1887
Volume 15, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1871-1340
  • E-ISSN: 1871-1375
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Although several studies have investigated the influence of the grammatical class of cue words on response patterns in the word association task, relatively little is known about the influence of more fine-grained distinctions such as cue transitivity. The present study tests two predictions, made in existing studies, of the influence of this variable. The first is that cue transitivity would influence the grammatical class of responses; the second, that it would affect the directionality of position-based, or syntagmatic, responses. English language associative responses to 49 transitive and 49 intransitive cues were gathered from 53 English L1 respondents. These responses were then analysed according to their grammatical class and categorical designation. Results suggested that cue transitivity influences both of these measurements: transitive cues yielded more noun responses and more associations classified as likely to follow the cue in text than did intransitives, while transitives received more verb responses and more associations likely to precede the cue. These results are discussed in the light of contiguity-based and semantic theories of the determinants of word association.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20019.thw
2021-01-22
2021-05-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Baayen, R. H. , Milin, P. , & Đurđević, D.
    (2011) An amorphous model for morphological processing in visual comprehension based on naive discriminative learning. Psychological Review, 118, 428–481. 10.1037/a0023851
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023851 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bøyum, M.
    (2016) A new word association test for Norwegian. University of Oslo.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brown, R. , & Berko, J.
    (1960) Word Association and the Acquisition of Grammar. Child Development, 31(1), 1–14. 10.2307/1126377
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1126377 [Google Scholar]
  4. Brysbaert, M. , Warriner, A. B. , & Kuperman, V.
    (2014) Concreteness ratings for 40 thousand generally known English word lemmas. Behavior Research Methods, 46(3), 904–911. 10.3758/s13428‑013‑0403‑5
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-013-0403-5 [Google Scholar]
  5. Category: English intransitive verbs
    Category: English intransitive verbs (n.d.). InWiktionary. Retrieved14th August 2017. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_intransitive_verbs
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Charles, W. G. , & Miller, G. A.
    (1989) Contexts of antonymous adjectives. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10(03), 357–375. 10.1017/S0142716400008675
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400008675 [Google Scholar]
  7. Clark, H. H.
    (1970) Word Associations and linguistic theory. InNew Horizons in Linguistics (pp.271–286). Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cohen, J.
    (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. InStatistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (Vol.2nd, p.567).
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cramer, P.
    (1968) Word Association. Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. De Deyne, S. , & Storms, G.
    (2008) Word associations: network and semantic properties. Behavior Research Methods, 40(1), 213–231. 10.3758/BRM.40.1.213
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.1.213 [Google Scholar]
  11. de Groot, A. M. B.
    (1989) Representational aspects of word imageability and word frequency as assessed through word association. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15(5), 824–845.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. DeDe, G.
    (2014) Verb Transitivity Bias Affects On-line Sentence Reading in People with Aphasia. Aphasiology, 27(3), 326–343. 10.1080/02687038.2012.725243
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02687038.2012.725243 [Google Scholar]
  13. Deese, J.
    (1962) Form class and the determinants of association. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1, 79–84. 10.1016/S0022‑5371(62)80001‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(62)80001-2 [Google Scholar]
  14. Entwisle, D. R.
    (1966) Form Class and Children’s Word Associations. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 5, 558–565. 10.1016/S0022‑5371(66)80091‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(66)80091-9 [Google Scholar]
  15. Ervin, S. M.
    (1961) Changes with Age in the Verbal Determinants of Word-Association. The American Journal of Psychology, 74(3), 361–372. 10.2307/1419742
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1419742 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fitzpatrick, T.
    (2006) Habits and Rabbits: Word associations and the L2 lexicon. In S. H. Foster-Cohen , M. Medved Krajnovic , & J. Mihaljevic Djigunovic (Eds.), EUROSLA Yearbook6 (pp.121–145). 10.1075/eurosla.6.09fit
    https://doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.6.09fit [Google Scholar]
  17. (2007) Word association patterns: unpacking the assumptions. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 17(3), 319–331. 10.1111/j.1473‑4192.2007.00172.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2007.00172.x [Google Scholar]
  18. Fitzpatrick, T. , Playfoot, D. , Wray, A. , & Wright, M. J.
    (2015) Establishing the Reliability of Word Association Data for Investigating Individual and Group Differences. Applied Linguistics, 36(1), 23–50. 10.1093/applin/amt020
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt020 [Google Scholar]
  19. Guida, A. , & Lenci, A.
    (2007) Semantic properties of word associations to Italian verbs. Italian Journal of Linguistics, 19(2007), 293–326.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hopper, P. J. , & Thompson, S. A.
