1887
image of The psychophysiology of narrating distressing experiences
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

We examined patterns of psychophysiological arousal related to remembering and narrating distressing events, as compared to arousal while engaged in positive and neutral recall tasks. Narrating distressing events entailed increased arousal relative to remembering those events. Analyses of combined data showed that aggregate arousal during narration was related to post-narration reports of distress and self-perceptions. These results support conceptions of narration as an effortful form of regulation, and suggest insights about the process through which narrative construction may promote psychological and physiological benefits.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ni.21102.pas
2022-07-25
2022-08-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adler, J. M., Lodi-Smith, J., Philippe, F. L., & Houle, I.
    (2016) The incremental validity of narrative identity in predicting well-being: A review of the field and recommendations for the future. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(2), 142–175. 10.1177/1088868315585068
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868315585068 [Google Scholar]
  2. Berntson, G. G., Quigley, K. S., Norman, G. J., & Lozano, D. L.
    (2017) Cardiovascular psychophysiology. InJ. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, G. G. Berntson, J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology. (pp.183–216). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bollmer, J. M., Harris, M. J., & Milich, R.
    (2006) Reactions to bullying and peer victimization: Narratives, physiological arousal, and personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(5), 803–828. 10.1016/j.jrp.2005.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  4. Butler, E. A., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J.
    (2006) Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, emotion, and emotion regulation during social interaction. Psychophysiology, 43(6), 612–622. 10.1111/j.1469‑8986.2006.00467.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00467.x [Google Scholar]
  5. Cacioppo, J. T., Uchino, B. N., & Berntson, G. G.
    (1994) Individual differences in the autonomic origins of heart rate reactivity: The psychometrics of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and preejection period. Psychophysiology, 31(4), 412–419. 10.1111/j.1469‑8986.1994.tb02449.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1994.tb02449.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Clark, H. H.
    (1996) Using language. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620539
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620539 [Google Scholar]
  7. Conradt, E., Abar, B., Lester, B. M., LaGasse, L. L., Shankaran, S., Bada, H., … Hammond, J. A.
    (2014) Cortisol reactivity to social stress as a mediator of early adversity on risk and adaptive outcomes. Child Development, 85(6), 2279–2298. 10.1111/cdev.12316
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12316 [Google Scholar]
  8. Conway, M. A., & Pleydell-Pearce, C. W.
    (2000) The construction of autobiographical memories in the self-memory system. Psychological Review, 107(2), 261–288. 10.1037/0033‑295X.107.2.261
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.107.2.261 [Google Scholar]
  9. Cui, L., Morris, A. S., Harrist, A. W., Larzelere, R. E., Criss, M. M., & Houltberg, B. J.
    (2015) Adolescent RSA responses during an anger discussion task: Relations to emotion regulation and adjustment. Emotion, 15(3), 360–372. 10.1037/emo0000040
    https://doi.org/10.1037/emo0000040 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dawson, M. E., Schell, A. M., & Filion, D. L.
    (2017) The electrodermal system. InJ. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, G. G. Berntson, J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology. (pp.217–243). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Del Giudice, M., Hinnant, J. B., Ellis, B. J., & El-Sheikh, M.
    (2012) Adaptive patterns of stress responsivity: A preliminary investigation. Developmental Psychology, 48(3), 775–790. 10.1037/a0026519
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026519 [Google Scholar]
  12. Demaree, H. A., Schmeichel, B. J., Robinson, J. L., & Everhart, D. E.
    (2004) Behavioural, affective, and physiological effects of negative and positive emotional exaggeration. Cognition and Emotion, 18(8), 1079–1097. 10.1080/02699930441000085
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930441000085 [Google Scholar]
  13. Diamond, L. M., & Otter-Henderson, K. D.
    (2007) Physiological measures. InR. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology. (pp.370–388). New York, NY US: Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fivush, R., Berlin, L. J., Sales, J. M., Mennuti-Washburn, J., & Cassidy, J.
