1887
Volume 16, Issue 2-3
  • ISSN 1871-1340
  • E-ISSN: 1871-1375
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Collocations are words associated because of their frequent co-occurrence, which makes them predictable and leads to facilitated processing. While there have been suggestions that collocations are stored as unanalysed chunks, other researchers disagree. One of the arguments against holistic storage is the fact that collocations are not fixed phrases, for example, their word order can vary. To explore whether reversed collocations retain the processing advantage that they have in their canonical form, we conducted two primed lexical decision experiments: Experiment 1 in English, and Experiment 2 in Lithuanian, an understudied language. We presented both forward and backward collocations and compared them to matched control phrases. We also explored which collocational measure (phrasal frequency, MI, -score, or ΔP) worked as the best predictor of processing speed. We found a clear priming effect for both languages when collocations were presented in their forward form, which is in line with previous research. There was no priming for the backward condition in English, but a priming effect for it in Lithuanian, where the reversed word order is acceptable albeit marked. These results are not easily explained by holistic storage. As far as collocational measures are concerned, they all seem to perform reasonably well, with none of them being clearly better than the others.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20022.vil
2022-03-08
2022-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Altenberg, B.
    (1998) On the phraseology of spoken English: The evidence of recurrent word-combinations. In A. P. Cowie (Ed.), Phraseology: Theory, Analysis, and Applications (pp. 101–122). Clarendon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baayen, R. H.
    (2008) Analyzing Linguistic Data: A Practical Introduction to Statistics using R. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511801686
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511801686 [Google Scholar]
  3. Barfield, A. , & Gyllstad, H.
    (2009) Introduction: Researching L2 Collocation Knowledge and Development. In A. Barfield & H. Gyllstad (Eds.), Researching collocations in another language: Multiple interpretations (pp. 1–18). Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230245327_1
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230245327_1 [Google Scholar]
  4. Barton, K.
    (2015) MuMIn: Multi-Model Inference. R package (1.13.4) [Computer software]. CRAN.R-project.org/package=MuMIn
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bates, D. , Maechler, M. , Bolker, B. , & Walker, S.
    (2014) Lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4_. R package (1.1–7) [Computer software]. CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Biber, D. , Johansson, S. , Leech, G. , Conrad, S. , & Finegan, E.
    (1999) Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bielinskienė, A. , Boizou, L. , Bumbulienė, I. , Kovalevskaitė, J. , Krilavičius, T. , Mandravickaitė, J. , Rimkutė, E. , & Vilkaitė-Lozdienė, L.
    (2019) Lietuvių kalbos kolokacijų žodynas [elektroninis išteklius].
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bonk, W. , & Healy, A. F.
    (2005) Priming effects without semantic or associative links through collocation. 46th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Toronto, Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brezina, V. , McEnery, T. , & Wattam, S.
    (2015) Collocations in context: A new perspective on collocation networks. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 20 (2), 139–173.   10.1075/ijcl.20.2.01bre
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.20.2.01bre [Google Scholar]
  10. Caldwell-Harris, C. L. , & Morris, A. L.
    (2008) Fast Pairs: A visual word recognition paradigm for measuring entrenchment, top-down effects, and subjective phenomenology. Consciousness and Cognition, 17 (4), 1063–1081.   10.1016/j.concog.2008.09.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2008.09.004 [Google Scholar]
  11. Carrol, G. , & Conklin, K.
    (2020) Is All Formulaic Language Created Equal? Unpacking the Processing Advantage for Different Types of Formulaic Sequences. Language and Speech, 63 (1), 95–122.   10.1177/0023830918823230
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830918823230 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dahlmann, I. , & Adolphs, S.
    (2007) Pauses as an indicator of psycholinguistically valid multi-word expressions (MWEs)?MWE ’07 Proceedings of the Workshop on a Broader Perspective on Multiword Expressions, Pages49–56. 10.3115/1613704.1613711
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1613704.1613711 [Google Scholar]
  13. Diessel, H.
    (2019) The grammar network. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108671040
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108671040 [Google Scholar]
  14. Durrant, P. , & Doherty, A.
    (2010) Are high-frequency collocations psychologically real? Investigating the thesis of collocational priming. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 6 (2), 125–155.   10.1515/cllt.2010.006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2010.006 [Google Scholar]
  15. Ellis, N. C.
    (2006) Language acquisition as rational contingency learning. Applied Linguistics, 27 (1), 1–24.   10.1093/applin/ami038
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/ami038 [Google Scholar]
  16. Ellis, N. C. , & Simpson-Vlach, R.
    (2009) Formulaic language in native speakers: Triangulating psycholinguistics, corpus linguistics, and education. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 5 (1), 61–78.   10.1515/CLLT.2009.003
    https://doi.org/10.1515/CLLT.2009.003 [Google Scholar]
