1887
Child Language Variation
  • ISSN 2211-6834
  • E-ISSN: 2211-6842
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Through ethnographic investigation, this study shows that the different linguistic behavior of girls and boys in the village of Oyoun Al-Wadi in Syria is due to gendered linguistic ideologies and attitudes that are utilized in different ways to project gendered (feminine or masculine) and spatial (local or supralocal) identities. Social meanings are gleaned from the naturally occurring speech of 72 speakers aged 6–18 and 29–57 to illuminate the ideologies and attitudes that result in inter- and intra-speaker variation between and among boys and girls and highlight the importance of both the community of practice and the speech community in investigating linguistic variation. The study also highlights the growth of the children’s sociolinguistic competence and their awareness from a very young age of the ideologies and attitudes that exist in their community and their capability to build on them. The results of this awareness are highly observed in preadolescents, particularly boys.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lv.16.1.03hab
2016-10-07
2019-08-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abd-el-Jawad, Hassan Rashid
    1986 The emergence of an urban dialect in the Jordanian urban centers. International Journal of the Sociology of Language61. 53–63. doi: 10.1515/ijsl.1986.61.53
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1986.61.53 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abu-Haidar, Farida
    1987 The treatment of the reflexes of /q/ and /k/ in the Muslim dialect of Baghdad. Zeitschrift für arabische Linguistik17. 41–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Al-Wer, Enam & Bruno Herin
    2011 The lifecycle of Qaf in Jordan. Langage et société138(4). 59–76. doi: 10.3917/ls.138.0059
    https://doi.org/10.3917/ls.138.0059 [Google Scholar]
  4. Amara, Muhammed
    2005 Language, migration and urbanization: The case of Bethlehem. Linguistics43(5). 883–901. doi: 10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.883
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.883 [Google Scholar]
  5. Barbu, Stéphanie , Aurélie Nardy , Jean-Pierre Chevrot & Jacques Juhel
    2013 Language evaluation and use during early childhood: Adhesion to social norms or integration of environmental regularities?Linguistics51(2). 381–411. doi: 10.1515/ling‑2013‑0015
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2013-0015 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bucholtz, Mary
    1999 ‘Why be Nujudl?’: Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society28. 203–223. doi: 10.1017/S0047404599002043
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404599002043 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bucholtz, Mary & Kira Hall
    2005 Identity and interaction: a sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies7(4–5). 585–614. doi: 10.1177/1461445605054407
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605054407 [Google Scholar]
  8. Coates, Jennifer
    2003Men talk. Malden, MA: Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9780470755617
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470755617 [Google Scholar]
  9. Daher, Jamil
    1998 Gender in linguistic variation: The variable (q) in Damascus Arabic. In Elabbas Benmamoun , Mushira Eid & John McCarthy (eds.), Perspectives on Arabic linguistics XI: Papers from the Eleventh Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics, 183–206. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.167.13dah
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.167.13dah [Google Scholar]
  10. De Houwer, Annick
    2003 Language variation and local elements in family discourse. Language Variation and Change15. 329–349. doi: 10.1017/S0954394503153033
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394503153033 [Google Scholar]
  11. Eckert, Penelope
    1988 Adolescent social structure and the spread of linguistic change. Language in Society17. 183–207. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500012756
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500012756 [Google Scholar]
  12. 1991 Social polarization and the choice of linguistic variants. In Penelope Eckert (ed.), New ways of analyzing sound change, 213–232. San Diego: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 2008 Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics12(4). 453–476. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00374.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00374.x [Google Scholar]
  14. 2010 Affect, sound symbolism, and variation. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics15(2). 70–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Eckert, Penelope & Sally McConnell-Ginet
    1992 Think practically and look locally: Language and gender as community-based practice. Annual Review of Anthropology21. 461–490. doi: 10.1146/annurev.an.21.100192.002333
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.21.100192.002333 [Google Scholar]
  16. 1995 Constructing meaning, constructing selves: Snapshots of language, gender and class from Belten High. In Kira Hall & Mary Buchholtz (eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self, 469–507. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 1999 New generalizations and explanations in language and gender research. Language in Society28. 185–201. doi: 10.1017/S0047404599002031
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404599002031 [Google Scholar]
  18. Foulkes, Paul , Gerard Docherty & Dominic Watt
    2005 Phonological variation in child-directed speech. Language8(1). 177–206. doi: 10.1353/lan.2005.0018
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2005.0018 [Google Scholar]
  19. Gal, Susan
    1978 Peasant men can’t get wives: Language change and sex roles in bilingual community. Language in Society77(1). 1–16. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500005303
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500005303 [Google Scholar]
  20. Garret, Paul B
    2005 What a language is good for: Language socialization, language shift, and the persistence of code-specific genres in St. Lucia. Language in Society34. 327–361. doi: 10.1017/s0047404505050128
    https://doi.org/10.1017/s0047404505050128 [Google Scholar]
  21. Habib, Rania
    2008 Humor and disagreement: Identity construction and cross-cultural enrichment. Journal of Pragmatics40(6). 1117–1145. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.02.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.02.005 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2010a Rural Migration and Language Variation in Hims, Syria. SKY Journal of Linguistics23. 61–99.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 2010b Word frequency and the acquisition of the Arabic urban prestigious form [ʔ]. Glossa5(2). 198–219.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 2010c Towards determining social class in Arabic-speaking communities and implications for linguistic variation. Sociolinguistic Studies4(1). 175–200. doi: 10.1558/sols.v4i1.175
    https://doi.org/10.1558/sols.v4i1.175 [Google Scholar]
