1887
Volume 12, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1871-1340
  • E-ISSN: 1871-1375
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

The present study aimed to identify crucial factors that underlie phonological representations in short-term memory (STM) of third-graders with different literacy skills. For this purpose, we used the Nonword Repetition Task (NRT) to disentangle the processing of phonemes’ identity and their serial order. We found no evidence that children’s literacy skills are linked to their capacity for retaining phonemes’ identity. However, their literacy skills are linked to their capacity for retaining phonemes’ serial order. The latter link can be interpreted in terms of a domain-general STM mechanism but is also compatible with the impact of literacy on children’s knowledge of the phonotactic regularities in a language.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ml.12.1.06sch
2017-06-18
2019-12-05
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aarnoutse, C. , van Leeuwe, J. , & Verhoeven, L.
    (2005) Early Literacy from a Longitudinal Perspective. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11, 253–275. doi: 10.1080/08993400500101054
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08993400500101054 [Google Scholar]
  2. Attout, L. , & Majerus, S.
    (2015) Working memory deficits in developmental dyscalculia: the importance of serial order. Child Neuropsychology, 21, 432–450. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2014.922170
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2014.922170 [Google Scholar]
  3. Baayen, R. H.
    (2008) Analyzing linguistic data: A practical introduction to statistics using R.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511801686
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801686 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baird, G. , Slonims, V. , Simonoff, E. , & Dworzynski, K.
    (2011) Impairment in non-word repetition: a marker for language impairment or reading impairment?Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 53, 711–716. doi: 10.1111/j.1469‑8749.2011.03936
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.03936 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, D. M. , Maechler, M. , & Dai, B.
    (2008) lme4: Linear mixed effects models using S4 classes (R Package Version 0.999375-25). [Software]. Retrieved fromcran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4/index.html.
  6. Beneventi, H. , Tonnessen, F. E. , & Ersland, L.
    (2009) Dyslexic children show short-term memory deficits in phonological storage and serial rehearsal: an fMRI study. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119, 2017–2043. doi: 10.1080/00207450903139671
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00207450903139671 [Google Scholar]
  7. Binamé, F. , & Poncelet, M.
    (2016) Order short-term memory capacity predicts nonword reading and spelling in first and second grade. Reading and Writing, 29, 1–20. doi: 10.1007/s11145‑015‑9577‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-015-9577-9 [Google Scholar]
  8. Boada, R. , & Pennington, B. F.
    (2006) Deficient implicit phonological representations in children with dyslexia. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 95, 153–193. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2006.04.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2006.04.003 [Google Scholar]
  9. Boets, B.
    (2006) Early literacy development in children at risk for dyslexia. A longitudinal study of the general magnocellular theory (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Leuven, Belgium.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. de Bree, E. H. , Rispens, J. , & Gerrits, E.
    (2007) Non-word repetition in Dutch children with (a risk of) dyslexia and SLI. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 21, 935–944. doi: 10.1080/02699200701576892
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699200701576892 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brus, B.Th. , & Voeten, M. J. M.
    (1997) Een Minuut Test. Harcourt: Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Carroll, J. M. , & Snowling, M. J.
    (2004) Language and phonological skills in children at high-risk of reading difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 631–640. doi: 10.1111/j.1469‑7610.2004.00252
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00252 [Google Scholar]
  13. Clarke, P. , Hulme, C. , & Snowling, M.
    (2005) Individual differences in RAN and reading: a response timing analysis. Journal of Research in Reading, 28, 73–86. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9817.2005.00255
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2005.00255 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cumming, N. , Page, M. , & Norris, D.
    (2003) Testing a positional model of the Hebb effect. Memory, 11, 43–63. doi: 10.1080/741938175
    https://doi.org/10.1080/741938175 [Google Scholar]
  15. De Jong, P. F.
    (2011) What Discrete and Serial Rapid Automatized Naming Can Reveal About Reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 314–337. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2010.485624
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2010.485624 [Google Scholar]
  16. Ehri, L. C. , Nunes, S. R. , Willows, D. M. , Schuster, B. V. , Yaghoub-Zadeh , & Shanahan, T.
    (2001) Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250–287. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.36.3.2
    https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.36.3.2 [Google Scholar]
  17. Elbro, C.
    (1996) Early linguistic abilities and reading development: A review and a hypothesis. Reading and Writing, 8, 453–485. doi: 10.1007/BF00577023
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00577023 [Google Scholar]
  18. (1998) When reading is “readn” or somthn. Distinctness of phonological representations of lexical items in normal and disabled readers. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39, 149–153. doi: 10.1111/1467‑9450.393070
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9450.393070 [Google Scholar]
  19. Elbro, C. , Borstrøm, I. , & Petersen, D. K.
    (1998) Predicting dyslexia from kindergarten. The importance of distinctness of phonological representations of lexical items. Reading Research Quarterly, 33, 36–60. doi: 10.1598/RRQ.33.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.33.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  20. Elbro, C. , & Jensen, M. N.
