Volume 15, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1871-1340
  • E-ISSN: 1871-1375
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



English Noun+Noun compounding has garnered the attention of morphologists due to characteristics that involve its semantics (Bauer & Tarasova, 2010Jackendoff, 2009), degree of productivity (Bauer, Beliaeva, & Tarasova, 2019Maguire, Wisniewski, & Storms, 2010) and possible paradigmatic nature (Bagasheva, in pressBoyé & Schalchli, 2016). This article addresses the above questions from an inclusive perspective with the aim of bringing together various unsolved issues in the study of this morphological process. The experiment exploits data from the BNC Sampler and the , from which morphological and semantic information is extracted in order to fathom the contribution of nominal root compounding to the lexicon. The results show that the paradigmatic nature, semantics and high productivity of NN compounding are all closely interrelated, which explains certain characteristics associated to the current status of this process and its role in the enrichment of the lexicon.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Allen, M. R.
    (1978) Morphological investigations. Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
  2. Baayen, R. H.
    (2009) Corpus linguistics in morphology: Morphological productivity. InA. Lüdeling, & M. Kytö (Eds.), Corpus linguistics: An international handbook (pp.899–919). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (2010) The directed compound graph of English. An exploration of lexical connectivity and its processing consequences. Linguistische Berichte Sonderheft, 17, 383–402.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bagasheva, A.
    (2014) Frame semantics, metaphtonymy and compound verbs in English. InG. Rundblad, A. Tytus, O. Knapton, & C. Tang (Eds.), Selected papers from the 4th UK Cognitive Linguistics conference (pp.1–17). London: UK Cognitive Linguistics Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. (in press). Paradigmaticity in compounding. InJ. Fernández-Domínguez, A. Bagasheva & C. Lara-Clares Eds. Paradigmatic relations in word-formation. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bauer, L.
    (1997) Derivational paradigms. InG. E. Booij & J. van Marle (Eds.), Yearbook of morphology 1996 (pp.243–256). Dordrecht: Kluwer. 10.1007/978‑94‑017‑3718‑0_13
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3718-0_13 [Google Scholar]
  7. (1998) When is a sequence of two nouns a compound in English?English Language and Linguistics, 2, 65–86. 10.1017/S1360674300000691
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674300000691 [Google Scholar]
  8. (2019) Notions of paradigm and their value in word-formation. Word Structure, 12(2), 153–175. 10.3366/word.2019.0144
    https://doi.org/10.3366/word.2019.0144 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bauer, L., & Tarasova, E.
    (2010) The meaning link in nominal compounds. SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, 10, 1–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bauer, L., Beliaeva, N., & Tarasova, E.
    (2019) Recalibrating productivity: Factors involved. Zeitschrift für Wortbildung / Journal of Word Formation, 3(1), 44–80. 10.3726/zwjw.2019.01.02
    https://doi.org/10.3726/zwjw.2019.01.02 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bauer, L., Lieber, R., & Plag, I.
    (2013) The Oxford reference guide to English morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747062.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747062.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  12. Beard, R.
    (1995) Lexeme-morpheme base morphology: A general theory of inflection and word formation. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Blank, A.
    (1997) Outlines of a cognitive approach to word-formation. InProceedings of the 16th International Congress of Linguists. Paper No. 0291. Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon. romanischen Sprachen. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bloomfield, L.
    (1933) Language. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bonami, O., & Strnadová, J.
    (2018) Paradigm structure and predictability in derivational morphology. Morphology, 29(2), 167–197. 10.1007/s11525‑018‑9322‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11525-018-9322-6 [Google Scholar]
  16. Booij, G. E.
    (2010) Compound construction: Schemas or analogy? A Construction Morphology perspective. InS. Scalise & I. Vogel (Eds.), Cross-disciplinary issues in compounding (pp.93–108). Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PI: John Benjamins. 10.1075/cilt.311.09boo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.311.09boo [Google Scholar]
  17. Bourque, Y. S.
    (2014) Toward a typology of semantic transparency: The case of French compounds. University of TorontoPhD dissertation.
  18. Boyé, G., & Schalchli, G.
    (2016) The status of paradigms. InA. Hippisley & G. Stump (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of morphology (pp.206–234). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781139814720.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781139814720.009 [Google Scholar]
  19. Breban, T., & Kolkmann, J.
    (2019) (Eds.). English Language and Linguistics, Volume23, No.4 – Special issue: Different perspectives on proper noun modifiers.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dirven, R., & Verspoor, M.
    (1998) Cognitive exploration of language and linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Downing, P.
    (1977) On the creation and use of English compound nouns. Language, 53, 810–842. 10.2307/412913
    https://doi.org/10.2307/412913 [Google Scholar]
  22. Fernández-Domínguez, J.
    (2009) Productivity in English word-formation. An approach to N+N compounding. Bern: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gagné, C.
    (2001) Relation and lexical priming during the interpretation of noun-noun combinations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 27(1), 236–254.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2009) Psycholinguistic perspectives. InR. Lieber & P. Štekauer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of compounding (pp.255–271). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gagné, C., & Spalding, T.
