1887
Volume 12, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1871-1340
  • E-ISSN: 1871-1375
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Previous work has shown that novel morphologically complex words (henceforth neologisms) leave traces in memory after just one encounter. This study addressed the question whether these traces are abstract in nature or exemplars. In three experiments, neologisms were either primed by themselves or by their stems. The primes occurred in the visual modality whereas the targets were presented in the auditory modality (Experiment 1) or vice versa (Experiments 2 and 3). The primes were presented in sentences in a selfpaced reading task (Experiment 1) or in stories in a listening comprehension task (Experiments 2 and 3). The targets were incorporated in lexical decision tasks, auditory or visual (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, respectively), or in stories in a self-paced reading task (Experiment 3). The experimental part containing the targets immediately followed the familiarization phase with the primes (Experiment 1), or after a one week delay (Experiments 2 and 3). In all experiments, participants recognized neologisms faster if they had encountered them before (identity priming) than if the familiarization phase only contained the neologisms’ stems (stem priming). These results show that the priming effects are robust despite substantial differences between the primes and the targets. This suggests that the traces novel morphologically complex words leave in memory after just one encounter are abstract in nature.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ml.16006.vaa
2018-03-15
2019-10-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alegre, M. and Gordon, P.
    (1999) Frequency effects and the representational status of regular inflections. Journal of Memory and Language, 40:41–61. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1998.2607
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1998.2607 [Google Scholar]
  2. Baayen, R. H. , Davidson, D. J. , and Bates, D. M.
    (2008) Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language, 59:390–412. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005 [Google Scholar]
  3. Baayen, R. H. , Milin, P. , Filipovic Durdevic, D. , Hendrix, P. , and Marelli, M.
    (2011) An amorphous model for morphological processing in visual comprehension based on naive discriminative learning. Psychological Review, 118:438–482. doi: 10.1037/a0023851
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023851 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baayen, R. H. , Piepenbrock, R. , and Gulikers, L.
    (1995) The CELEX lexical database (CD-ROM). Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Baayen, R. H. and Renouf, A.
    (1996) Chronicling The Times: Productive Lexical Innovations in an English Newspaper. Language, 72:69–96. doi: 10.2307/416794
    https://doi.org/10.2307/416794 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bakker, I. , Takashima, A. , Van Hell, J. G. , Janzen, G. , and McQueen, J. M.
    (2014) Competition from unseen or unheard novel words: Lexical consolidation across modalities. Journal of Memory and Language, 73:116–130. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2014.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2014.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bates, D. M. and Sarkar, D.
    (2005) The lme4 library. [On-line], Available: lib.stat.cmu.edu/R/CRAN/.
  8. Bloom, P.
    (2000) How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Booij, G.
    (2002) The Morphology of Dutch. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bradlow, A. , Nygaard, L. , and Pisoni, D.
    (1999) Effects of talker, rate, and amplitude variation on recognition memory for spoken words. Perception and Psychophysics, 61:206–219. doi: 10.3758/BF03206883
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206883 [Google Scholar]
  11. Butterworth, B.
    (1983) Lexical representation. In Butterworthi, B. , editor, Language production (Vol.II): Development, Writing and other Language Processes, pages257–294. Academic Press, London.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Clark, E. V.
    (1993) The Lexicon in Acquisition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511554377
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511554377 [Google Scholar]
  13. Coolen, R. , Van Jaarsveld, H. J. , and Schreuder, R.
    (1991) The interpretation of isolated novel nominal compounds. Memory and Cognition, 19:341–352. doi: 10.3758/BF03197138
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197138 [Google Scholar]
  14. Craik, F. and Kirsner, K.
    (1974) The effect of speaker’s voice on word recognition. Quarterly Jounal of Experimental Psychology, 26(2):274–284. doi: 10.1080/14640747408400413
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14640747408400413 [Google Scholar]
  15. Crawley, M. J.
    (2002) Statistical computing. An introduction to data analysis using S-plus. Wiley, Chichester.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Crepaldi, D. , Rastle, K. , Coltheart, M. , and Nickels, L.
    (2010) ’Fell’ primes ’fall’, but does ’bell’ prime ’ball’? Masked priming with irregularly inflected primes. Journal of Memory and Language, 63:83–99. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2010.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2010.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  17. De Vaan, L. , Ernestus, M. , and Schreuder, R.
    (2011) The lifespan of lexical traces for novel morphologically complex words. The Mental Lexicon, 6(3):374–392. doi: 10.1075/ml.6.3.02dev
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ml.6.3.02dev [Google Scholar]
  18. De Vaan, L. , Schreuder, R. , and Baayen, R. H.
    (2007) Regular morphologically complex neologisms leave detectable traces in the mental lexicon. The Mental Lexicon, 2(1):1–24. doi: 10.1075/ml.2.1.02vaa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ml.2.1.02vaa [Google Scholar]
  19. Epstein, M.
    (2012) The Transformative Humanities: A Manifesto. Continuum Publishing Corporation, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ernestus, M. and Mak, W. M.
    (2005) Analogical effects in reading Dutch verb forms. Memory and Cognition, 33(7):1160–1173. doi: 10.3758/BF03193220
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193220 [Google Scholar]
  21. Faraway, J. J.
    (2006) Extending Linear Models with R: Generalized Linear, Mixed Effects and Nonparametric Regression Models. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Goh, W.