  17. Ervin, S. M.
    (1961) Changes with Age in the Verbal Determinants of Word-Association. The American Journal of Psychology, 74 (3), 361–372.   10.2307/1419742
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1419742 [Google Scholar]
  18. Ferraro, G. , Nazar, R. , Ramos, M. A. , & Wanner, L.
    (2014) Towards advanced collocation error correction in Spanish learner corpora. Language Resources and Evaluation, 48 (1), 45–64. 10.1007/s10579‑013‑9242‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-013-9242-3 [Google Scholar]
  19. Gablasova, D. , Brezina, V. , & McEnery, T.
    (2017) Collocations in Corpus-Based Language Learning Research: Identifying, Comparing, and Interpreting the Evidence. Language Learning, 67 (S1), 155–179.   10.1111/lang.12225
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12225 [Google Scholar]
  20. González, A. O. , & Ramos, M. A.
    (2013) A comparative study of collocations in a native corpus and a learner corpus of Spanish. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 95 , 563–570. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.683
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.683 [Google Scholar]
  21. Gries, S. Th.
    (2013) 50-something years of work on collocations: What is or should be next …. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 18 (1), 137–166.   10.1075/ijcl.18.1.09gri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.18.1.09gri [Google Scholar]
  22. Gries, S. Th. , & Ellis, N. C.
    (2015) Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics. Language Learning, 65 (S1), 228–255.   10.1111/lang.12119
    https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12119 [Google Scholar]
  23. Handl, S.
    (2008) Essential collocations for learners of English. Phraseology in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching, 43–66. 10.1075/z.138.06han
    https://doi.org/10.1075/z.138.06han [Google Scholar]
  24. Hoey, M.
    (2005) Lexical priming: A new theory of words and language. Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hunston, S.
    (2002) Pattern grammar, language teaching, and linguistic variation. In R. Reppen , S. M. Fitzmaurice , & D. Biber (Eds.), Using Corpora to Explore Linguistic Variation (pp. 167–186). John Benjamins Publishing. 10.1075/scl.9.11hun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.9.11hun [Google Scholar]
  26. Hutchison, K. A.
    (2003) Is semantic priming due to association strength or feature overlap? A microanalytic review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10 (4), 785–813. 10.3758/BF03196544
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196544 [Google Scholar]
  27. Jiang, N.
    (2013) Conducting reaction time research in second language studies. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203146255
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203146255 [Google Scholar]
  28. Jiang, N. , & Nekrasova, T. M.
    (2007) The processing of formulaic sequences by second language speakers. The Modern Language Journal, 91 (3), 433–445.   10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00589.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00589.x [Google Scholar]
  29. Jiang, S. , Jiang, X. , & Siyanova-Chanturia, A.
    (2020) The processing of multiword expressions in children and adults: An eye-tracking study of Chinese. Applied Psycholinguistics, 41 (4), 901–931. 10.1017/S0142716420000296
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716420000296 [Google Scholar]
  30. Kahan, T. A. , Neely, J. H. , & Forsythe, W. J.
    (1999) Dissociated backward priming effects in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6 (1), 105–110. 10.3758/BF03210816
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03210816 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kiss, G. R. , Milroy, C. , & Piper, J.
    (1973) An associative thesaurus of English and its computer analysis. In A. J. Aitken , R. W. Bailey , & N. Hamilton-Smith (Eds.), The Computer and Literary Studies. University Press. www.eat.rl.ac.uk/
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kuznetsova, A. , Brockhoff, P. B. , & Bojesen Christensen, B.
    (2015) lmerTest: Tests in Linear mixed effects models (2.0–29) [Computer software]. CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lemhöfer, K. , & Broersma, M.
    (2012) Introducing LexTALE: A quick and valid Lexical Test for Advanced Learners of English. Behavior Research Methods, 44 (2), 325–343.   10.3758/s13428‑011‑0146‑0
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-011-0146-0 [Google Scholar]
  34. McConnell, K. , & Blumenthal-Dramé, A.
    (2019) Effects of task and corpus-derived association scores on the online processing of collocations. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 1 (ahead-of-print).   10.1515/cllt‑2018‑0030
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt-2018-0030 [Google Scholar]
  35. McDonald, S. A. , & Shillcock, R. C.
    (2003a) Low-level predictive inference in reading: The influence of transitional probabilities on eye movements. Vision Research, 43 (16), 1735–1751.   10.1016/S0042‑6989(03)00237‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0042-6989(03)00237-2 [Google Scholar]
  36. (2003b) Eye movements reveal the on-line computation of lexical probabilities during reading. Psychological Science, 14 (6), 648–652.   10.1046/j.0956‑7976.2003.psci_1480.x
    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0956-7976.2003.psci_1480.x [Google Scholar]
  37. Molinaro, N. , Canal, P. , Vespignani, F. , Pesciarelli, F. , & Cacciari, C.
    (2013) Are complex function words processed as semantically empty strings? A reading time and ERP study of collocational complex prepositions. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28 (6), 1–27.   10.1080/01690965.2012.665465
    https://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2012.665465 [Google Scholar]
  38. Peirce, J. W.
    (2007) PsychoPy – Psychophysics software in Python. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 162 (1), 8–13.   10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.11.017
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.11.017 [Google Scholar]
  39. R Core Team
    R Core Team (2013) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. www.R-project.org
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rastle, K. , Harrington, J. , & Coltheart, M.
