1887
image of The locus of parametric variation in Bantu gender and nominal derivation
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper, we capture the crosslinguistic variation in Bantu nominal structure in a unified analysis of gender on ( ). We demonstrate that this analysis accounts for the morphosyntactic properties of basic nouns as well as locative and diminutive derivations. Moreover, it allows us to capture intra- and inter-language morphosyntactic variation by reference to just three parameters – one strictly morphological and two structural. The presence of one or two heads, and the size of the complement distinguish between different types of locatives (structural variation); the presence or absence of a spell-out rule of adjacent heads differentiates “stacking” versus “non-stacking” prefixes in diminutive and augmentative derivations (morphological variation only).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/lv.20007.fuc
2021-07-16
2021-08-06
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alexiadou, Artemis, Gianina Iordachioaia & Elena Soare
    2010 Number/aspect interactions in the syntax of nominalizations: A Distributed Morphology approach. Journal of Linguistics46. 537–574. doi:  10.1017/S0022226710000058
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022226710000058 [Google Scholar]
  2. Amidu, Assibi A.
    1997Classes in Kiswahili. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Arad, Maya
    2003 Locality constraints on the interpretation of roots: the case of Hebrew denominal verbs. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory21. 737–778. 10.1023/A:1025533719905
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025533719905 [Google Scholar]
  4. 2005Roots and patterns: Hebrew morpho-syntax. Dordrecht: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Armoskaite, Solveiga
    2014 Derivation by gender in Lithuanian. InIleana Paul (ed.), Cross-linguistic Investigations of Nominalization Patterns, 169–188. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.210.07arm
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.210.07arm [Google Scholar]
  6. Asiimwe, Allen
    2014 Definiteness and specificity in Runyankore-Rukiga. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University of South Africa dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bernstein, Judy
    1993 The syntactic role of word markers in null nominal constructions. Probus5. 5–38. 10.1515/prbs.1993.5.1‑2.5
    https://doi.org/10.1515/prbs.1993.5.1-2.5 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bobaljik, Jonathan D.
    2012Universals in comparative morphology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/9069.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9069.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  9. Botne, Robert & Andrew T. Kulumeka
    1995A learner’s Chichewa and English dictionary. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bresnan, Joan
    1991 Locative case vs. locative gender. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 53–68. 10.3765/bls.v17i0.1615
    https://doi.org/10.3765/bls.v17i0.1615 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bresnan, Joan & Jonni M. Kanerva
    1989 Locative inversion in Chichewa – a case-study of factorization in grammar. Linguistic Inquiry20(1). 1–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bresnan, Joan & Sam Mchombo
    1995 The lexical integrity principle: Evidence from Bantu. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory13. 181–254. 10.1007/BF00992782
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992782 [Google Scholar]
  13. Buell, Leston C. & Merijn de Dreu
    2013 Subject raising in Zulu and the nature of PredP. The Linguistic Review30(3). 423–466. 10.1515/tlr‑2013‑0013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/tlr-2013-0013 [Google Scholar]
  14. Caha, Pavel & Marina Pantcheva
    2020 Locatives in Shona and Luganda. InJacopo Garzonio & Silvia Rossi (eds.), Variation in P. Comparative approaches to adpositional phrases, 19–55. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780190931247.003.0002
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190931247.003.0002 [Google Scholar]
  15. Carstens, Vicki
    1991 The Morphology and Syntax of Determiner Phrases in Kiswahili. PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 1993 On nominal morphology and DP structure. InSam Mchombo (eds.), Theoretical Aspects of Bantu Grammar, 151–180. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 1997 Empty nouns in Bantu locatives. The Linguistic Review14. 361–410. 10.1515/tlir.1997.14.4.361
    https://doi.org/10.1515/tlir.1997.14.4.361 [Google Scholar]
  18. 2000 Concord in Minimalist theory. Linguistic Inquiry31(2). 319–355. 10.1162/002438900554370
    https://doi.org/10.1162/002438900554370 [Google Scholar]
  19. 2003 Rethinking complementizer agreement: Agree with a Case-checked goal. Linguistic Inquiry34(3). 393–412. 10.1162/002438903322247533
    https://doi.org/10.1162/002438903322247533 [Google Scholar]
  20. 2005 Agree and EPP in Bantu. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory23(2). 219–279. 10.1007/s11049‑004‑0996‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-004-0996-6 [Google Scholar]
  21. 2008 DP in Bantu and Romance. InKatherine Demuth & Cécile de Cat (eds.), The Bantu-Romance Connection, 131–165. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/la.131.10car
