image of Understanding the relationship between narrative identity, transdiagnostic factors and psychological functioning in a
young adult community sample
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



Determining how narrative identity relates to psychological functioning is important for understanding how psychopathology develops and is maintained. The present study investigated whether transdiagnostic factors mediate and/or moderate associations of narrative identity with psychological functioning. We analysed data from  = 245 University students who completed an online survey measuring turning point narratives, transdiagnostic factors and psychological functioning. Results indicated that rumination and emotion dysregulation, but not overgeneral memory, mediated the relationship between lower causal coherence and psychological functioning. Contrary to predictions, neither attachment security nor memory tone moderated any relationships between narrative identity and psychological functioning. These pathways may be particularly important for understanding the development and maintenance of psychopathology.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Abrutyn, S., Mueller, A. S., & Osborne, M.
    (2019) Rekeying cultural scripts for youth suicide: How social networks facilitate suicide diffusion and suicide clusters following exposure to suicide. Society and Mental Health, (), –. 10.1177/2156869319834063
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2156869319834063 [Google Scholar]
  2. Addis, D. R., & Tippett, L. J.
    (2008) The contributions of autobiographical memory to the content and continuity of identity: A social-cognitive neuroscience approach. InSelf continuity: Individual and collective perspectives. (pp.–). Psychology Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Adler, J. M., Chin, E. D., Kolisetty, A. P., & Oltmanns, T. F.
    (2012) The distinguishing characteristics of narrative identity in adults with features of Borderline Personality Disorder: An empirical investigation. Journal of Personality Disorders, (), –. 10.1521/pedi.2012.26.4.498
    https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2012.26.4.498 [Google Scholar]
  4. Adler, J. M., Kissel, E. C., & McAdams, D. P.
    (2006) Emerging from the CAVE: Attributional style and the narrative study of identity in midlife adults. Cognitive Therapy and Research, (), –. 10.1007/s10608‑006‑9005‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9005-1 [Google Scholar]
  5. Adler, J. M., Lodi-Smith, J., Philippe, F. L., & Houle, I.
    (2016) The incremental validity of narrative identity in predicting well-being: A review of the field and recommendations for the future. Personality and Social Psychology Review, (), –. 10.1177/1088868315585068
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868315585068 [Google Scholar]
  6. Adler, J. M., & Olin, F. W.
    (2012) Living into the story: Agency and coherence in a longitudinal study of narrative identity development and mental health over the course of psychotherapy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/a0025289
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025289 [Google Scholar]
  7. Adler, J. M., Turner, A. F., Brookshier, K. M., Monahan, C., Walder-Biesanz, I., Harmeling, L. H., Albaugh, M., McAdams, D. P., & Oltmanns, T. F.
    (2015) Variation in narrative identity is associated with trajectories of mental health over several years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/a0038601
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038601 [Google Scholar]
  8. Agler, R., & De Boeck, P.
    (2017) On the interpretation and use of mediation: Multiple perspectives on mediation analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, , . 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01984
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01984 [Google Scholar]
  9. Ainsworth, M. S., & Bowlby, J.
    (1991) An ethological approach to personality development. American Psychologist, (), –. 10.1037/0003‑066X.46.4.333
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.4.333 [Google Scholar]
  10. Aldao, A., Gee, D. G., De Los Reyes, A., & Seager, I.
    (2016) Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic factor in the development of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology: Current and future directions. Development and Psychopathology, , –. 10.1017/S0954579416000638
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579416000638 [Google Scholar]
  11. American Psychiatric Association
    American Psychiatric Association (2022) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Vol.). 10.1176/appi.books.9780890425787
    https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425787 [Google Scholar]
  12. Corbett, M., Reid, V. & Bird, A.
    (2023) A systematic review of the relationships between narrative identity and transdiagnostic factors [Manuscript under review].
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Banks, M. V., & Salmon, K.
    (2018) Cognitive response styles and the construction of personal narratives: Implications for psychopathology in young adults. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, (), –. 10.1177/0276236617733844
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0276236617733844 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bantum, E., McDonnell, M., & Owen, J.
    (2020) Validation of linguistic inquiry and word count for the identification of emotional expression. JMIR Formative Research, . 10.2196/18246
    https://doi.org/10.2196/18246 [Google Scholar]
  15. Barlow, D. H., Durand, V. M., & Hofmann, S. G.
    (2018) Abnormal psychology: An integrative approach (8 ed.). Cengage Learning.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A.
    (1986) The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/0022‑3514.51.6.1173
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173 [Google Scholar]
  17. Barry, T. J., Hallford, D. J., & Takano, K.
    (2021) Autobiographical memory impairments as a transdiagnostic feature of mental illness: A meta-analytic review of investigations into autobiographical memory specificity and overgenerality among people with psychiatric diagnoses. Psychological Bulletin, (), –. 10.1037/bul0000345
    https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000345 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M.
    (1991) Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/0022‑3514.61.2.226
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.2.226 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bendstrup, G., Simonsen, E., Kongerslev, M. T., Jorgensen, M. S., Petersen, L. S., Thomsen, M. S., & Vestergaard, M.
    (2021) Keep. Narrative coherence of autobiographical memories in women with borderline personality disorder and associations with childhood adversity. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, (). 10.1186/s40479‑021‑00159‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s40479-021-00159-5 [Google Scholar]
  20. Bhugra, D., & Becker, M. A.
    (2005) Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity. World Psychiatry, (), –.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bird, A., & Reese, E.
