Volume 23, Issue 1
  • ISSN 2211-6834
  • E-ISSN: 2211-6842
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This paper examines a structure in the Bantu language Kinande, namely the so-called sociative causative, where partitive morphology occurs on a nominal without giving the nominal an NP-related partitive interpretation. We argue that the source of the partitivity in this construction lies in the co-extensiveness relation (incrementality relation) between the causing and the caused subevent. Partitive morphology on the nominal signals obligatory licensing of the theme so that it can be properly mapped to the co-extensive subevents.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Creissels, Denis & Sylvie Nouguier-Voisin
    2008 Valency-changing operations in Wolof and the notion of “co-participation”. InEkkehard König & Volker Gast (eds.), Reciprocals and Reflexives (pp.289–306). De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Dixon, R. M. W.
    2000 A typology of causative: form, syntax and meaning. InR. M. W. Dixon & Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald (eds.), Changing valency: Case studies in transitivity, 31–83. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511627750.003
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511627750.003 [Google Scholar]
  3. Dom, Sebastian
    2014 The Neuter in Bantu: A Systemic Functional Analysis. Master’s dissertation. Ghent: Ghent University.
  4. Good, Jeff
    2005 Reconstructing morpheme order in Bantu: The case of causativization and applicativization. Diachronica22(1). 3–57. 10.1075/dia.22.1.02goo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.22.1.02goo [Google Scholar]
  5. Guillaume, Antoine & Françoise Rose
    2010 Sociative causative markers in South-American languages: A possible areal feature. InFrank Floricic (ed.), Essais de typologie et de linguistique générale, Mélanges offerts à Denis Creissels, 383–402. École Normale Supérieure de Lyon: ENS Éditions.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Hyman, Larry M.
    2003 Suffix ordering in Bantu: A morphocentric approach. InGeert Booij & Jaap van Marle (eds.), Yearbook of morphology 2002, 245–281. Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/0‑306‑48223‑1_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/0-306-48223-1_8 [Google Scholar]
  7. Krifka, Manfred
    1989 Nominal reference, temporal constitution and quantification in event semantics. InRenate Bartsch & Johan van Benthem & Peter van Emde Boas (eds.), Semantics and contextual expression, 75–115. Dordrecht: Foris Publications. 10.1515/9783110877335‑005
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110877335-005 [Google Scholar]
  8. 1992 Thematic relations as links between nominal reference and temporal constitution. InIvan A. Sag & Anna Szabolcsi (eds.), Lexical matters, 29–52. Stanford: CSLI.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 1998 The origins of telicity. InSusan Rothstein (ed.), Events and Grammar, 197–235. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑3969‑4_9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3969-4_9 [Google Scholar]
  10. Kulikov, Leonid I.
    1993 The “second causative”: A typological sketch. InBernard Comrie & Maria Polinsky (eds.), Causatives and transitivity, vol.231, 121–154. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. 10.1075/slcs.23.06kul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.23.06kul [Google Scholar]
  11. 2001 Causatives. InMartin Haspelmath & Ekkehard König & Wulf Oesterreicher & Wolfgang Raible (eds.), Language Typology and Language Universals: An International Handbook, vol.21, 886–898. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Mutaka, Ngessimo M. & Kambale Kavutirwaki
    2011/2006Kinande/Konzo English Dictionary: With an English-Kinande index. Africa World Press. (first published 2006. Kinande-English/English-Kinande dictionary. InKen Safir (ed.), Afranaph Project Website, www.africananaphora.rutgers.edu/).
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Mutaka, Ngessimo M. & Ken Safir
    2007 Kinande anaphora sketch. InKen Safir (ed.), Afranaph Project Website, www.africananaphora.rutgers.edu/ (accessed26 February 2013).
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Nedyalkov, Vladimir P. & Georgij G. Silnitsky
    1973 The typology of morphological and lexical causatives. InFerenc Kiefer (ed.), Trends in Soviet theoretical linguistics, 1–32. Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑010‑2536‑2_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-2536-2_1 [Google Scholar]
  15. Rothstein, Susanne
    2004Structuring events: A study in the semantics of lexical aspect. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. 10.1002/9780470759127
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470759127 [Google Scholar]
  16. Schadeberg, Thilo
    2003 Derivation. InDerek Nurse & Gérard Philippson (eds.), The Bantu languages, 71–89. London, New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Schneider-Zioga, Patricia
    2015 The linker in Kinande re-examined. InOne Boyer & Ruth Kramer & Elizabeth Zsiga (Eds.), Selected proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of African Linguistics, 276–290. Cascadilla Proceedings Project, Somerville, MA, USA.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Schneider-Zioga, Patricia & Monica Alexandrina Irimia
    . To appear. Partitives, Case and licensing in Kinande. InElena Anagnostopoulou & Dionysios Mertyris & Christina Sevdali eds. On the place of case in grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Schneider-Zioga, Patricia & Philip N. Mutaka
    2016 Sociative Causation. Paper presented at the47th Annual Conference on African Linguistics. UC, Berkeley.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 2019 The syntax and semantics of helping: Sociative causation in Kinande. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics40(2). 271-310. 10.1515/jall‑2019‑0011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jall-2019-0011 [Google Scholar]
  21. Shibatani, Masayoshi & Prashant Pardeshi
    2002 The causative continuum. InMasayoshi Shibatani (ed.), The grammar of causation and interpersonal manipulation. Typological studies in language, 481, 85–126. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing. 10.1075/tsl.48.07shi
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.48.07shi [Google Scholar]
  22. Tatevosov, Sergei
    2018On sociative causation. ms. Lomonosov Moscow State University
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Bantu; incrementality; locative; partitivity; sociative causative
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error