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.131.10car [Google Scholar]
  22. 2010 Implications of grammatical gender for the theory of uninterpretable features. InMichael T. Putnam (ed.), Exploring Crash-Proof Grammars, 31–57. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/lfab.3.03car
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lfab.3.03car [Google Scholar]
  23. 2011 Hyperactivity and hyperagreement in Bantu. Lingua121(5). 721–741. 10.1016/j.lingua.2010.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2010.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  24. Contini-Morava, Ellen
    1997 Noun classification in Swahili. InRobert K. Herbert (ed.), African Linguistics at the Crossroads, 599–623. Cologne: Rudiger Koppe Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Corbett, Greville
    1991Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139166119
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139166119 [Google Scholar]
  26. 2006Agreement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Creissels, Denis & Danièle Godard
    2005 The Tswana infinitive as a mixed category. The Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, Department of Informatics, University of Lisbon, 70–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Déchaine, Rose-Marie, Raphaël Girard, Calisto Mudzingwa & Martina Wiltschko
    2014 The internal syntax of Shona class prefixes. Language Sciences43. 18–46. doi:  10.1016/j.langsci.2013.10.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2013.10.008 [Google Scholar]
  29. de Dreu, Merijn
    2008 The internal structure of the Zulu DP. Leiden: Leiden University MA thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Denny, Peter & Chet Creider
    1976 The semantics of noun classes in Proto-Bantu. Studies in African Linguistics7. 1–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Devos, Maud
    2020 Plural number in Shangaji nominal morphology. InJenneke van der Wal, Heleen Smits, Sara Petrollino, Victoria Nyst & Maarten Kossmann (eds.), Essays on African languages and linguistics, in honour of Maarten Mous, 289–334. Leiden: ASCL.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Doke, Clement M.
    1973Textbook of Zulu grammar, 6th edn. Johannesburg: Longmans.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Edelsten, Peter & Chiku Lijongwa
    2010A grammatical sketch of Chindamba, a Bantu language (G52) of Tanzania. Cologne: Rudiger Koppe Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Embick, David & Alec Marantz
    2008 Architecture and blocking. Linguistic Inquiry39. 1–53. 10.1162/ling.2008.39.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1162/ling.2008.39.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  35. Embick, David & Ralph Noyer
    2007 Distributed morphology and the syntax/morphology interface. InGillian Ramchand & Charles Reiss (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Interfaces, 289–324. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ferrari, Franca
    2005 A syntactic analysis of the nominal systems of Italian and Luganda: how nouns can be formed in the syntax. New York: New York University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ferrari-Bridgers, Franca
    2008 A unified syntactic analysis of Italian and Luganda nouns. InCécile de Cat & Katherine Demuth (eds.), The Bantu–Romance Connection, 239–58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.131.13fer
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.131.13fer [Google Scholar]
  38. Fortune, George
    1985Shona grammatical constructions. Harare: Mercury Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Gehrke, Berit & Marika Lekakou
    2013 How to miss your preposition. Studies in Greek Linguistics33. 92–106.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Gibson, Hannah
    2012 Auxiliary placement in Rangi: A Dynamic Syntax perspective. London: SOAS University of London dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gibson, Hannah, Rozenn Guérois & Lutz Marten
    2017 Patterns and developments in the marking of diminutives in Bantu. Nordic Journal of African Studies26(4). 344–383.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Grégoire, Claire
    1975Les locatifs en bantou. Tervuren: Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Guarisma, Gladys
    2000Complexité morphologique, simplicité syntaxique. Le cas du Bafia, langue bantoue périphérique (A50) de l’ouest du Cameroun. Paris: Peeters.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Guérois, Rozenn
    2014 Locative inversion in Cuwabo. ZAS Papers in Linguistics57. 49–71. 10.21248/zaspil.57.2014.419
    https://doi.org/10.21248/zaspil.57.2014.419 [Google Scholar]
  45. 2015 A grammar of Cuwabo. Lyon: Université Lumière Lyon 2 dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Güldeman, Tom & Ines Fiedler
    2019 Niger-Congo “noun classes” conflate gender with deriflection. InFrancesca Di Garbo, Bruno Olsson & Bernhard Wälchli (eds.), Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies, 95–145. Berlin: Language Science Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gunnink, Hilde
    2018 A grammar of Fwe. Ghent: Ghent University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hadermann, Pascale
