1887
Volume 6, Issue 2
  • ISSN 2210-4070
  • E-ISSN: 2210-4097
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

After the 2013 coup d’état in Egypt, the Egyptian media launched strenuous campaigns against the Muslim Brotherhood and the West. In this paper, I present a cognitive analysis of a multimodal text of a cartoon with labels, with the goal of gauging its social/political impact. Crucially, the cartoon ‘frames’ its message so strongly that even if the viewer is not a speaker of Arabic and all verbal elements in the cartoon are to be erased, he or she (with certain ‘general’ background knowledge) will probably be able to read its moral message. For the analysis, I employ Fauconnier and Turner’s (1998) conceptual blending theory. The analysis shows that metaphoric blends do not just surface in public discourse. Rather, they can have a strong influence on how people perceive political issues.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/msw.6.2.06abd
2016-10-14
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abdel-Raheem, A
    (2013a, August19). Framing the protester. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved fromwww.jpost.com/Opinion/Columnists/Framing-the-protester-323621
    [Google Scholar]
  2. (2013b) Metaphor of the global financial crisis after 2008: Reconstructing confidence by Arab and Western financial medias. Sciences de la Société, 88, 161–182.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (2013c, May20). The American frienemy. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved fromwww.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed.../The-American-frienemy-313755
    [Google Scholar]
  4. (2013d, August17). US-Zionist-Muslim-Brotherhood conspiracy in Egypt?The Commentator. Retrieved fromwww.thecommentator.com/article/4061/us_zionist_muslim_brotherhood_conspiracy_in_egypt
    [Google Scholar]
  5. (2015) Messaging battles in the Eurozone crisis discourse: A critical cognitive study. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Lodz, Poland.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ackerman, S
    (2013, August15). Reluctance to suspend Egyptian aid exposes White House rudderlessness. The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/15/egyptian-aid-white-house-rudderlessness
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Al-Anani, K
    (2014, August14). The tragedy of Rabaa. Al-Jazeera. Retrieved fromwww.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/08/tragedy-rabaa-20148149366293741.html
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bare, W
    (2001) Do you still believe in the devil?Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Beeman, W
    (2008) The great Satan vs. the mad Mullahs: How the United States and Iran demonize each other. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bennis, P
    (2003) Before and after: US foreign policy and the September 11th crisis. New York: Oliver Branch Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Berberović, S
    (2013) Magic tricks with race cards: Conceptual integration theory and political discourse. Jezikoslovlje, 14(2–3), 307–321.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Black, I
    (2013) Furious Egyptians vent anger against western ‘conspiracies.’The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/18/us-britain-israel-plotting-egypt
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Black, I. , & Kingsley, P
    (2013) Egypt: Resentment towards Brotherhood fuels crackdown support. The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/16/egypt-nationalism-muslim-brotherhood-crackdown
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Brandt, L
    (2013) The communicative mind: A linguistic exploration of conceptual integration and meaning construction. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Burgers, C. , Van Mulken, M. , & Schellens, P.J
    (2013) On irony, images and creativity: A corpus-analytic approach. In T. Veale , K. Feyaerts , & C.J. Forceville (Eds.), Creativity and the agile mind: A multidisciplinary approach to a multifaceted phenomenon(pp.293–311). Berlin: Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Campbell, A. , & Purcell, J
    (1837) A debate on the Roman catholic religion. Cincinnati, OH: J. A. James & Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Charteris-Black, J
    (2011) Politicians and rhetoric: The persuasive power of metaphor (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230319899
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230319899 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chval, L
    (2015, June11). OITNB episode 2 recap: Who’s badder than bed bugs?Redeye. Retrieved fromwww.redeyechicago.com/tv/redeye-oitnb-episode-2-recap-whos-badder-than-bed-bugs-20150611-column.html
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cirlot, J
    (1971) A dictionary of symbols. New York: Philosophical Library.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Coulson, S
    (1997) Semantic leaps: the role of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in meaning construction. Doctoral thesis. University of California San Diego.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (2001) Semantic leaps: Frame-shifting and conceptual blending in meaning construction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511551352
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551352 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2003) Reasoning and rhetoric: Conceptual blending in political and religious rhetoric. In E. Oleksy & B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (Eds.), Research and scholarship in integration processes (pp.59–88). Lodz, Poland: Lodz University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. (2006) Conceptual blending in thought, rhetoric, and ideology. In G. Kristiansen & R. Dirven (Eds.), Cognitive linguistics: Current applications and future perspectives (pp.187–210). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. (2008) Framing and blending in persuasive discourse. In R.R. Favretti (Ed.), Frames, corpora, and knowledge representation (pp.33–42). Bologna: Bononia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Coulson, S. , & Oakley, T
    (2000) Blending basics. Cognitive Linguistics, 11, 175–196.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. (2006) Purple persuasion: Conceptual blending and deliberative rhetoric. In J. Luchenbroers (Ed.), Cognitive linguistics: Investigations across languages, fields, and philosophical boundaries (pp.47–65). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/hcp.15.06cou
