1887
Volume 9, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2210-4070
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4097
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Across languages, the head and sexualized body parts (i.e., vagina, breasts, penis, testicles) are conceptualized in a number of ways, for example as fruits and vegetables: heads are conceptualized as cabbages, vaginas as figs, breasts as melons, penises as carrots, and testicles as olives, to only name a few. The present study draws on the theories of conceptual metaphor and metonymy by Lakoff & Johnson (1980) to analyze the conceptualizations of the five body parts as fruits and vegetables in English, Spanish and French. For this purpose, a slang dictionary-based database of 184 conceptualizations was compiled. Research on the head and sexualized body parts is particularly interesting as they represent the core of intellect and sexuality respectively, which makes them prone to being conceptualized in a variety of expressive and euphemistic ways. The results of the present study show that female body parts are primarily conceptualized as sweet fruits, while the penis as well as the head are mostly understood of as savory vegetables. This finding suggests a case of gender stereotyping, whereby sweet-natured women are denied intelligence as the head is stereotypically seen as a male body part (i.e., as a savory vegetable).

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/msw.18007.dzi
2019-11-05
2020-01-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aerts, D., Broekaert, J., Gabora, L., & Sozzo, S.
    (2016) Generalizing prototype theory: A formal quantum framework. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(418). [doi:  10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00418]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00418/full
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00418 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allan, K., & Burridge, K.
    (2008) Forbidden words: Taboo and the censoring of language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barrett, L. F., & Bliss-Moreau, E.
    (2009) She’s emotional. He’s having a bad day: Attributional explanations for emotion stereotypes. Emotion, 9(5), 649–658. 10.1037/a0016821
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016821 [Google Scholar]
  4. Blank, A.
    (1998) Der ‘Kopf’ in der Romania und Anderswo: Ein metaphorisches (und metonymisches) Expansions- und Attraktionszentrum. InA. Gil & C. Schmitt (Eds.), Kognitive und kommunikative Dimensionen der Metaphorik in den romanischen Sprachen (pp.11–32). Bonn: Romanistischer Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bob: Dictionnaire d’argot, de français familier et de français populaire
    Bob: Dictionnaire d’argot, de français familier et de français populaire (2018) Retrieved fromwww.languefrancaise.net/Bob/Introduction
  6. Boroditsky, L., Schmidt, L. A., & Phillips, W.
    (2003) Sex, syntax, and semantics. InD. Gentner & S. Goldin-Meadow (Eds.), Language in mind: Advances in the study of language and cognition (pp.61–80). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Braun, V., & Kitzinger, C.
    (2001) ‘Snatch,’ ‘hole,’ or ‘honeypot’? Semantic categories and the problem of nonspecificity in female genital slang. The Journal of Sex Research, 38(2), 146–158. 10.1080/00224490109552082
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490109552082 [Google Scholar]
  8. Cameron, D.
    (1992) Naming of parts: Gender, culture, and terms for the penis among American college students. American Speech, 67(4), 367–382. 10.2307/455846
    https://doi.org/10.2307/455846 [Google Scholar]
  9. Crawley, S. L., Shehan, C. L., & Foley, L. J.
    (2008) Creating a world of dichotomy: Categorizing sex and gendering cultural messages. InS. L. Crawley, L. J. Foley & C. L. Shehan (Eds.), Gendering bodies (pp.1–36). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Crespo-Fernández, E.
    (2008) Sex-related euphemism and dysphemism: An analysis in terms of conceptual metaphor theory. Journal of the Spanish Association of Anglo-American Studies, 30(2), 95–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (2011) Conceptual metaphors in taboo-induced lexical variation. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 24, 53–71. 10.14198/raei.2011.24.03
    https://doi.org/10.14198/raei.2011.24.03 [Google Scholar]
  12. (2015) Sex in language: Euphemistic and dysphemistic metaphors in internet forums. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Deignan, A.
