1887
Volume 15, Issue 2
  • ISSN 1871-1340
  • E-ISSN: 1871-1375

Abstract

Abstract

This study examines the processing of morphologically complex words focusing on how morphological (in addition to orthographic and semantic) factors affect bilingual word recognition. We report findings from a large experimental study with groups of bilingual (Turkish/German) speakers using the visual masked-priming technique. We found morphologically mediated effects on the response speed and the inter-individual variability within the bilingual participant group. We conclude that the grammar (qua morphological parsing) not only enhances speed of processing in bilingual language processing but also yields more uniform performance and thereby constrains variability within a group of otherwise heterogeneous individuals.

Available under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license.
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20013.cla
2020-11-06
2020-11-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ml.20013.cla.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20013.cla&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Akamatsu, N.
    (2008) The effects of training on automatization of word recognition in English as a foreign language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29(2), 175–193. 10.1017/S0142716408080089
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716408080089 [Google Scholar]
  2. Amenta, S. , & Crepaldi, D.
    (2012) Morphological processing as we know it: An analytical review of morphological effects in visual word identification. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 232. doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00232
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00232 [Google Scholar]
  3. Andrews, S. , & Lo, S.
    (2013) Is morphological priming stronger for transparent than opaque words? It depends on individual differences in spelling and vocabulary. Journal of Memory and Language, 68(3), 279–296. 10.1016/j.jml.2012.12.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.12.001 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barr, D. J. , Levy, R. , Scheepers, C. , & Tily, H. J.
    (2013) Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68(3), 255–278. 10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, D. , Maechler, M. , Bolker, B. , & Walker, S.
    (2015) Package ‘lme4’. Available at: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4/index.html
  6. Beyersmann, E. , Casalis, S. , Ziegler, J. C. , & Grainger, J.
    (2015) Language proficiency and morpho-orthographic segmentation. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22(4), 1054–1061. 10.3758/s13423‑014‑0752‑9
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-014-0752-9 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bosch, S. , Veríssimo, J. , & Clahsen, H.
    (2019) Inflectional morphology in bilingual language processing: An age-of-acquisition study. Language Acquisition, 26(3), 339–360. 10.1080/10489223.2019.1570204
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2019.1570204 [Google Scholar]
  8. Clahsen, H. , Sonnenstuhl, I. , Hadler, M. & Eisenbeiss, S.
    (2001) The mental representation of inflected words: an experimental study of adjectives and verbs in German. Language, 77: 510–543. 10.1353/lan.2001.0140
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2001.0140 [Google Scholar]
  9. Clahsen, H.
    (2016) Contributions of linguistic typology to psycholinguistics. Linguistic Typology20: 599–614. 10.1515/lingty‑2016‑0031
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lingty-2016-0031 [Google Scholar]
  10. Coughlin, C. E. , & Tremblay, A.
    (2015) Morphological decomposition in native and non-native French speakers. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18(3), 524–542. 10.1017/S1366728914000200
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000200 [Google Scholar]
  11. Council of Europe. Council for Cultural Co-operation. Education Committee. Modern Languages Division
    Council of Europe. Council for Cultural Co-operation. Education Committee. Modern Languages Division (2001) Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Crepaldi, D. , Rastle, K. , Coltheart, M. , & Nickels, L.
    (2010) ‘Fell’ primes ‘fall’, but does ‘bell’ prime ‘ball’? Masked priming with irregularly-inflected primes. Journal of Memory and Language, 63(1), 83–99. 10.1016/j.jml.2010.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2010.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  13. Davis, C. J.
    (2005) N-Watch: A program for deriving neighborhood size and other psycholinguistic statistics. Behaviour Research Methods, 37, 65–70. 10.3758/BF03206399
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206399 [Google Scholar]
  14. Davis, C. J. , & Bowers, J. S.
    (2006) Contrasting five different theories of letter position coding: Evidence from orthographic similarity effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 32(3), 535–557.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Farhy, Y. , Veríssimo, J. , & Clahsen, H.