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hcp.15.06cou [Google Scholar]
  27. Creed, B
    (1990) Phallic panic: Male hysteria and Dead Ringers . Screen, 31(2), 125–146Retrieved fromwww.filmfilm.be/post/37180435772/phalic-panic-male-hysteria-and-dead-ringers-by. doi: 10.1093/screen/31.2.125
    https://doi.org/10.1093/screen/31.2.125 [Google Scholar]
  28. Curtis, M
    (2010) Secret affairs: Britain’s collusion with radical Islam. London: Serpent’s Tail.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (2011) Britain’s collusion with radical Islam. London: Serpent’s Tail.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Delbanco, A
    (1995) The death of Satan: How Americans have lost the sense of evil. Washington Post. Retrieved fromwww.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/deathof.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  31. El-Nimnim, E
    (2011) The Hassan el Banna whom nobody knows. Cairo: Madbouli Publisher.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fauconnier, G
    (1994) Mental spaces: Aspects of meaning construction in natural language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511624582
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511624582 [Google Scholar]
  33. (1997) Mappings in thought and language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139174220
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174220 [Google Scholar]
  34. Fauconnier, G. , & Sweetser, E
    (Eds.) (1996) Spaces, worlds, and grammar. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Fauconnier, G. , & Turner, M
    (1998) Conceptual integration networks. Cognitive Science, 22, 133–187. doi: 10.1207/s15516709cog2202_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog2202_1 [Google Scholar]
  36. (2000) Compression and global insight. Cognitive Linguistics, 11(3–4), 83–304.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. (2002) The way we think: Conceptual blending and the mind’s hidden complexities. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (2003) Conceptual blending, form and meaning. Recherches en communication: Sémiotique Cognitive, 19, 57–86Retrieved fromtecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/maltt/cofor-1/textes/Fauconnier-Turner03.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2006) Conceptual integration networks. In D. Geeraerts (Ed.), Cognitive linguistics: Basic readings (pp.303–372). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110199901.303
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110199901.303 [Google Scholar]
  40. Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M
    (2008) The origin of language as a product of the evolution of human cognition. In B. Baks , S. Cleuziou , J.-P. Demoule & P. Encrevé (Eds.)Origin and evolution of languages: Approaches, models, paradigms. pp.133–156. London: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Ferguson, C.J
    (2009) An effect size primer: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40 (5), 532–538. doi: 10.1037/a0015808
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015808 [Google Scholar]
  42. Finnegan, S
    (2002) Middle Eastern oil: A historical perspective and outlook. Free Public. Retrieved fromwww.freerepublic.com/focus/news/918168/posts
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Forceville, C
    (2004) Review of Fauconnier and Turner (2002). Metaphor and Symbol, 19, 83–89. doi: 10.1207/S15327868MS1901_5
    https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327868MS1901_5 [Google Scholar]
  44. (2013) Metaphor and symbol: SEARCHING FOR ONE’S IDENTITY IS LOOKING FOR A HOME in animation film. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 11 (2), 250–268. doi: 10.1075/rcl.11.2.03for
    https://doi.org/10.1075/rcl.11.2.03for [Google Scholar]
  45. Gilliat-Ray, S
    (2010) Muslims in Britain: An introduction. New York: Cambridge University press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511780233
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511780233 [Google Scholar]
  46. Goldberg, J
    (1997) Under the covers with Caliban. In D. Greetham (Ed.), The margins of the text (pp.105–128). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Grady, J. , Oakley, T. , & Coulson S
    (1999) Blending and metaphor. In Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr. , & Gerard J. Steen (Eds.), Metaphor in cognitive linguistics (pp.101–124). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.175.07gra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.175.07gra [Google Scholar]
  48. Harap, L
    (1987) Creative awakening: The Jewish presence in twentieth-century American literature, 1990-1940s. New York & Westport: Greenwood.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hauslohner, A
    (2014, March18). Egypt’s ‘Military Inc’ expands its control of the economy. The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/18/egypt-military-economy-power-elections
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hearst, D
    (2013, August20). Why Saudi Arabia is taking risk by backing Egyptian coup. The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/aug/20/saudi-arabia-coup-egypt
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hudson, J
    (2013, July10). US now blamed for undermining and supporting Egypt’s coup. Foreign Policy. Retrieved fromforeignpolicy.com/2013/07/10/u-s-now-blamed-for-undermining-and-supporting-egypts-coup/
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kingsley, P
    (2014a) Egyptian editor backtracks after saying ‘Americans will be killed in streets.’The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/18/egyptians-kill-americans-in-streets-editor-threatens
    [Google Scholar]
  53. (2014b) Egypt’s Rabba massacre: One year one. The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/16/rabaa-massacre-egypt-human-rights-watch
    [Google Scholar]
  54. (2014c) John Kerry ‘wanded’ by security guards at Egypt’s presidential palace. The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/24/john-kerry-wanded-security-guards-egypt-presidential-palace
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Kirkpatrick, D
    (2013) Hundreds die as Egyptian forces attack Islamist protesters. The New York Times. Retrieved fromwww.nytimes.com/2013/08/15/world/middleeast/egypt.html?pagewanted=all