    (2010) The cognitive view of metaphor: Conceptual metaphor theory. InL. Cameron & R. Maslen (Eds.), Metaphor analysis: Research practice in Applied Linguistics, Social Sciences and the Humanities (pp.44–56). London: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Eckes, T.
    (2010) Geschlechterstereotype: Von Rollen, Identitäten und Vorurteilen. In: R. Becker & B. Kortendiek (Eds.), Handbuch Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung: Theorie, Methoden, Empirie (pp.178–189). Wiesbaden: Springer. 10.1007/978‑3‑531‑92041‑2_21
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-92041-2_21 [Google Scholar]
  15. Fernández Martín, C.
    (2011) Comparing sexist expressions in English and Spanish: (De)-constructing sexism through language. ES: Revista de Filología Inglesa, 32, 67–90.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Forceville, C.
    (2006) Non-verbal and multimodal metaphor in a cognitivistic framework: Agendas for research. In: G. Christiansen, M. Achard, R. Dirven & F. J. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez (Eds), Cognitive linguistics: Current applications and future perspectives (pp.379–402). Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gibbs, R. W.
    (Ed.) (2008) The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511816802
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816802 [Google Scholar]
  18. Gibbs, R. W., Lima, P. L. C., & Francozo, E.
    (2004) Metaphor is grounded in embodied experience. Journal of Pragmatics: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language Studies, 36(7), 1189–1210. 10.1016/j.pragma.2003.10.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2003.10.009 [Google Scholar]
  19. Goossens, L.
    (1990) Metaphtonymy: The interaction of metaphor and metonymy in expressions for linguistic action. Cognitive Linguistics, 1(3), 323–340. 10.1515/cogl.1990.1.3.323
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.1990.1.3.323 [Google Scholar]
  20. Grice, H. P.
    (1975) Logic and conversation. In: P. Cole & J. L. Morgan (Eds.), Speech acts (pp.41–58). New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gutiérrez Pérez, R.
    (2008) A cross-cultural analysis of heart metaphors. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, 21, 25–56. 10.14198/raei.2008.21.03
    https://doi.org/10.14198/raei.2008.21.03 [Google Scholar]
  22. Hines, C.
    (1999) Rebaking the pie: The woman as dessert metaphor. InM. Bucholtz, A. C. Liang & L. A. Sutton (Eds.), Reinventing identities: The gendered self in discourse (pp.145–162). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kövecses, Z.
    (2000) Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2002) Metaphor: A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (2010) Metaphor and culture. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica, 2(2), 197–220.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Kövecses, Z., & Radden, G.
    (1998) Metonymy: Developing a cognitive linguistic view. Cognitive Linguistics, 9(1), 37–78. 10.1515/cogl.1998.9.1.37
    https://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.1998.9.1.37 [Google Scholar]
  27. Kromhout, R., & Forceville, C.
    (2013) Life is a journey: Source-path-goal structure in the videogames “Half-life 2”, “Heavy rain”, and “Grim fandango”. Metaphor and the Social World, 3(1), 100–116. 10.1075/msw.3.1.05for
    https://doi.org/10.1075/msw.3.1.05for [Google Scholar]
  28. Lakoff, G.
    (1993) The contemporary theory of metaphor. InA. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp.202–251). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173865.013 [Google Scholar]
  29. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M.
    (1980) Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lakoff, G., & Turner, M.
    (1989) More than cool reason: A field guide to poetic metaphor. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226470986.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  32. Lovejoy, A. O.
    (1936) The great chain of being: A study of the history of an idea. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mumford, L.
    (1947) Technics and civilization. New York: Harcourt Brace.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Murphy, P. F.
    (2001) Studs, tools, and the family jewels: Metaphors men live by. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Niemeier, S.
    (2008) To be in control: Kind-hearted and cool-headed. The head-heart dichotomy in English. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.349–372). Berlin: de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Odebunmi, A.
