1887
Volume 11, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2210-4070
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4097
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

In order to understand the process of learning new languages as adults, we need to take into account learners’ past experiences with all of their language(s), as such experiences shape attitudes and conceptualizations. In this paper, we present an analysis of metaphorical expressions in the narrated linguistic biographies of (former) refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in Norway. The participants speak a multitude of languages, e.g., different local Congolese languages, Congolese national languages (Lingala or Swahili), French (the official language of the DRC), in addition to Norwegian (the language of the host society). Attention is paid to how the participants’ expressions align with conceptual metaphors emerged from work in Cognitive Linguistics, such as , and , as well as specifications and . We argue that awareness of conceptualizations of ‘language’ can contribute to the development of language training pedagogies that better reflect learners’ past experiences.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/msw.00021.gol
2021-10-12
2021-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ahlgren, K.
    (2014) Narrativa identiteter och levande metaforer i ett andraspråksperspektiv. [Narrative identities and living metaphors from a second language perspective] (PhD thesis). Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. (2020) ”Un voyage sans fin”: expressions métaphoriques et mudes linguistiques de nouveau locuteurs suédois, Language et société, 170(2), 209–128. 10.3917/ls.170.0109
    https://doi.org/10.3917/ls.170.0109 [Google Scholar]
  3. Axelsson, M. & Magnusson, U.
    (2012) Forskning om flerspråkighet och kunskapsutveckling under skolåren. [Research on multilingualism and knowledge development during the school years]. InK. Hyltenstam, M. Axelsson & I. Lindberg (Eds.), Flerspråkighet – en forskningsöversikt [Multilingualism – a research overview] (pp.247–367). Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bas, M. & Gezegin, B. B.
    (2017) Metaphors of English as a foreign language. Global Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 7(1), 2–8. 10.18844/gjflt.v7i1.2403
    https://doi.org/10.18844/gjflt.v7i1.2403 [Google Scholar]
  5. Berthele, R.
    (2002) Attitudes and mental models of language: on the cognitive foundation of sociolinguistic practice. Målbryting, 6, 25–66.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. (2008) A nation is a territory with one culture and one language: The role of metaphorical folk models in language policy debates. InG. Kristiansen & R. Dirven (Eds.), Cognitive Sociolinguistics: language variation, cultural models, social systems (pp.301–332). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199154.3.301
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199154.3.301 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bourdieu, P.
    (1980) Le sens pratique. Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cameron, L.
    (2008) Metaphor and talk. InR. W. Gibbs, The Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought (pp.197–211). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511816802.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816802.013 [Google Scholar]
  9. Canagarajah, S.
    (2007) Lingua franca English, Multilingual Communities, and Language Acquistion. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 923–939. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00678.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00678.x [Google Scholar]
  10. (2013) Translingual practice: Global Englishes and cosmopolitan relations. Oxford: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203120293
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203120293 [Google Scholar]
  11. Chartris-Black, J.
    (2004) Corpus approaches to critical metaphor analysis. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9780230000612
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230000612 [Google Scholar]
  12. Coratazzi, M. & Jin, L.
    (2014) Building bridges, using weapons or making music together? Metaphoric (re)framing in international language learning. InX. Dai & G.-M. Chen (Eds.), Intercultural Communication Competence: Conceptualization and Its Development in Cultural Contexts and Interactions (pp.239–260). Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (2020) Elicited metaphor analysis: researching teaching and learning. InM.ȂR.ȂM. Ward & S. Delamont (Eds.), Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education 2nd edition (pp.288–505). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub. 10.4337/9781788977159.00054
    https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788977159.00054 [Google Scholar]
  14. Council of Europe
    Council of Europe (2001) Common European framework of reference for languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Darvin, R. & Norton, B.
    (2015) Investment and language learning in the 21th century. Language et société, 3(157), 19–38. 10.3917/ls.157.0019
    https://doi.org/10.3917/ls.157.0019 [Google Scholar]
  16. Deignan, A.
    (2005) A corpus-linguistic perspective on the relationship between metonymy and metaphor. Style, 39(1), 72–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. (2010) The evaluative properties of metaphors. InA. Deignan, L. Cameron, G. Low & Z. Todd (Eds), Researching and Applying Metaphor in the Real World (pp.357–374). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hcp.26.21dei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.26.21dei [Google Scholar]
  18. Ellis, R.
    (2001) The metaphorical constructions of second language learners. InM. P. Breen (Ed.), Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research (pp.65–68). Harlow: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Evans, V., & Green, M. C.