    (2003) Functions of parent-child reminiscing about emotionally negative events. Memory, 11(2), 179–192. 10.1080/741938209
    https://doi.org/10.1080/741938209 [Google Scholar]
  15. Fivush, R., Sales, J. M., & Bohanek, J. G.
    (2008) Meaning making in mothers’ and children’s narratives of emotional events. Memory, 16(6), 579–594. 10.1080/09658210802150681
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210802150681 [Google Scholar]
  16. Frijda, N. H.
    (2007) The laws of emotion. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W.
    (1995) Emotion elicitation using films. Cognition and Emotion, 9(1), 87–108. 10.1080/02699939508408966
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699939508408966 [Google Scholar]
  18. Habermas, T.
    (2019) Emotion and Narrative: Perspectives in Autobiographical Storytelling. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY, USA.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Habermas, T., Meier, M., & Mukhtar, B.
    (2009) Are specific emotions narrated differently?Emotion, 9(6), 751–762. 10.1037/a0018002
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018002 [Google Scholar]
  20. Habermas, T., & Reese, E.
    (2015) Getting a life takes time: The development of the life story in adolescence, its precursors and consequences. Human Development, 58(3), 172–201. 10.1159/000437245
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000437245 [Google Scholar]
  21. Hughes, C. F., Uhlmann, C., & Pennebaker, J. W.
    (1994) The body’s response to processing emotional trauma: Linking verbal text with autonomic activity. Journal of Personality, 62(4), 565–585. 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.1994.tb00309.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994.tb00309.x [Google Scholar]
  22. Kross, E., & Ayduk, O.
    (2008) Facilitating adaptive emotional analysis: Distinguishing distanced-analysis of depressive experiences from immersed-analysis and distraction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(7), 924–938. 10.1177/0146167208315938
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208315938 [Google Scholar]
  23. Kunzmann, U., Rohr, M., Wieck, C., Kappes, C., & Wrosch, C.
    (2017) Speaking about feelings: Further evidence for multidirectional age differences in anger and sadness. Psychology and Aging, 32(1), 93–103. (Supplemental) 10.1037/pag0000142
    https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000142 [Google Scholar]
  24. Lavallee, A., Saloppé, X., Gandolphe, M.-C., Ott, L., Pham, T., & Nandrino, J.-L.
    (2019) What effort is required in retrieving self-defining memories? Specific autonomic responses for integrative and non-integrative memories. PLoS ONE, 14(12). 10.1371/journal.pone.0226009
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226009 [Google Scholar]
  25. Lilgendahl, J. P., & McAdams, D. P.
    (2011) Constructing stories of self-growth: How individual differences in patterns of autobiographical reasoning relate to well-being in midlife. Journal of Personality, 79(2), 391–428. 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.2010.00688.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00688.x [Google Scholar]
  26. Mansfield, C. D., Pasupathi, M., & McLean, K. C.
    (2015) Is narrating growth in stories of personal transgressions associated with increased well-being, self-compassion, and forgiveness of others?Journal of Research in Personality, 58, 69–83. 10.1016/j.jrp.2015.05.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2015.05.008 [Google Scholar]
  27. Mason, A. E., Adler, J. M., Puterman, E., Lakmazaheri, A., Brucker, M., Aschbacher, K., & Epel, E. S.
    (2019) Stress resilience: Narrative identity may buffer the longitudinal effects of chronic caregiving stress on mental health and telomere shortening. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 77, 101–109. 10.1016/j.bbi.2018.12.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2018.12.010 [Google Scholar]
  28. Mauss, I. B., Levenson, R. W., McCarter, L., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J.
    (2005) The Tie That Binds? Coherence Among Emotion Experience, Behavior, and Physiology. Emotion, 5(2), 175–190. 10.1037/1528‑3542.5.2.175
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.5.2.175 [Google Scholar]
  29. McLean, K. C., Pasupathi, M., & Pals, J. L.
    (2007) Selves creating stories creating selves: A process model of narrative self development. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 262–278. 10.1177/1088868307301034
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868307301034 [Google Scholar]
  30. McLean, K. C., & Pasupathi, M.
    (2011) Old, new, borrowed, Blue? The emergence and retention of personal meaning in autobiographical storytelling. Journal of Personality, 79(1), 135–164. 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.2010.00676.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00676.x [Google Scholar]
  31. Murphy, M. L. M.
    (2017) How the use of redemption versus contamination sequences in the telling of life stories is associated with health related outcomes in midlife adults (unpublished dissertation). Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.