    (2005) Quality of phonological representations, verbal learning, and phoneme awareness in dyslexic and normal readers. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 46, 375–384. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9450.2005.00468
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00468 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gupta, P.
    (2003) Examining the relationship between word learning, nonword repetition, and immediate serial recall in adults. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56A, 1213–1236. doi: 10.1080/02724980343000071
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980343000071 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gupta, P. , Lipinski, J. , Abbs, B. , & Lin, P-H.
    (2005) Serial Position Effects in Nonword Repetition. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 141–162. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2004.12.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2004.12.002 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hachmann, W. , Bogaerts, L. , Szmalec A. , Woumans, E. , Duyck, W. , & Job, R.
    (2014) Short-term memory for order but not for item information is impaired in developmental dyslexia. Annals of dyslexia, 64, 121–136. doi: 10.1007/s11881‑013‑0089‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-013-0089-5 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hulme, C. , & Snowling, M.
    (1992) Phonological deficits in dyslexia: a reappraisal of the verbal deficit hypothesis. In N. Singh & I. Beale (Eds.), 590 Current perspectives in learning disabilities (pp.270–331). New York: Springer-Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4613‑9133‑3_9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9133-3_9 [Google Scholar]
  25. Jaroslawska, A. J. , Gathercole, S. E. , Logie, M. , & Holmes, J.
    (2016) Following instructions in a virtual school: Does working memory play a role?Memory & Cognition, 44, 580–589. doi: 10.3758/s13421‑015‑0579‑2
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-015-0579-2 [Google Scholar]
  26. Jusczyk, P. , Friederici, A. , Wessels, J. , Svenkerud, V. , & Jusczyk, A. M.
    (1993) Infants’ sensitivity to the sound patterns of native language words. Journal of Memory and Language, 32, 402–420. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1993.1022
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1993.1022 [Google Scholar]
  27. Jusczyk, P. , Luce, P. A. , & Charles-Luce, J.
    (1994) Infants’ sensitivity to phonotactic patterns in the native language. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 630–645. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1994.1030
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1994.1030 [Google Scholar]
  28. Laasonen, M. , Virsu, V. , Oinonen, S. , Sandbacka, M. , Salakari, A. , & Service, E.
    (2012) Phonological and sensory short-term memory are correlates and both affected in developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 25, 2247–2273. doi: 10.1007/s11145‑011‑9356‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9356-1 [Google Scholar]
  29. Lyon, G. R. , Shaywitz, S. E. , & Shaywitz, B. A.
    (2003) A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1–15. doi: 10.1007/s11881‑003‑0001‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-003-0001-9 [Google Scholar]
  30. Majerus, S. , & Cowan, N.
    (2016) The nature of verbal short-term impairment in dyslexia: The importance of serial order. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1–8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01522
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01522 [Google Scholar]
  31. Majerus, S. , Poncelet, M. , Van der Linden, M. , & Weekes, B.
    (2008) Lexical learning in bilingual adults: the relative importance of short-term memory for serial order and phonological knowledge. Cognition, 107, 395–419. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.10.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.10.003 [Google Scholar]
  32. Majerus, S. , Belayachi, S. , De Smedt, B. , Leclercq, A. L. , Martinez, T. , Schmidt, C. , et al.
    (2008) Neural networks for short-term memory for order differentiate high and low proficiency bilinguals. Neuroimage, 42, 1698–1713. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.06.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.06.003 [Google Scholar]
  33. Majerus S. , D'Argembeau A. , Martinez T. , Belayachi S. , Van der Linden M. , Collette F. , et al.
    (2010) The commonality of neural networks for verbal and visual short-term memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 2570–2593. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2009.21378
    https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21378 [Google Scholar]
  34. Martinez Perez, T. , Majerus, S. , & Poncelet, M.
    (2012a) The contribution of short-term memory for serial order to early reading acquisition: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 708–723. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.11.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2011.11.007 [Google Scholar]
  35. Martinez Perez, T. , Majerus, S. , Mahot, A. , & Poncelet, M.
    (2012b) Evidence for a specific impairment of serial order short-term memory in dyslexic children. Dyslexia, 18, 94–109. doi: 10.1002/dys.1438
    https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.1438 [Google Scholar]
  36. McKelvie, S. J.
    (1987) Learning and awareness in the Hebb digits task. Journal of General Psychology, 114, 75–88. doi: 10.1080/00221309.1987.9711057
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00221309.1987.9711057 [Google Scholar]
  37. Melby-Lervåg, M. , & Lervåg, A.
    (2011) Cross-linguistic transfer of oral language, decoding, phonological awareness and reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 1, 114–135. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9817.2010.01477.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2010.01477.x [Google Scholar]
  38. Molenberghs, G. , & Verbeke, G.
    (2005) Models for Discrete Longitudinal Data. New York: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Munson, B. , Swenson, C. L. , & Manthei, S. C.