    (2006) Cognitive linguistics: an introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Frezza, G. & Gagliasso, E.
    (2017) Building metaphors: Constitutive narratives in science. InF. Ervas, E. Gola & M. G. Rossi (Eds.), Metaphor in Communication, Science and Education (pp.199–216). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110549928‑012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110549928-012 [Google Scholar]
  21. Geeraerts, D.
    (2003) Cultural models of linguistic standardization. InR. Dirven, R. M. Frank & M. Pütz (Eds.), Cognitive models in language and thought. Ideology, metaphors and meanings (pp.25–68). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110892901.25
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110892901.25 [Google Scholar]
  22. Geeraerts, D. & Cuyckens, H.
    (Eds.) (2010) Introducing Cognitive Linguistics. The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199738632.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199738632.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gibbs, R. W.
    (1994) The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Golden, A., Jarvis, S. & Tenfjord, K.
    (2017) “Evaluation of Texts in Tests, or: Where is the dog buried?” (2017) InA. Golden, S. Jarvis & K. Tenfjord (Eds.), Crosslinguistic Influence and Distinctive Patterns of Language Learning: Findings and Insights from a learner corpus (pp.231–271). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783098774‑011
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783098774-011 [Google Scholar]
  25. Golden, A. & Kulbrandstad, L. A.
    (2018) “A1, A2, B1 … – “den nye tellemåten” på språklæringsfeltet. [A1, A2, B1….”the new way of counting” in the field of language learning]. InA.ȂM.ȂV. Danbolt, G. T. Alstad, G. T. Randen (Eds.), Litterasitet og flerspråklighet: Muligheter og utfordringer for barnehage, skole og lærerutdanning [Literacy and multilingualism: Possibilities and challenges for kindergarden, school and teacher education] (pp.237–260). Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (2021) When errors are corrected. InA. Golden, L. A. Kulbrandstad & L. J. Zhang (Eds), Crossing Borders, Writing Texts, Being Evaluated: Cultural and Disciplinary Norms in Academic Writing. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Golden, A. & Lanza, E.
    (2013) Metaphors of culture: Identity construction in migrants’ narrative discourse. Intercultural Pragmatics, 2, 295–314. 10.1515/ip‑2013‑0013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ip-2013-0013 [Google Scholar]
  28. Hanna, M. & Kaal, A. A.
    (2019) Looking at both narrative and metaphor in education. InM. Hanna & A. A. Kaal (Eds.) Narrative and metaphor in education (pp.3–17). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Irvine, J. & S. Gal
    (2000) Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. InP. Kroskrity (Ed.), Regimes of language: ideologies, polities, and identities, (pp.35–83). Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Jarvis, S.
    (2000) Methodological Rigor in the Study of Transfer: Identifying L1 Influence in them Interlanguage Lexicon. Language Learning, 50(2), 245–309. 10.1111/0023‑8333.00118
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00118 [Google Scholar]
  31. Jarvis, S. & Pavlenko, A.
    (2008) Crosslinguistic influence in language and cognition. New York/London: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203935927
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203935927 [Google Scholar]
  32. Koller, V.
    (2008) Brother in arms. Contradictory metaphors in contemporary marketing discource. InM. S. Zanotto, L. Cameron & M. C. Cavalcanti (Eds.), Confronting Metaphor in Use. An applied linguistic approach (pp.103–125). John Benjamins Publishing Company. 10.1075/pbns.173.08kol
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.173.08kol [Google Scholar]
  33. Kövecses, Z.
    (2002) Metaphor. A Practical Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Kramsch, C.
    (2003) Metaphor and the subjective construction of belief. InP. Kalaja & A.ȂM.ȂF. Barcelos (Eds.). Beliefs about SLA: New research approaches (pp.109–128). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 10.1007/978‑1‑4020‑4751‑0_5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-4751-0_5 [Google Scholar]
  35. (2009) The multilingual subject: What foreign language learners say about their experience and why it matters. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Lakoff, G.
    (1992) The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. InA. Ortony (Ed), Metaphor and thought. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lakoff, G. and M. Johnson
    (1980) Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (1999) Philosophy in the Flesh. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Lakoff, G. & Turner, M.
    (1989) More Than Cool Reason. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  40. Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L.
    (2006) Sociocultural theory and the genesis of L2 development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Littlemore, J.
    (2004) Conceptual metaphor as a vehicle for promoting critical thinking skills amongst international students. InL. Sheldon (Ed.), Directions for the future: Directions in English for academic purposes (pp.43–50). Oxford: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Nekvapil, J.