    (2010) Ideology and body part metaphors in Nigerian English. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 8(2), 272–299. 10.1075/rcl.8.2.02ode
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.8.2.02ode [Google Scholar]
  37. Partridge, E.
    (2013) The new Partridge dictionary of slang and unconventional English. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Petrides, K. V., Furnham, A., & Martin, G. N.
    (2004) Estimates of emotional and psychometric intelligence: Evidence for gender-based stereotypes. The Journal of Social Psychology, 144(2), 149–162. 10.3200/SOCP.144.2.149‑162
    https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.144.2.149-162 [Google Scholar]
  39. Pragglejaz Group
    Pragglejaz Group (2007) MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse, Metaphor and Symbol, 22(1), 1–39. 10.1080/10926480709336752
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480709336752 [Google Scholar]
  40. Radtke, E.
    (1980) Typologie des sexuell-erotischen Vokabulars des heutigen Italienisch: Studien zur Bestimmung der Wortfelder PROSTITUTA und MEMBRO VIRILE unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der übrigen romanischen Sprachen. Tübingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rodríguez González, F.
    (2011) Diccionario del sexo y el erotismo. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Romaine, S.
    (1999) Communicating gender. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sharifian, F., Dirven, R., Yu, N., & Niemeier, S.
    (2008) Culture and language: Looking for the ‘mind’ inside the body. InF. Sharifian, R. Dirven, N. Yu & S. Niemeier (Eds.), Culture, body, and language: Conceptualizations of internal body organs across cultures and languages (pp.3–26). Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110199109.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199109.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  44. Sommer, R.
    (1988) The personality of vegetables: Botanical metaphors for human characteristics. Journal of Personality, 56(4), 665–683. 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.1988.tb00471.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1988.tb00471.x [Google Scholar]
  45. Spang, L.
    (2011) Fruits and culture: A preliminary examination of food-for-sex metaphors in English-language Caribbean music [Article on website]. Retrieved fromhttps://folkloreforum.net/2011/03/21/fruits-and-culture-a-preliminary-examination-of-food-for-sex-metaphors-in-english-language-caribbean-music/
  46. Sutton, L. A.
    (1995) Bitches and skankly hobags: The place of women in contemporary slang. InK. Hall & M. Bucholtz (Eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self (pp.279–296). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Thompson, F. E., Willis, G. B., Thompson, O. M., & Yaroch, A. L.
    (2011) The meaning of ‘fruits’ and ‘vegetables’. Public Health Nutrition, 14(7), 1222–1228. 10.1017/S136898001000368X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001000368X [Google Scholar]
  48. TuBabel
    TuBabel (2017) Retrieved fromwww.tubabel.com/
  49. Vainio, H., & Bianchini, F.
    (2003) Definitions and classifications for fruit and vegetables. InH. Vainio & F. Bianchini (Eds.), IARC handbook of cancer prevention 8 (pp.1–21). Lyon: The Agency.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Vonk, R., & Ashmore, R. D.
    (2003) Thinking about gender types: Cognitive organization of female and male types. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 257–280. 10.1348/014466603322127247
    https://doi.org/10.1348/014466603322127247 [Google Scholar]
  51. von Stumm, S., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A.
    (2011) Decomposing self-estimates of intelligence: Structure and sex differences across 12 nations. British Journal of Psychology, 100(2), 429–442. 10.1348/000712608X357876
    https://doi.org/10.1348/000712608X357876 [Google Scholar]
  52. Yu, N.
    (2003) Metaphor, body, and culture: The Chinese understanding of gallbladder and courage. Metaphor and Symbol, 18(1), 13–31. 10.1207/S15327868MS1801_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1801_2 [Google Scholar]
  53. (2009) The Chinese HEART in a cognitive perspective: Culture, body, and language. Berlin: de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110213348
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110213348 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/msw.18007.dzi
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/msw.18007.dzi
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): body part metaphors , dictionary search , English , French , fruits and vegetables , gender stereotypes and Spanish
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error