  25. 2011a Meaningful variation and bidirectional change in rural child and adolescent language. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistic17(2). 81–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 2011b New model for bilingual minds in sociolinguistic variation situations: Interacting social and linguistic constraints. International Journal of Psychology Research6(6). 707–760.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hachimi, Atiqa
    2012 The urban and the urbane: Identities, language ideologies, and Arabic dialects in Morocco. Language in Society41. 321–341. doi: 10.1017/S0047404512000279
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404512000279 [Google Scholar]
  28. Haddican, Bill
    2007 Suburbanization and language change in Basque. Language in Society36. 677–706. doi: 10.1017/S0047404507070923
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404507070923 [Google Scholar]
  29. Haeri, Niloofar
    1997The sociolinguistic market in Cairo: Gender, class and education. London: Kegan Paul International.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hazen, Kirk
    2002 Identity and language variation in a rural community. Language78(2). 240–257. doi: 10.1353/lan.2002.0089
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2002.0089 [Google Scholar]
  31. Holmes, Janet & Miriam Meyerhoff
    1999 The Community of Practice: Theories and methodologies in language and gender research. Language in Society28. 173–183. doi: 10.1017/S004740459900202X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740459900202X [Google Scholar]
  32. Johnstone, Barbara & Scott F. Kiesling
    2008 Indexicality and experience: Exploring themeanings of /aw/-monophthongization in Pittsburgh. Journal of Sociolinguistics12. 5–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00351.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00351.x [Google Scholar]
  33. Kerswill, Paul & Ann Williams
    2000 Creating a New Town koine: Children and language change in Melton Keynes. Language in Society29. 65–115. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500001020
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500001020 [Google Scholar]
  34. Labov, William
    1972Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 2010Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol. 3: Cognitive and Cultural Factors. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781444327496
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444327496 [Google Scholar]
  36. Lanza, Elizabeth & Bente Ailin Svendsen
    2007 Tell me who your friends are and I might be able to tell you what language(s) you speak: Social network analysis, multilingualism, and identity. International Journal of Bilingualism11. 275–300. doi: 10.1177/13670069070110030201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069070110030201 [Google Scholar]
  37. Le Page, Robert B. & Andrée Tabouret-Keller
    1985Acts of identity: Creole-based approaches to language and ethnicity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Llamas, Carmen
    2007 ‘A place between places’: Language and identities in a border town. Language in Society36. 579–604. doi: 10.1017/S0047404507070455
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404507070455 [Google Scholar]
  39. Makihara, Miki
    2005 Rapa Nui ways of speaking Spanish: Language shift and socialization on Easter Island. Language in Society34. 727–762. doi: 10.1017/S004740450505027X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450505027X [Google Scholar]
  40. Matson, Ron
    (ed.) 2012One of the guys: Masculinities in social context. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Messing, Jacqueline
    2007 Multiple ideologies and competing discourses: Language shift in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Language in Society36. 555–577. doi: 10.1017/S0047404507070443
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404507070443 [Google Scholar]
  42. Miller, Catherine
    2005 Between accommodation and resistance: Upper Egyptian migrants in Cairo. Linguistics43(5). 903–956. doi: 10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.903
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2005.43.5.903 [Google Scholar]
  43. Milroy, Lesley
    1980Language and social networks. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Moore, Emma
    2011 Interaction between social category and social practice: Explaining was/were variation. Language Variation and Change22. 347–371. doi: 10.1017/S095439451000013X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S095439451000013X [Google Scholar]
  45. Patrick, Peter L
    2002 The speech community. In Jack. K. Chambers , Peter Trudgill & Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), Handbook of language variation and change, 573–597. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Romaine, Suzanne
    1982 What is a speech community?In Susanne Romaine (ed.),Sociolinguistic variation in speech communities, 13–24. London: Edward Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 1984The language of children and adolescents. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sallabank, Julia
    2006 Guernsey French, identity and language endangerment. In Tope Omoniyi & Goodith White (eds.), The sociolinguistics of identity, 131–156. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Silverstein, Michael
    1979 Language structure and linguistic ideology. In Paul R. Clyne , William F. Hanks & Carol L. Hofbauer (eds.), The elements: A parasession on linguistic units and levels, 193–247. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 2003 Indexical order and the dialectics of social life. Language and Communication23. 193–229. doi: 10.1016/S0271‑5309(03)00013‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5309(03)00013-2 [Google Scholar]
  51. Smith, Jennifer , Mercedes Durham & Hazel Richards
    2013 The social and linguistic in the acquisition of sociolinguistic norms: Caregivers, children, and variation. Linguistics51(2). 285–324. doi: 10.1515/ling‑2013‑0012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2013-0012 [Google Scholar]
  52. Stanford, James N
    2008 Child dialect acquisition: New perspectives on parent/peer influence. Journal of Sociolinguistics12(5). 567–596. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00383.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00383.x [Google Scholar]
  53. Turner, John C
    1999 Some current issues in research on social identity and self-categorization theories. In Naomi Ellemers , Russell Spears & Bertjam Doosje (eds.), Social identity: context, commitment, content, 6–34. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. van Compernolle, Rémi A
    2011 Developing a sociocultural orientation to variation in language. Language and Communication31. 86–94. doi: 10.1016/j.langcom.2010.11.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2010.11.002 [Google Scholar]
  55. Woolard, Kathryn A
    1998 Introduction: Language ideology as a field of inquiry. In Bambi Schieffelin , Kathryn Woolard & Paul Kroskrity (eds.), Language ideologies: Practice and theory, 3–47. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lv.16.1.03hab
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error