    1999 Les formes nomino-verbales de classes 5 et 15 dans les langues bantoues du Nord-Ouest. InJean-Marie Hombert & Larry Hyman (eds.), Bantu Historical Linguistics: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, 431–471. Stanford: CSLI.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Halme, Riikka
    2004A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Harley, Heidi & Elizabeth Ritter
    2002 Person and number in pronouns: A feature-geometric analysis. Language78(3): 482–526. 10.1353/lan.2002.0158
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2002.0158 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hoch, Ernst
    . No date. A Bemba grammar with exercises. Chinsali, Zambia: Ilondola Language Centre.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Ioannidou, Alexandra & Marcel den Dikken
    2009 P-drop, D-drop, D-spread. InClaire Halpert, Jeremy Hartman & David Hill (eds.), Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop in Greek Syntax and Semantics, 393–408. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Iordachioaia, Gianina & Elena Soare
    2008 Two kinds of event plurals: Evidence from Romanian nominalizations. Empirical Issues in Syntax and Semantics7: 193–216.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Iorio, David
    2014 Subject and object marking in Bembe. Newcastle upon Tyne: Newcastle University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Julien, Marit
    2002Syntactic heads and word formation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Kastner, Itamar & Beata Moskal
    (eds.) 2018Snippets: Special issue on non-local contextual allomorphy. doi:  10.7358/snip‑2018‑034‑intr
    https://doi.org/10.7358/snip-2018-034-intr [Google Scholar]
  57. Katamba, Francis
    2003 Bantu nominal morphology. InDerek Nurse & Gérard Philippson (eds.), The Bantu Languages, 103–120. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Kavari, Jekura & Lutz Marten
    2009 Multiple noun class prefixes in Otjiherero. InPeter Austin, Oliver Bond, Monik Charette, David Nathan & Peter Sells (eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Language Documentation and Linguistic Theory, 165–173. London: SOAS.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Kayne, Richard
    1994The antisymmetry of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Kihm, Alain
    2005 Noun class, gender, and the lexicon-syntax-morphology interfaces: A comparative study of Niger-Congo and Romance languages. InGuglielmo Cinque & Richard Kayne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Syntax, 459–512. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:  10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195136517.013.0011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195136517.013.0011 [Google Scholar]
  61. Kihore, Yared M., David P. B. Massamba & Yohana P. Msanjila
    2001Sarufi maumbo ya Kiswahili Sanifu. Dar es Salaam: Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. King’ei, Kitula
    2000 Problems of acceptability of standard Swahili forms by non-Kiunguja native Kiswahili speakers. InKulikoyela Kahigi, Yared M. Kihore & Maarten Mous (eds.), Lugha za Tanzania. Languages of Tanzania, 81–88. CNWS Publications, Universiteit Leiden.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kramer, Ruth
    2014 Gender in Amharic: a morphosyntactic approach to natural and grammatical gender. Language Sciences43. 102–115. doi:  10.1016/j.langsci.2013.10.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2013.10.004 [Google Scholar]
  64. 2015The morphosyntax of gender. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:  10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679935.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199679935.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  65. 2017 General number nouns in Amharic lack NumP. InJason Ostrove, Ruth Kramer & Joseph Sabbagh (eds.), Asking the Right Question: Essays in Honor of Sandra Chung, 39–54. Santa Cruz: Linguistics Research Center.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kuperus, Julianna & Antoinette Mpunga wa Ilunga
    1990Locative markers in Luba. Tervuren: Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Lee, Soo-Hwan
    . in prep. Swahili DP-internal locatives.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Lowenstamm, Jean
    2007 On little n, √, and types of nouns. InJutta Hartmann, Veronika Hegedus, and Henk van Riemsdijk (eds.), Sounds of Silence: Empty Elements in Syntax and Phonology, 105–144. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Marantz, Alec
    1996“Cat” as a phrasal idiom: Consequeces of late insertion in Distributed Morphology. Ms. MIT, Cambridge, MA.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 1997 No escape from syntax. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics4. 201–25.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 2001Words. Ms. MIT, Cambridge, MA.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Marten, Lutz
    2010 The great siSwati locative shift. InAnne Breitbarth, Christopher Lucas, Sheila Watts & David Willis (eds.), Continuity and Change in Grammar, 249–267. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:  10.1075/la.159.12mar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.159.12mar [Google Scholar]
  73. 2012 Agreement in locative phrases in Luganda. InMatthias Brenzinger & Anne-Maria Fehn (eds.), Proceedings of the 6th World Congress of African Linguistics, 433–443. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Meeussen, Achille E.