  32. Niles, A. N., Haltom, K. E., Mulvenna, C. M., Lieberman, M. D., & Stanton, A. L.
    (2014) Randomized controlled trial of expressive writing for psychological and physical health: The moderating role of emotional expressivity. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping: An International Journal, 27, 1–17. 10.1080/10615806.2013.802308
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2013.802308 [Google Scholar]
  33. Nils, F., & Rimé, B.
    (2012) Beyond the myth of venting: Social sharing modes determine the benefits of emotional disclosure. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42(6), 672–681. 10.1002/ejsp.1880
    https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.1880 [Google Scholar]
  34. Öner, S., & Gülgöz, S.
    (2018) Autobiographical remembering regulates emotions: A functional perspective. Memory, 26(1), 15–28. 10.1080/09658211.2017.1316510
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2017.1316510 [Google Scholar]
  35. Pasupathi, M.
    (2003) Emotion regulation during social remembering: Differences between emotions elicited during an event and emotions elicited when talking about it. Memory, 11(2), 151–163. 10.1080/741938212
    https://doi.org/10.1080/741938212 [Google Scholar]
  36. (2007) Telling and the remembered self: Linguistic differences in memories for previously disclosed and previously undisclosed events. Memory, 15(3), 258–270. 10.1080/09658210701256456
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210701256456 [Google Scholar]
  37. Pasupathi, M., Billitteri, J., Mansfield, C. D., Wainryb, C., Hanley, G., & Taheri, K.
    (2015) Regulating emotion and identity by narrating harm. Journal of Research in Personality, 58, 127–136. 10.1016/j.jrp.2015.07.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2015.07.003 [Google Scholar]
  38. Pasupathi, M., McLean, K. C., & Weeks, T.
    (2009) To tell or not to tell: Disclosure and the narrative self. Journal of Personality, 77, 1–35. 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.2008.00539.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00539.x [Google Scholar]
  39. Pasupathi, M., Wainryb, C., Mansfield, C. D., & Bourne, S.
    (2017) The feeling of the story: Narrating to regulate anger and sadness. Cognition and Emotion, 31(3), 444–461. 10.1080/02699931.2015.1127214
    https://doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2015.1127214 [Google Scholar]
  40. Pasupathi, M., Wainryb, C., Oldroyd, K., & Bourne, S.
    (in press). Mothers and friends as listeners for adolescent anger narration: Distinct developmental affordances. Developmental Psychology. 10.1037/dev0001322
    https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0001322 [Google Scholar]
  41. Pennebaker, J. W., Hughes, C. F., & O’Heeron, R. C.
    (1987) The psychophysiology of confession: Linking inhibitory and psychosomatic processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(4), 781–793. 10.1037/0022‑3514.52.4.781
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.4.781 [Google Scholar]
  42. Raby, K. L., Roisman, G. I., Simpson, J. A., Collins, W. A., & Steele, R. D.
    (2015) Greater maternal insensitivity in childhood predicts greater electrodermal reactivity during conflict discussions with romantic partners in adulthood. Psychological Science, 26(3), 348–353. 10.1177/0956797614563340
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614563340 [Google Scholar]
  43. Ray, R. D., Wilhelm, F. H., & Gross, J. J.
    (2008) All in the mind’s eye? Anger rumination and reappraisal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), 133–145. 10.1037/0022‑3514.94.1.133
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.133 [Google Scholar]
  44. Rimé, B., Finkenauer, C., Luminet, O., Zech, E., & Phillipot, P.
    (1998) Social sharing of emotion: New evidence and new questions. European Review of Social Psychology, 9, 145–189. 10.1080/14792779843000072
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779843000072 [Google Scholar]
  45. Rimé, B., Phillipot, P., Boca, S., & Mesquita, B.
    (1992) Long-lasting cognitive and social consequences of emotion: Social sharing and rumination. InW. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol.3, pp.225–258). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Rottenberg, J., Ray, R. D., Gross, J. J., Coan, J. A., & Allen, J. J. B.