    (1980) Transitivity in Grammar and Discourse. InLanguage (Vol.56, Issue2, pp.251–299). 10.1353/lan.1980.0017
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.1980.0017 [Google Scholar]
  21. Jakubíček, M. , Kilgariff, A. , & Kovář, V.
    (2013) The tenten corpus family. Proceedings of the 7th International Corpus Linguistics Conference.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jurafsky, D. , Bell, A. , Gregory, M. , & Raymond, W. D.
    (2000) Probabilistic Relations between Words: Evidence from Reduction in Lexical Production. In J. Bybee & P. J. Hopper (Eds.), Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure (pp.229–254). John Hopkins Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kang, B.
    (2018) Collocation and word association: Comparing collocation measuring methods. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 23(1), 85–113. 10.1075/ijcl.15116.kan
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.15116.kan [Google Scholar]
  24. Kuperman, V. , Stadthagen-Gonzalez, H. , & Brysbaert, M.
    (2012) Age-of-acquisition ratings for 30,000 English words. Behavior Research Methods, 44, 978–990. 10.3758/s13428‑012‑0210‑4
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-012-0210-4 [Google Scholar]
  25. Mandera, P. , Keuleers, E. , & Brysbaert, M.
    (2017) Explaining human performance in psycholinguistic tasks with models of semantic similarity based on prediction and counting: A review and empirical validation. Journal of Memory and Language, 92, 57–78. 10.1016/j.jml.2016.04.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2016.04.001 [Google Scholar]
  26. McRae, K. , Khalkhali, S. , & Hare, M.
    (2012) Semantic and Associative Relations in Adolescents and Young Adults: Examining A Tenuous Dichotomy. In V. F. Reyna , S. B. Chapman , M. R. Dougherty , & J. Confrey (Eds.), The Adolescent Brain: Learning, Reasoning, and Decision Making (pp.39–66). American Psychological Association. 10.1037/13493‑002
    https://doi.org/10.1037/13493-002 [Google Scholar]
  27. Nissen, H. B. , & Henriksen, B.
    (2006) Word class influence on word association test results. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 16(3), 389–408. 10.1111/j.1473‑4192.2006.00124.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-4192.2006.00124.x [Google Scholar]
  28. Polzella, D. J. , & Rohrman, N. L.
    (1970) Psychological aspects of transitive verbs. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9(5), 537–540. 10.1016/S0022‑5371(70)80098‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(70)80098-6 [Google Scholar]
  29. Spence, D. P. , & Owens, K. C.
    (1990) Lexical co-occurrence and association strength. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 19(5), 317–330. 10.1007/BF01074363
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01074363 [Google Scholar]
  30. Theakston, A. , Lieven, E. , Pine, J. , & Rowland, C.
    (2001) The role of performance limitations in the acquisition of verb argument structure. Journal of Child Language, 28, 127–152. 10.1017/S0305000900004608
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000900004608 [Google Scholar]
  31. Thwaites, P.
    (2019a) Are Grammatical Class Effects on L1 Word Association Responses Independent of Cue Frequency, Age-of-acquisition, and Concreteness?Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics35.2, 105–33. 10.17154/kjal.2019.6.35.2.105
    https://doi.org/10.17154/kjal.2019.6.35.2.105 [Google Scholar]
  32. (2019b) “Lexical and Distributional Influences on Word Association Response Generation.” Unpublished PhD Thesis. Cardiff University.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. (Submitted). What explains weak correlations between word association and corpus co-occurrence?Manuscript submitted for publication.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. van Heuven, W. J. B. , Mandera, P. , Keuleers, E. , & Brysbaert, M.
    (2014) SUBTLEX-UK: A new and improved word frequency database for British English. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006), 67(January 2015), 1176–1190. 10.1080/17470218.2013.850521
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.850521 [Google Scholar]
  35. Vivas, L. , Manoiloff, L. , García, A. M. , Lizarralde, F. , & Vivas, J.
    (2019) Core Semantic Links or Lexical Associations: Assessing the Nature of Responses in Word Association Tasks. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 48(1), 243–256. 10.1007/s10936‑018‑9601‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-018-9601-8 [Google Scholar]
  36. Wettler, M. , Rapp, R. , & Sedlmeier, P.
    (2005) Free Word Associations Correspond to Contiguities Between Words in Texts*. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 12(2–3), 111–122. 10.1080/09296170500172403
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09296170500172403 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20019.thw
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20019.thw
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): co-occurrence; grammatical class; semantics; transitivity; word association
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error