    (2018) Do late bilinguals access pure morphology during word recognition? A masked-priming study on Hebrew as a second language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(5), 945–951. 10.1017/S1366728918000032
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728918000032 [Google Scholar]
  16. Feldman, L. B. , Milin, P. , Cho, K. W. , Moscoso del Prado Martín, F. , & O’Connor, P. A.
    (2015) Must analysis of meaning follow analysis of form? A time course analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 111. doi:  10.3389/fnhum.2015.00111
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00111 [Google Scholar]
  17. Feldman, L. B. , Kostić, A. , Basnight-Brown, D. M. , Đurđević, D. F. , & Pastizzo, M. J.
    (2010) Morphological facilitation for regular and irregular verb formations in native and non-native speakers: Little evidence for two distinct mechanisms. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13(2), 119–135. 10.1017/S1366728909990459
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990459 [Google Scholar]
  18. Feldman, L. B. , O’Connor, P. A. , & del Prado Martín, F. M.
    (2009) Early morphological processing is morphosemantic and not simply morpho-orthographic: A violation of form-then-meaning accounts of word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(4), 684–691. 10.3758/PBR.16.4.684
    https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.16.4.684 [Google Scholar]
  19. Foote, R.
    (2017) The storage and processing of morphologically complex words in L2 Spanish. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39(4), 735–767. 10.1017/S0272263115000376
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263115000376 [Google Scholar]
  20. Forster, K. I. , & Forster, J. C.
    (2003) DMDX: A Windows display program with millisecond accuracy. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 35(1), 116–124. 10.3758/BF03195503
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195503 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gollan, T. H. , Montoya, R. I. , Cera, C. , & Sandoval, T. C.
    (2008) More use almost always means a smaller frequency effect: Aging, bilingualism, and the weaker links hypothesis. Journal of Memory and Language, 58(3), 787–814. 10.1016/j.jml.2007.07.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.07.001 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gonnerman, L. M. , Seidenberg, M. S. , & Andersen, E. S.
    (2007) Graded semantic and phonological similarity effects in priming: Evidence for a distributed connectionist approach to morphology. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136(2), 323–345. 10.1037/0096‑3445.136.2.323
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.136.2.323 [Google Scholar]
  23. Grainger, J. , & Beyersmann, E.
    (2017) Edge-aligned embedded word activation initiates morpho-orthographic segmentation. Psychology of Learning and Motivation67, 285–317. 10.1016/bs.plm.2017.03.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.plm.2017.03.009 [Google Scholar]
  24. Harrington, M.
    (2006) The lexical decision task as a measure of L2 lexical proficiency. EUROSLA Yearbook, 6(1), 147–168. 10.1075/eurosla.6.10har
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.6.10har [Google Scholar]
  25. Hulstijn, J. H. , Van Gelderen, A. , & Schoonen, R.
    (2009) Automatization in second language acquisition: What does the coefficient of variation tell us?Applied Psycholinguistics, 30(4), 555–582. 10.1017/S0142716409990014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716409990014 [Google Scholar]
  26. Jacob, G. , Heyer, V. , & Veríssimo, J.
    (2018) Aiming at the same target: A masked priming study directly comparing derivation and inflection in the second language. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(6), 619–637. 10.1177/1367006916688333
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006916688333 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kielar, A. , Joanisse, M. F. , & Hare, M. L.
    (2008) Priming English past tense verbs: Rules or statistics?Journal of Memory and Language, 58(2), 327–346. 10.1016/j.jml.2007.10.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.10.002 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kim, A. E. , Oines, L. , & Miyake, A.
    (2018) Individual differences in verbal working memory underlie a tradeoff between semantic and structural processing difficulty during language comprehension: An ERP investigation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 44(3), 406–420.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kırkıcı, B. , & Clahsen, H.
    (2013) Inflection and derivation in native and non-native language processing: Masked priming experiments on Turkish. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(4), 776–791. 10.1017/S1366728912000648
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000648 [Google Scholar]
  30. Lim, H. , & Godfroid, A.
    (2015) Automatization in second language sentence processing: A partial, conceptual replication of Hulstijn, Van Gelderen, and Schoonen’s 2009 study. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36(5), 1247–1282. 10.1017/S0142716414000137
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716414000137 [Google Scholar]
  31. Marslen-Wilson, W. D.
    (2007) Processes in language comprehension. In M. G. Gaskell , G. T. M. Altmann , G. Altmann , & P. Bloom (Eds), Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics, (495–524). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Meunier, F. , & Marslen-Wilson, W.
    (2004) Regularity and irregularity in French verbal inflection. Language and Cognitive Processes, 19(4), 561–580. 10.1080/01690960344000279
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960344000279 [Google Scholar]
  33. Michael, E. B. , & Gollan, T. H.
    (2005) Being and becoming bilingual. In J. Kroll , & A. de Groot (Eds), Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches (389–407). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Neubauer, K. , & Clahsen, H.