    (2007) Emotion elicitation using films. Handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment. (pp.9–28). New York, NY US: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Schank, R. C., & Abelson, R. P.
    (1995) Knowledge and memory: The real story. Advances in Social Cognition, 8, 1–86.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sheppes, G., Catran, E., & Meiran, N.
    (2009) Reappraisal (but not distraction) is going to make you sweat: Physiological evidence for self-control effort. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71(2), 91–96. 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.06.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.06.006 [Google Scholar]
  49. Smorti, A.
    (2020) Telling to understand. Springer Nature: Switzerland. 10.1007/978‑3‑030‑43161‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43161-7 [Google Scholar]
  50. Smyth, J. M., & Pennebaker, J. W.
    (2008) Exploring the boundary conditions of expressive writing: In search of the right recipe. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13(1), 1–7. 10.1348/135910707X260117
    https://doi.org/10.1348/135910707X260117 [Google Scholar]
  51. Song, Q., Lent, M. C., Suo, T., Murray-Close, D., & Wang, Q.
    (2021) Relational victimization and depressive symptoms: The interactive role of physiological reactivity and narrative processing. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 166, 92–102. 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2021.05.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2021.05.009 [Google Scholar]
  52. Spinelli, M., Aureli, T., Coppola, G., Ponzetti, S., Lionetti, F., Scialpi, V., & Fasolo, M.
    (2020) Verbal-prosodic association when narrating early caregiving experiences during the adult attachment interview: differences between secure and dismissing individuals. Attachment & Human Development, 1–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Stanton, A. L., & Low, C. A.
    (2012) Expressing emotions in stressful contexts: Benefits, moderators, and mechanisms. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 124–128. 10.1177/0963721411434978
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411434978 [Google Scholar]
  54. Stephens, C. L., Christie, I. C., & Friedman, B. H.
    (2010) Autonomic specificity of basic emotions: Evidence from pattern classification and cluster analysis. Biological Psychology, 84(3), 463–473. 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.03.014
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.03.014 [Google Scholar]
  55. Thiruchselvam, R., Blechert, J., Sheppes, G., Rydstrom, A., & Gross, J. J.
    (2011) The temporal dynamics of emotion regulation: An EEG study of distraction and reappraisal. Biological Psychology, 87, 84–92. 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.02.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.02.009 [Google Scholar]
  56. Tsai, J. L., Levenson, R. W., & Carstensen, L. L.
    (2000) Autonomic, subjective, and expressive responses to emotional films in older and younger Chinese Americans and European Americans. Psychology and Aging, 15, 684–693. 10.1037/0882‑7974.15.4.684
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.15.4.684 [Google Scholar]
  57. Wainryb, C., Pasupathi, M., Bourne, S., & Oldroyd, K.
    (2018) Stories for all ages: Narrating anger can reduce distress and promote learning. Developmental Psychology, 54, 1072–1085. 10.1037/dev0000495
    https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000495 [Google Scholar]
  58. Waller, E. M., & Rose, A. J.
    (2013) Brief report: Adolescents’ co-rumination with mothers, co-rumination with friends, and internalizing symptoms. Journal of Adolescence, 36(2), 429–433. 10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.006 [Google Scholar]
  59. Weeks, T. L., & Pasupathi, M.
    (2011) Stability and change self-integration for negative events: The role of listener responsiveness and elaboration. Journal of Personality, 79(3), 469–498. 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.2011.00685.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00685.x [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ni.21102.pas
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/ni.21102.pas
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: psychophysiology ; autonomic nervous system ; narrative ; emotion regulation
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error