    1967 Bantu grammatical reconstruction’s. Africana LinguisticaIII: 79–121. 10.3406/aflin.1967.873
    https://doi.org/10.3406/aflin.1967.873 [Google Scholar]
  75. Meinhof, Carl
    1906Grundzüge einer vergleichenden Grammatik der Bantusprachen. Berlin: Reimer.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Mletshe, Loyiso
    2017 Deverbal nominals derived from intransitive state verbs in isiXhosa: A generative lexicon approach. South African Journal of African Languages37(1). 29–39. doi:  10.1080/02572117.2017.1316924
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02572117.2017.1316924 [Google Scholar]
  77. Moshi, Lioba
    1995 Locatives in Kivunjo-Chaga. InAkinbiyi Akinlabi (ed.), Theoretical Approaches to African Linguistics, 129–145. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Moskal, Beata
    2015 Limits on allomorphy: A case study in nominal suppletion. Linguistic Inquiry46(2). 363–375. doi:  10.1162/LING_a_00185
    https://doi.org/10.1162/LING_a_00185 [Google Scholar]
  79. Moskal, Beata & Peter W. Smith
    2016 Towards a theory without adjacency: hyper-contextual VI-rules. Morphology26(3–4). 295–312. doi:  10.1007/s11525‑015‑9275‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-015-9275-y [Google Scholar]
  80. Msaka, Peter K.
    2019 Nominal classification in Bantu revisited: The perspective from Chichewa. Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Mugane, John M.
    1997 Bantu nominalization structures. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Myers, Scott
    1987 Tone and the structure of words in Shona. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, Amherst dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Ndayiraije, Juvénal, Emmanuel Nikiema & Parth Bhatt
    2012 The augment in Kirundi: when syntax meets phonology. InMichael Marlo, Nikki Adams, Christopher Green, Michelle Morrison & Tristan Purvis (eds.), Selected proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference on African Linguistics, 112–121. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Ngoboka, Jean P.
    2016 Locatives in Kinyarwanda. Durban: University of KwaZulu Natal dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Nurse, Derek & Gerard Philippson
    2003 Introduction. InDerek Nurse & Gerard Philippson (eds.), The Bantu languages, 1–12. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Picallo, Carme
    1991 Nominals and nominalizations in Catalan. Probus3(3). 279–316. doi:  10.1515/prbs.1991.3.3.279
    https://doi.org/10.1515/prbs.1991.3.3.279 [Google Scholar]
  87. Poulos, George
    1990A linguistic analysis of Venda. Pretoria: Via Afrika Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Pylkkänen, Liina
    2008Introducing arguments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 10.7551/mitpress/9780262162548.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262162548.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  89. Ritter, Elizabeth
    1993 Where’s gender?Linguistic Inquiry24. 795–803. doi: 10.2307/4178843
    https://doi.org/10.2307/4178843 [Google Scholar]
  90. Roberts, Ian
    2019Parameter hierarchies & Universal Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oso/9780198804635.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198804635.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  91. Schadeberg, Thilo C.
    2001 Number in Swahili grammar. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere68. 7–16.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Simango, Silvester R.