    (2003) Language biographies and the analysis of language situations: On the life of the German community in the Czech Republic. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 165, 63–83. 10.1515/ijsl.2003.038
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.2003.038 [Google Scholar]
  43. Norton, B.
    (2013) Identity and Language Learning: Extending the Conversation. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781783090563
    https://doi.org/10.21832/9781783090563 [Google Scholar]
  44. Norton Pierce, B.
    (1995) Social identity, investment, and language learning. TESOL Quarterly29, 9–31. 10.2307/3587803
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587803 [Google Scholar]
  45. Oxford, R., Tomlinson, S., Barcelos, A., Harrington, C., Lavine, R. Z., Saleh, A., & Longhini, A.
    (1998) Clashing metaphors about classroom teachers: Toward a systematic typology for the language teaching field. System, 26(1), 3–50. 10.1016/S0346‑251X(97)00071‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(97)00071-7 [Google Scholar]
  46. Pennycook, A. & Makoni, S.
    (2019) Innovations and Challenges in Applied Linguistics from the Global South. Oxford: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429489396
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429489396 [Google Scholar]
  47. Polzenhagen, F. & Dirvin, R.
    (2008) Rationalist or romantic models in globalization. InG. Kristiansen and R. Dirven: Cognitive Sociolinguistics: Language Variation, Cultural Models, Social Systems (pp.237–300). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199154.3.237
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199154.3.237 [Google Scholar]
  48. Pragglegaz Group
    Pragglegaz Group (2007) MIP: A Method for Identifying Metaphorically Used Words in Discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 22(1), 1–39. 10.1080/10926480709336752
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480709336752 [Google Scholar]
  49. Schmid, M.
    (2011) Language attrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511852046
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511852046 [Google Scholar]
  50. Scollon, R. & Scollon, S. W.
    (2007) Nexus analysis: Refocusing ethnography on action. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 11(5), 608–625. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2007.00342.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2007.00342.x [Google Scholar]
  51. Seargeant, P.
    (2009) Metaphors of possession in the conceptualisation of language. Language and communication, 29(4), 383–393. 10.1016/j.langcom.2009.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2009.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  52. Steien, G. B.
    (2018) Jeg vil helst snakke norsk på norsk. Valg og begrensning i andrespråksfonologi. [I’d rather speak Norwegian in Norwegian. Choice and limitation in second language phonology]. InA.-K. Gujord & G. T. Randen (Eds.), Norsk som andrespråk. Perspektiver på læring og utvikling [Norwegian as a second language. Perspectives on learning and development] (pp.214–234). Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. (2019) “Je ne veux pas détruire la société norvégienne en introduisant le français”. Le français mis en récit par des migrants congolais en Norvège. Langue française, 202(2), 107–122. 10.3917/lf.202.0107
    https://doi.org/10.3917/lf.202.0107 [Google Scholar]
  54. (2021) Morsmål, navngitte språk, språklige repertoarer og transspråking: om språkbakgrunnene til voksne som lærer norsk. [Mother tongue, named languages, linguistic repertoires and translanguaging: about the language backgrounds of adults learning Norwegian]. InM. Monsen & V. Pajaro (Eds.), Andrespråkslæring hos voksne. Vitenskapelige innsikter og didaktiske refleksjoner [Second language learning in adults. Scientific insights and didactic reflections] (pp.29–46). Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Van Lier, L.
    (2004) The ecology and semiotics of language learning: a sociocultural perspective. Boston: Kluwer Academic. 10.1007/1‑4020‑7912‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-7912-5 [Google Scholar]
  56. Vukotić, V.
    (2014) Conflicting notions of language in metalinguistic discourses in Lithuania, Norway and Serbia. Taikomoji kalbotyra, (5), taikomojikalbotyra.lt
    [Google Scholar]
  57. (2016) What does “language” mean for its users? Constructing a theoretical model of a notion of language in the public space. Taikomoji kalbotyra, (8), taikomojikalbotyra.lt
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Wan, Wan
    (2012) Using Metaphorical Conceptualisation to Construct and Develop ESL Students’ Writing: An Exploratory Study (PhD thesis). The University of York, York, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Wan, W., Low, G. D. & Li, M.
    (2011) From students’ and teachers’ perspectives: Metaphor analysis of beliefs about EFL teachers’ roles. System, 39(3), 403–415. 10.1016/j.system.2011.07.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2011.07.012 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/msw.00021.gol
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/msw.00021.gol
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error