    (2002) 358,534 nonwords: The ARC Nonword Database. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, Human Experimental Psychology, 55 (4), 1339–1362.   10.1080/02724980244000099
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980244000099 [Google Scholar]
  41. Romero, F.
    (2019) Philosophy of science and the replicability crisis. Philosophy Compass, 14 (11), e12633.   10.1111/phc3.12633
    https://doi.org/10.1111/phc3.12633 [Google Scholar]
  42. Schmid, H.-J.
    (2017) Linguistic entrenchment and its psychological foundations. InEntrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge (pp. 435–452). De Gruyter Mouton.   10.1037/15969‑020
    https://doi.org/10.1037/15969-020 [Google Scholar]
  43. Sinclair, J.
    (1991) Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. (2004) Trust the text: Language, corpus and discourse. Routledge. 10.4324/9780203594070
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203594070 [Google Scholar]
  45. Siyanova-Chanturia, A.
    (2015a) On the ‘holistic’ nature of formulaic language: Corpus linguistics and Linguistic theory. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 11 (2), 285–301.   10.1515/cllt‑2014‑0016
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt-2014-0016 [Google Scholar]
  46. (2015b) Collocation in beginner learner writing: A longitudinal study. System, 53 , 148–160.   10.1016/j.system.2015.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  47. Siyanova-Chanturia, A. , & Martinez, R.
    (2015) The idiom principle revisited. Applied Linguistics, 549–569.   10.1093/applin/amt054
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amt054 [Google Scholar]
  48. Sonbul, S.
    (2015) Fatal mistake, awful mistake, or extreme mistake? Frequency effects on off-line/on-line collocational processing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 18 (03), 419–437.   10.1017/S1366728914000674
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728914000674 [Google Scholar]
  49. Spina, S.
    (2010) The Dici Project: Towards a Dictionary of Italian Collocations integrated with an online language learning platform. ELexicography in the 21st Century: New Challenges, New Applications, 273.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Thompson-Schill, S. L. , Kurtz, K. J. , & Gabrieli, J. D.
    (1998) Effects of semantic and associative relatedness on automatic priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 38 (4), 440–458. 10.1006/jmla.1997.2559
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1997.2559 [Google Scholar]
  51. Underwood, G. , Schmitt, N. , & Galpin, A.
    (2004) The eyes have it. An eye-movement study into the processing of formulaic sequences. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), Formulaic Sequences: Acquisition, Processing, and Use (pp. 153–172). John Benjamins Publishing. 10.1075/lllt.9.09und
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.9.09und [Google Scholar]
  52. Utka, A. ; Rimkutė, E. ; Kovalevskaitė, J. ; Bielinskienė, A. ; Petkevičius, M. ; Petrauskaitė, R. , & Mikelionienė, J.
    (2017) Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian Language, CLARIN-LT digital library in the Republic of Lithuania, hdl.handle.net/20.500.11821/16.
  53. Vilkaitė, L.
    (2016) Are non-adjacent collocations processed faster?Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42 (10), 1632–1642.   10.1037/xlm0000259
    https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000259 [Google Scholar]
  54. Vilkaitė-Lozdienė, L.
    (2019) First steps towards the Lithuanian word association database. Taikomoji kalbotyra, 12, 226–258.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Wolter, B. , & Gyllstad, H.
    (2011) Collocational links in the L2 mental lexicon and the influence of L1 intralexical knowledge. Applied Linguistics, 32 (4), 430–449.   10.1093/applin/amr011
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amr011 [Google Scholar]
  56. (2013) Frequency of input and L2 collocational processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (03), 451–482.   10.1017/S0272263113000107
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263113000107 [Google Scholar]
  57. Wray, A.
    (2002) Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511519772
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511519772 [Google Scholar]
  58. (2012) What do we (think we) know about formulaic language? An evaluation of the current state of play. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 32 , 231–254.   10.1017/S026719051200013X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S026719051200013X [Google Scholar]
  59. Zhao, L. , Yasunaga, D. , & Kojima, H.
    (2021) Similarities and differences between native and non-native speakers’ processing of formulaic sequences: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) study. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 50 (2), 397–416.   10.1007/s10936‑019‑09655‑w
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-019-09655-w [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20022.vil
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ml.20022.vil
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): collocation processing; collocations; mental lexicon; word order
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error