    (2009) Decomposition of inflected words in a second language: An experimental study of German participles. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31(3), 403–435. 10.1017/S0272263109090354
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263109090354 [Google Scholar]
  35. Pastizzo, M. J. , & Feldman, L. B.
    (2002) Discrepancies between orthographic and unrelated baselines in masked priming undermine a decompositional account of morphological facilitation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(1), 244–249.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Phillips, N. A. , Segalowitz, N. , O’Brien, I. , & Yamasaki, N.
    (2004) Semantic priming in a first and second language: Evidence from reaction time variability and event-related brain potentials. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17(2–3), 237–262. 10.1016/S0911‑6044(03)00055‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0911-6044(03)00055-1 [Google Scholar]
  37. Rastle, K. , Davis, M. H. , & New, B.
    (2004) The broth in my brother’s brothel: Morpho-orthographic segmentation in visual word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(6), 1090–1098. 10.3758/BF03196742
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196742 [Google Scholar]
  38. Rastle, K. , Lavric, A. , Elchlepp, H. , & Crepaldi, D.
    (2015) Processing differences across regular and irregular inflections revealed through ERPs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 41(3), 747–760.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Rodgers, D. M.
    (2011) The automatization of verbal morphology in instructed second language acquisition. IRAL-International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 49(4), 295–319. 10.1515/iral.2011.016
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.2011.016 [Google Scholar]
  40. Sassenhagen, J. , & Alday, P. M.
    (2016) A common misapplication of statistical inference: Nuisance control with null-hypothesis significance tests. Brain and Language, 162, 42–45. 10.1016/j.bandl.2016.08.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2016.08.001 [Google Scholar]
  41. Segalowitz, N. S. , & Segalowitz, S. J.
    (1993) Skilled performance, practice, and the differentiation of speed-up from automatization effects: Evidence from second language word recognition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 14(3), 369–385. 10.1017/S0142716400010845
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400010845 [Google Scholar]
  42. Segalowitz, S. J. , Segalowitz, N. S. , & Wood, A. G.
    (1998) Assessing the development of automaticity in second language word recognition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 19(1), 53–67. 10.1017/S0142716400010572
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400010572 [Google Scholar]
  43. Silva, R. , & Clahsen, H.
    (2008) Morphologically complex words in L1 and L2 processing: Evidence from masked priming experiments in English. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11(2), 245–260. 10.1017/S1366728908003404
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728908003404 [Google Scholar]
  44. Solovyeva, K. , & DeKeyser, R.
    (2018) Response time variability signatures of novel word learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(1), 225–239. 10.1017/S0272263117000043
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263117000043 [Google Scholar]
  45. Stanners, R. F. , Neiser, J. J. , Hernon, W. P. , & Hall, R.
    (1979) Memory representation for morphologically related words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18(4), 399–412. 10.1016/S0022‑5371(79)90219‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(79)90219-6 [Google Scholar]
  46. Stockall, L. , & Marantz, A.
    (2006) A single route, full decomposition model of morphological complexity: MEG evidence. The Mental Lexicon, 1(1), 85–123. 10.1075/ml.1.1.07sto
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ml.1.1.07sto [Google Scholar]
  47. Tanner, D. , & Van Hell, J. G.
    (2014) ERPs reveal individual differences in morphosyntactic processing. Neuropsychologia, 56, 289–301. 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.02.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.02.002 [Google Scholar]
  48. telc gGmbH (Hrsg.)
    telc gGmbH (Hrsg.), Kompetenzcheck Deutsch Beruf A1/A2/B1/B2/C1. Frankfurt am Main, 1. Auflage 2015.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Veríssimo, J.
    (2018) Taking it a level higher: The LEIA model of complex word recognition. Poster presented at‘Architectures and Mechanisms for Language Processing’ (AMLaP), Berlin, Germany.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Voga, M. , Anastassiadis-Symeonidis, A. , & Giraudo, H.
    (2014) Does morphology play a role in L2 processing?: Two masked priming experiments with Greek speakers of ESL. Lingvisticae Investigationes, 37(2), 338–352. 10.1075/li.37.2.10vog
    https://doi.org/10.1075/li.37.2.10vog [Google Scholar]
  51. Wagenmakers, E. J. , & Brown, S.
    (2007) On the linear relation between the mean and the standard deviation of a response time distribution. Psychological Review, 114(3), 830–841. 10.1037/0033‑295X.114.3.830
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.114.3.830 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20013.cla
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20013.cla
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): German , inflection , L2 processing , masked priming and morphology
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error