    (2004) Effect of relation availability on the interpretation and access of familiar noun-noun compounds. Brain & Language, 90(1–3), 478–486. 10.1016/S0093‑934X(03)00459‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00459-0 [Google Scholar]
  26. Guevara, E., & Scalise, S.
    (2009) Searching for universals in compounding. InS. Scalise, E. Magni & A. Bisetto (Eds.), Universals of language today (pp.101–128). Dordrecht: Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑8825‑4_6
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8825-4_6 [Google Scholar]
  27. Hansen, B., Hansen, K., Neubert, A., & Schentke, M.
    (1982) Englische Lexikologie. Einführung in Wortbildung und lexikalische Semantik. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hatcher, A. G.
    (1960) An introduction to the analysis of English noun compounds. Word, 16, 356–373. 10.1080/00437956.1960.11659738
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00437956.1960.11659738 [Google Scholar]
  29. Jackendoff, R.
    (2009) Compounding in the Parallel Architecture and Conceptual Semantics. InR. Lieber & P. Štekauer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of compounding (pp.105–129). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (2010) Meaning and the lexicon: The Parallel Architecture, 1975–2010. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. (2016) English noun-noun compounds in Conceptual Semantics. InP. ten Hacken (Ed.), The semantics of compounding (pp.15–37). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781316163122.002
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316163122.002 [Google Scholar]
  32. Jespersen, O.
    (1942) A Modern English grammar on historical principles. Part VI, morphology. London and Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kastovsky, D.
    (1986) The problem of productivity in word formation. Linguistics, 24, 585–600. 10.1515/ling.1986.24.3.585
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1986.24.3.585 [Google Scholar]
  34. Koch, P.
    (2001) Bedeutungswandel und Bezeichnungswandel: Von der kognitiven Semasiologie zur kognitiven Onomasiologie. Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik, 121, 7–36. 10.1007/BF03379251
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03379251 [Google Scholar]
  35. Levi, J. N.
    (1978) The syntax and semantics of complex nominals. New York, NY: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Levin, B., Glass, L., & Jurafsky, D.
    (2019) Systematicity in the semantics of noun compounds: The role of artifacts vs. natural kinds. Linguistics57, 3, 429–471. 10.1515/ling‑2019‑0013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling-2019-0013 [Google Scholar]
  37. Libben, G.
    (2006) Why study compound processing? An overview of the issues. InG. Libben & G. Jarema (Eds.), The representation and processing of compound words (pp.3–22). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lieber, R.
    (2004) Morphology and lexical semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2016) English nouns. The ecology of nominalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781316676288
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316676288 [Google Scholar]
  40. Lieber, R., & Štekauer, P.
    (2009) The Oxford handbook of compounding. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Lipka, L.
    (1990) Metaphor and metonymy as productive processes on the level of the lexicon. InW. Bahner, J. Schildt, & D. Viehweger (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Congress of Linguists (pp.1207–1210). Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Maguire, P., Wisniewski, E. J., & Storms, G.
    (2010) A corpus study of semantic patterns in compounding. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 6(1), 49–73. 10.1515/cllt.2010.003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2010.003 [Google Scholar]
  43. Mattiello, E., & Dressler, W. U.
    (2018) The morphosemantic transparency/opacity of novel English analogical compounds and compound families. Studia Anglia Posnaniensia, 53, 67–114. 10.2478/stap‑2018‑0004
    https://doi.org/10.2478/stap-2018-0004 [Google Scholar]
  44. Oxford English Dictionary
    Oxford English Dictionary. Available at: www.oed.com. Last accessed13 February 2020.
  45. Pepper, S.
    (forthcoming). The typology of binominal lexemes. Noun-noun compounds and their functional equivalents. Doctoral dissertation, University of Oslo.
  46. Plag, I.
    (1999) Morphological productivity: Structural constraints in English derivation. Berlin & New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Radimský, J.
    (in press). A paradigmatic approach to compounding. InJ. Fernández-Domínguez, A. Bagasheva & C. Lara-Clares Eds. Paradigmatic relations in word-formation. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Ryder, M. E.
    (1994) Ordered chaos: The interpretation of English noun-noun compounds. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Schäfer, M.
    (2018) The semantic transparency of English compound nouns. Berlin: Language Science Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Schmid, H. -J.
    (2015) The scope of word-formation research. InP. O. Müller, I. Ohnheiser, S. Olsen & F. Rainer (Eds.), Word-formation. An international handbook of the languages of Europe (vol.I, pp.1–21). Berlin & Boston, MA: De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110246254‑003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110246254-003 [Google Scholar]
  51. Scott, M.
    (2012) WordSmith Tools version 6. Stroud: Lexical Analysis Software.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Selkirk, E. O.
    (1982) The syntax of words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Štekauer, P.
    (2005) Meaning predictability in word formation. Novel, context-free naming units. Berlin & New York, NY: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sfsl.54
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sfsl.54 [Google Scholar]
  54. (2009) Meaning predictability of novel context-free compounds. InR. Lieber & P. Štekauer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of compounding (pp.272–297). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. (2014) Derivational paradigms. InR. Lieber & P. Štekauer (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of derivational morphology (pp.354–369). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. (2016) Compounding from an onomasiological perspective. InP. ten Hacken (Ed.), The semantics of compounding (pp.54–68). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781316163122.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316163122.004 [Google Scholar]
  57. Warren, B.
    (1984) The functions of modifiers of nouns. Quaderni di Semantica, 5(1), 111–122.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Zimmer, K. E.
    (1971) Some general observations about nominal compounds. Working Papers on Language Universals, 5, 1–21.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error