    (2005) Lexical and phonological organization in children: evidence from repetition tasks. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48, 108–123. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2005/009)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388 [Google Scholar]
  40. Nation, K. , & Hulme, C.
    (2011) Learning to read changes children’s phonological skills: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study of reading and nonword repetition. Developmental Science, 14, 649–659. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑7687.2010
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2010 [Google Scholar]
  41. Nairne, J. S. , & Kelley, M. R.
    (2004) Separating item and order information through process dissociation. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 113–133. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2003.09.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2003.09.005 [Google Scholar]
  42. Page, M. , & Norris, D.
    (2009) Is there a common mechanism underlying word-form learning and the Hebb repetition effect? Experimental data and a modelling framework. In A. Thorn & M. Page (Eds.). Interactions between short-term and long-term memory in the verbal domain (pp.136–156), Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Pratt, A. , & Brady, S.
    (1988) Relation of Phonological Awareness to Reading Disability in Children and Adults. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 319–323. doi: 10.1037/0022‑0663.80.3.319.
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.319 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ramus, F. , Rosen, S. , Dakin, S. C. , Day, B. L. , Castellote, J. M. , White, S. , & Frith, U.
    (2003) Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126, 841–865. doi: 10.1093/brain/awg076
    https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awg076 [Google Scholar]
  45. Ramus, F. , & Szenkovits, G.
    (2008) What phonological deficit?Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 129–141. doi: 10.1080/17470210701508822
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210701508822 [Google Scholar]
  46. Rispens, J. , & Parigger, E.
    (2010) Non-word repetition in Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment with and without reading problems. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 177–188. doi: 10.1348/026151009X482633
    https://doi.org/10.1348/026151009X482633 [Google Scholar]
  47. Robertson, E. K. , & Joanisse, M. F.
    (2010) Spoken sentence comprehension in children with dyslexia and language impairment: The roles of syntax and working memory. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31, 141–165. doi: 10.1017/S0142716409990208
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716409990208 [Google Scholar]
  48. Romani, C. , Tsouknida, E. , & Olson, A.
    (2015) Encoding order and developmental dyslexia: a family of skills predicting different orthographic components. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 99–128. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2014.938666
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2014.938666 [Google Scholar]
  49. Schraeyen, K. , Geudens, A. , Ghesquière, P. , & Sandra, D.
    (under review). Serial order effects in young adults with dyslexia: new perspectives from nonword repetition errors. Manuscript under review.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Smith-Spark, J. , & Fisk, J.
    (2007) Working memory functioning in developmental dyslexia. Memory, 15, 34–56. doi: 10.1080/09658210601043384
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210601043384 [Google Scholar]
  51. Snowling, M. J. , Gallagher, A. , & Frith, U.
    (2003) Family risk of dyslexia is continuous: Individual differences in the precursors of reading skill. Child Development, 74, 358–373. doi: 10.1111/1467‑8624.7402003
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.7402003 [Google Scholar]
  52. Staels, E. , & Van den Broeck, W.
    (2014) Order short-term memory is not impaired in dyslexia and does not affect orthographic learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1–16. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00732
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00732 [Google Scholar]
  53. (2015) No solid empirical evidence for the SOLID (Serial order learning impairment) hypothesis of dyslexia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 650–669. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000054
    https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000054 [Google Scholar]
  54. Stanovich, K. E. , & Siegel, L. S.
    (1994) Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 24–53. doi: 10.1037//0022‑0663.86.1.24
    https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.86.1.24 [Google Scholar]
  55. Storkel, H. L.
    (2001) Learning new words: Phonotactic probability in language development. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 1321–1337. doi: 10.1044/1092‑4388(2001/103)
    https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2001/103) [Google Scholar]
  56. Van den Bos, K. P. , Spelberg, H. C. , Scheepstra, A. J. M. , & de Vries, J. C.
    (1998) De klepel pseudowoordentest. Harcourt: Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Van den Broeck, W. , Geudens, A. , & Van den Bos, K. P.
    (2010) The nonword-reading deficit of disabled readers: A developmental interpretation. Developmental Psychology, 46, 717–734. doi: 10.1037/a0019038
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019038 [Google Scholar]
  58. Verbeke, G. , & Molenberghs, G.
    (2000) Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. New York: Springer-Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Wagner, R. K. & Torgesen, J. K.
    (1987) The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192–212. doi: 10.1037/0033‑2909.101.2.192
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.192 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ml.12.1.06sch
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ml.12.1.06sch
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error