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Kövecses, Z
    (1990) Emotion concepts. New York: Springer-Verlag New York. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4612‑3312‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3312-1 [Google Scholar]
  57. (2005) Metaphor in culture: Universality and variation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511614408
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614408 [Google Scholar]
  58. (2006) Language, mind, and culture: A practical introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. (2010) Metaphor: A practical introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Lakoff, G
    (2004) Don’t think of an elephant: Know your values and frame the debate. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. (2008) The political mind: Why you can’t understand 21st-century American policies with an 18th-century brain. New York: Viking.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Landler, M
    (2013, July25). Aid to Egypt can keep flowing, despite overthrow, White House decides. The New York Times, p. A10. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2013/07/26/world/middleeast/aid-to-egypt-can-keep-flowing-despite-overthrow-white-house-decides.html?_r=0
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Leiken, R. , & Brooke, S
    (2007, April). The moderate Muslim Brotherhood. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved fromwww.foreignaffairs.com/articles/62453/robert-s-leiken-and-steven-brooke/the-moderate-muslim-brotherhood.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Lerman, D. , & Ratnam, G
    (2014, April24). US supplying Egypt with attack copters easing aid halt. Bloomberg News. Retrieved fromwww.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-23/obama-moves-to-resume-some-u-s-military-aid-to-egypt.html
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Louis, W
    (1984) The British empire in the Middle East, 1945–1951: Arab nationalism, the United States, and postwar imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Marshall, T
    (2013) Egypt ‘conspiracies’ are paranoid and stupid. Sky News. Retrieved fromnews.sky.com/story/1130507/egypt-conspiracies-are-paranoid-and-stupid
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Mitchell, R
    (1969) The society of the Muslim Brothers. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Munson, Z
    (2001) Islamic mobilization: Social movement theory and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. The Sociological Quarterly, 42 (4), 407–510. doi: 10.1111/j.1533‑8525.2001.tb01777.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2001.tb01777.x [Google Scholar]
  69. Oakley, T
    (2011) Conceptual integration. In J. Östman & J. Verschueren (Ed.), Handbook of pragmatics (pp.1–24). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/hop.15.con17
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hop.15.con17 [Google Scholar]
  70. Pearson, R
    (1988) UN cries ‘uncle.’Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 5 (8), 36–39. doi: 10.1080/00963402.1988.11456215
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00963402.1988.11456215 [Google Scholar]
  71. Roberts, D
    (2013, July8). White House sidesteps ‘coup’ questions as US continues aid to Egypt. The Guardian. Retrieved fromwww.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/08/white-house-egypt-aid-coup
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Russell, J
    (1977) The Devil: Perceptions of evil from Antiquity to primitive Christianity. New York: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. (1988) The prince of darkness: Radical evil and the power of good in history. New York: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Schink, C
    (2005) Mythologia Fulgurales: On the history of lightning in mythology and Christianity. In S. Zielinski & M. Wagnermaier (Eds.), Variantology 1: On deep time relations of arts, sciences and technologies (pp.59–80). Cologne, Germany: Verlag der Buchhandlung König.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Sego, L
    (2001) Philistines, Barbarians, Aliens, et alii: Cognitive semantics in political ‘otherness.’In R. Dirven , R. Frank , & C. Ilie (Eds.), Language and ideology, (2nd ed.), (pp.107–116). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.205.07seg
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.205.07seg [Google Scholar]
  76. Sharp, J
    (2014, June5). Egypt: Background and US relations. Congressional research service. Retrieved fromfas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33003.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Slonim, S
    (1998) Jerusalem in America’s foreign policy: 1947-1997. The Hague, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Tadros, M
    (2012) The Muslim Brotherhood in contemporary Egypt: Democracy redefined or confined?London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Turner, M
    (1987) Death is the mother of beauty: Mind, metaphor, criticism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. (1996) The literary mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. (2003) Double-scope stories. In D. Herman (Ed.), Narrative theory and the cognitive sciences (pp.117–142). Stanford, CA: CSLI. Retrieved frommarkturner.org/DoubleScopeStoriesTurner.pdf.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. (2007) Conceptual integration. In D. Geeraetes & C. Hurberts (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics (pp.377–393). New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. (2008) The mind is an autocatalytic vortex. In J. Schlaeger & G. Stedman (Eds.), The literary mind (pp.13–43). Tübingen, Germany: Gunter Narr Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. (2014) The origin of ideas: Blending, creativity, and the human spark. New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Turner, M. , & Fauconnier, G
    (1999) A mechanism of creativity. Poetics Today, 20(3), 397–418. Retrieved fromwww.ualberta.ca/~dmiall/Cognitive/Readings/Turner_Fauconnier_1999.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  86. (2003) Metaphor, metonymy and binding. In A. Barcelona (Ed.), Metaphor and metonymy at the crossroads: A cognitive perspective (pp.133–145). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/msw.6.2.06abd
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): conceptual blending , discourse , political cartoons and political cognition
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error