguistic Inquiry. 17. 501–557.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ruda, Marta
    2014 Missing objects in special registers: The syntax of null objects in English. The Canadian Journal of Linguistics59. 339–372.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Sato, Yosuke
    2011 Radical pro-drop and fusional pronominal morphology in colloquial Singapore English: Reply to Neeleman & Szendrői. Linguistic Inquiry42. 356–365. doi: 10.1162/LING_a_00046
    https://doi.org/10.1162/LING_a_00046 [Google Scholar]
  38. Schwenter, Scott. A.
    2006 Null objects across South America. In Timothy L. Face & Carol A. Klee (eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, 23–36. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Schwenter, Scott. A. & Gláucia Silva
    2003 Anaphoric direct objects in spoken Brazilian Portuguese: Semantics and pragmatics. Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana, 2. 109–133.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Seiter, William
    1980Studies in Niuean syntax. New York/London: Garland Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sigurðsson, Halldór Ármann
    2008 Argument drop and the Empty Left Edge Condition (ELEC). Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax81. 1–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 2011 Conditions on argument drop. Linguistic Inquiry42. 267–304. doi: 10.1162/LING_a_00042
    https://doi.org/10.1162/LING_a_00042 [Google Scholar]
  43. Sigurðsson, Halldór Ármann & Joan Maling
    2010 The Empty Left Edge Condition. In Michael Putnam (ed.), Exploring crash-proof Grammars, 59–86. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/lfab.3.04sig
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lfab.3.04sig [Google Scholar]
  44. Sperlich, Wolfgang
    1997Tohi Vagahau Niue: Niue dictionary. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Stowell, Timothy
    1991 Empty heads in abbreviated English. GLOW abstract, GLOW Newsletter #26, HAG.
  46. Stowell, Tim
    1999 Words lost and syntax found in Headlinese: The hidden structure of abbreviated English in headlines, instructions and diaries. Unpublished manuscript/handout for a talk given at York University, Toronto, November24 1999.
  47. Tomioka, Satoshi
    2003 The semantics of Japanese null pronouns and its cross-linguistic implications. In Kersten Schwabe & Susanne Winkler (eds.), Deriving and interpreting omitted structures, 321–339. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.61.16tom
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.61.16tom [Google Scholar]
  48. Weir, Andrew
    2013 Object drop and article drop in reduced written register: a unified analysis. Presentation given at the Register Variation and Syntactic Theory workshop, International Congress of Linguists, University of Geneva, July21–27.
  49. . this issue. Object drop and article drop in reduced written register.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lv.15017.mas
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error