    (2005) Talker variability and recognition memory: instance-specific and voice specific effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(1):40–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Goldinger, S. D.
    (1996) Words and voices: Episodic traces in spoken word identification and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 22(5):1166–1183.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (1998) Echoes of echoes? An episodic theory of lexical access. Psychological Review, 105:251–279. doi: 10.1037/0033‑295X.105.2.251
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.105.2.251 [Google Scholar]
  25. Goldinger, S. D. , Azuma, T. , Kleider, H. M. , and Holmes, V. M.
    (2003) Font-specific memory: more than meets the eye?In Bowers, J. and Marsolek, C. , editors, Rethinking implicit memory, pages157–196. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hanique, I. , Aalders, E. , and Ernestus, M.
    (2013) How robust are exemplar effects?The Mental Lexicon, 8:269–294. doi: 10.1075/ml.8.3.01han
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ml.8.3.01han [Google Scholar]
  27. Jaeger, T. F.
    (2008) Categorical data analysis: Away from anovas (transformation or not) and towards logit mixed models. Journal of Memory and Language, 59:434–446. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2007.11.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.11.007 [Google Scholar]
  28. Janse, E.
    (2008) Spoken-word processing in aphasia: Effects of item overlap and item repetition. Brain and Language, 105:185–198. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2007.10.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2007.10.002 [Google Scholar]
  29. Jegerski, J.
    (2014) Self-paced reading. In Jegerski, J. and VanPatten, B. , editors, Research methods in second language psycholinguistics, pages20–49. Routledge, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Just, M. A. , Carpenter, P. A. , and Woolley, J. D.
    (1982) Paradigms and processes in reading comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111:228–238. doi: 10.1037/0096‑3445.111.2.228
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.111.2.228 [Google Scholar]
  31. Koornneef, A. W. and Van Berkum, J. J. A.
    (2006) On the use of verb-based implicit causality in sentence comprehension: Evidence from self-paced reading and eye tracking. Journal of Memory and Language, 54(4):445–465. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2005.12.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2005.12.003 [Google Scholar]
  32. Kuznetsova, A. , Brockhoff, P. B. , and Christensen, R. H. B.
    (2016) Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models. ftp://centos.ustc.edu.cn/CRAN/web/packages/lmerTest/lmerTest.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mattys, S. and Liss, J.
    (2008) On building models of spoken-word recognition: When there is as much to learn from natural ’oddities’ and artificial normality. Perception and Psychophysics, 70(7):1235–1242. doi: 10.3758/PP.70.7.1235
    https://doi.org/10.3758/PP.70.7.1235 [Google Scholar]
  34. McLennan, C. and Luce, P.
    (2005) Examining the time course of indexical specificity effects in spoken word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(2):306–321.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. McLennan, C. , Luce, P. , and Charles-Luce, J.
    (2003) Representation of lexical form. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29(4):539–553.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Palmari, T. , Goldinger, S. , and Pisoni, D.
    (1993) Episodic encoding of voice attributes and recognition memory for spoken words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19(2):309–328.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Pinker, S.
    (1991) Rules of language. Science, 153:530–535. doi: 10.1126/science.1857983
    https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1857983 [Google Scholar]
  38. Pinker, S. and Ullman, M.
    (2002a) Combination and structure, not gradedness, is the issue: Reply to McClelland and Patterson. Trends in the Cognitive Sciences, 6(11):472–474. doi: 10.1016/S1364‑6613(02)02013‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(02)02013-2 [Google Scholar]
  39. (2002b) The past and future of the past tense. Trends in the Cognitive Sciences, 6(11):456–462. doi: 10.1016/S1364‑6613(02)01990‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(02)01990-3 [Google Scholar]
  40. Rumelhart, D. E. and McClelland, J. L.
    (1986) On learning the past tenses of English verbs. In McClelland, J. L. , Rumelhart, D. E. , and the PDP research group, editors, Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. VolumeII, pages216–271. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Seidenberg, M. S. and Gonnerman, L. M.
    (2000) Explaining derivational morphology as the convergence of codes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(9):353–361. doi: 10.1016/S1364‑6613(00)01515‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01515-1 [Google Scholar]
  42. Stemberger, J. P. and MacWhinney, B.
    (1986) Frequency and the lexical storage of regularly inflected forms. Memory and Cognition, 14(1):17–26. doi: 10.3758/BF03209225
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03209225 [Google Scholar]
  43. Swets, B. , Desmet, T. , Clifton, C. , and Ferreira, F.
    (2008) Underspecification of syntactic ambiguities: Evidence from self-paced reading. Memory and Cognition, 36(1):201–216. doi: 10.3758/MC.36.1.201
    https://doi.org/10.3758/MC.36.1.201 [Google Scholar]
  44. Tulving, E.
    (1972) Episodic and semantic memory. In Tulving, E. and Donaldson, W. , editors, Organization of memory, pages381–403. Academic Press, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Van Haeringen, C. B.
    (1971) Het achtervoegsel -ing: Mogelijkheden en beperkingen [The suffix -ing: Possibilities and restrictions]. De Nieuwe Taalgids, 64:449–468.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Yim, H. , Dennis, S. J. , and Sloutsky, V. M.
    (2013) The development of episodic memory: Items, contexts, and relations. Psycological Science, 24:2163–2172. doi: 10.1177/0956797613487385
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613487385 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ml.16006.vaa
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ml.16006.vaa
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error