    2012 Subject marking, coordination and noun classes in ciNsenga. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies30(2). 171–183. doi:  10.2989/16073614.2012.737595
    https://doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2012.737595 [Google Scholar]
  93. Spuy, Andrew van der
    2010 Generating Zulu noun class morphology. Language Matters: Studies in the Languages of Africa41(2). 294–314. 10.1080/10228190903213787
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10228190903213787 [Google Scholar]
  94. 2014 The morphology of the Zulu locative. Transactions of the Philological Society112(1). 61–79. doi:  10.1111/1467‑968X.12004
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-968X.12004 [Google Scholar]
  95. Steriopolo, Olga
    2008 Form and function of expressive morphology: A case study of Russian. Vancouver: University of British Columbia dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 2017 Nominalizing evaluative suffixes in Russian: The interaction of declension class, gender, and animacy. Jenom7: The 7th Workshop on Nominalizations. Université de Fribourg. 10.7557/6.4141
    https://doi.org/10.7557/6.4141 [Google Scholar]
  97. 2018 Morphosyntax of gender in Russian sex-differentiable nouns. Journal of Slavic Linguistics26(2). 307–335. 10.1353/jsl.2018.0010
    https://doi.org/10.1353/jsl.2018.0010 [Google Scholar]
  98. Svenonius, Peter
    2007 Adpositions, particles, and the arguments they introduce. InEric Reuland, Tanmoy Bhattacharya & Giorgos Spathas (eds.), Argument Structure, 63–103. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/la.108.08sve
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.108.08sve [Google Scholar]
  99. 2010 Spatial P in English. InGuglielmo Cinque & Luigi Rizzi (eds.), Mapping Spatial PPs, 127–160. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393675.003.0004
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393675.003.0004 [Google Scholar]
  100. Taraldsen, Knut T.
    2010 The nanosyntax of Nguni noun class prefixes and concords. Lingua, 120(6). 1522–1548. doi:  10.1016/j.lingua.2009.10.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2009.10.004 [Google Scholar]
  101. Taraldsen, Knut T., Lucie Taraldsen Medová & David Langa
    2018 Class prefixes as classifiers in Southern Bantu. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory36. 1339–1394. 10.1007/s11049‑017‑9394‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11049-017-9394-8 [Google Scholar]
  102. Taylor, John R.
    1996 The syntax and semantics of locativised nouns in Zulu. InMartin Pütz & René Dirven (eds.), The Construal of Space in Language and Thought, 287–306. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110821611.287
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110821611.287 [Google Scholar]
  103. Terzi, Arhonto
    2010 On null spatial Ps and their arguments. Catalan Journal of Linguistics9. 167–187. 10.5565/rev/catjl.99
    https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/catjl.99 [Google Scholar]
  104. Valinande, Nzama
    1984 The structure of Kinande. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University dissertation.
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Visser, Marianna W.
    2008 Definiteness and specificity in the isiXhosa determiner phrase. South African Journal of African Languages (28)1. 11–29. 10.1080/02572117.2008.10587298
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02572117.2008.10587298 [Google Scholar]
  106. Wal, Jenneke van der
    2009Word order and information structure in Makhuwa-Enahara. Utrecht: LOT.
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 2015 Bantu object clitics as defective goals. Revue Roumaine de LinguistiqueLX(2–3). 277–296.
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Wechsler, Stephen
    2009 Agreement features. Language and Linguistics Compass3(1). 384–405. 10.1111/j.1749‑818X.2008.00100.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00100.x [Google Scholar]
  109. Welmers, William E.
    1973African Language Structures. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Wiltschko, Martina
    2006 Why should diminutives count?InHans Broekhuis, Norbert Corver, Riny Huijbregts, Ursula Kleinhenz & Jan Koster (eds.), Organizing Grammar. Linguistic Studies in Honor of Henk van Riemsdijk, 669–679. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Wiltschko, Martina & Olga Steriopolo
    2007 Parameters of variation in the syntax of diminutives. Proceedings of the 2007 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association, 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Zeller, Jochen
    . To appear. Locatives in Bantu. Oxford Guide to the Bantu Languages. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/lv.20007.fuc
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/lv.20007.fuc
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error