    (2006) Emotional reminiscing and the development of an autobiographical self. Developmental Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/0012‑1649.42.4.613
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.42.4.613 [Google Scholar]
  22. Bluck, S., Alea, N., Habermas, T., & Rubin, D. C.
    (2005) A TALE of three functions: The self–reported uses of autobiographical memory. Social Cognition, (), –. 10.1521/soco.
    https://doi.org/10.1521/soco. [Google Scholar]
  23. Booker, J. A., Graci, M. E., Hudak, L. A., Jovanovic, T., Rothbaum, B. O., Ressler, K. J., Fivush, R., & Stevens, J.
    (2018) Narratives in the immediate aftermath of traumatic injury: Markers of ongoing depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Traumatic Stress, (), –. 10.1002/jts.22271
    https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22271 [Google Scholar]
  24. Booker, J. A., & Perlin, J. D.
    (2022) Moving beyond redemptive magnitude: Examining redemptive forms and themes in young adults’ narratives of difficult life experiences. Identity, (), –. 10.1080/15283488.2021.1957896
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15283488.2021.1957896 [Google Scholar]
  25. Bowlby, J.
    (1969) Attachment and loss (Vol.). Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Buxton, B. A.
    (2016) The relationships among rumination, narrative coherence, and well-being in a community sample of adolescents. Te Herenga Waka Victoria University of Wellington. 10.26686/wgtn.20388012
    https://doi.org/10.26686/wgtn.20388012 [Google Scholar]
  27. Carlucci, L., Saggino, A., & Balsamo, M.
    (2021) On the efficacy of the unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, , –. 10.1016/j.cpr.2021.101999
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2021.101999 [Google Scholar]
  28. Carpenter, R. W., & Trull, T. J.
    (2013) Components of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder: A review. Current Psychiatry Reports, (), –. 10.1007/s11920‑012‑0335‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-012-0335-2 [Google Scholar]
  29. Charak, R., Byllesby, B. M., Fowler, J. C., Sharp, C., Elhai, J. D., & Frueh, B. C.
    (2019) Assessment of the revised Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scales among adolescents and adults with severe mental illness. Psychiatry Research, , –. 10.1016/j.psychres.2019.04.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.04.010 [Google Scholar]
  30. Chen, Y., McAnally, H. M., Wang, Q., & Reese, E.
    (2012) The coherence of critical event narratives and adolescents’ psychological functioning. Memory, (), –. 10.1080/09658211.2012.693934
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2012.693934 [Google Scholar]
  31. Coker, A. O., Coker, O. O., & Sanni, D.
    (2018) Psychometric properties of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). African Research Review, , –. 10.4314/afrrev.v12i2.13
    https://doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v12i2.13 [Google Scholar]
  32. Conway, M. A.
    (2005) Memory and the self. Journal of memory and language, (), –. 10.1016/j.jml.2005.08.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2005.08.005 [Google Scholar]
  33. Cox, K., & McAdams, D. P.
    (2014) Meaning making during high and low point life story episodes predicts emotion regulation two years later: How the past informs the future. Journal of Research in Personality, (), –. 10.1016/j.jrp.2014.03.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2014.03.004 [Google Scholar]
  34. Cox, K. S., & McAdams, D. P.
    (2019) Mean level differences in the vividness, meaning, and coherence of life story high and low points: How valenced life stories do and do not differ. Identity, (), –. 10.1080/15283488.2019.1604347
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15283488.2019.1604347 [Google Scholar]
  35. Crowell, J. A., & Treboux, D.
    (1995) A review of adult attachment measures: Implications for theory and research. Social Development, (), –. 10.1111/j.1467‑9507.1995.tb00067.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.1995.tb00067.x [Google Scholar]
  36. Dalgleish, T., Black, M., Johnston, D., & Bevan, A.
    (2020) Transdiagnostic approaches to mental health problems: Current status and future directions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/ccp0000482
    https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000482 [Google Scholar]
  37. Debeer, E., Hermans, D., & Raes, F.
    (2009) Associations between components of rumination and autobiographical memory specificity as measured by a Minimal Instructions Autobiographical Memory Test. Memory, (), –. 10.1080/09658210903376243
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210903376243 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dell’Osso, L., Cremone, I. M., Carpita, B., Dell’Oste, V., Muti, D., Massimetti, G., Barlati, S., Vita, A., Fagiolini, A., & Carmassi, C.
    (2019) Rumination, posttraumatic stress disorder, and mood symptoms in borderline personality disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, , –. 10.2147/NDT.S198616
    https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S198616 [Google Scholar]
  39. Ein-Dor, T., Viglin, D., & Doron, G.
    (2016) Extending the transdiagnostic model of attachment and psychopathology. Frontiers in Psychology, , –. 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00484
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00484 [Google Scholar]
  40. Eisenberg, N., & Sulik, M. J.
    (2012) Emotion-related self-regulation in children. Teaching of Psychology, (), –. 10.1177/0098628311430172
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628311430172 [Google Scholar]
  41. Eledum, H. Y.
    (2017) A Monte Carlo study of the effects of variability and outliers on the linear correlation coefficient. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, (), . 10.22237/jmasm/1509495180
    https://doi.org/10.22237/jmasm/1509495180 [Google Scholar]
  42. Erikson, E. H.
    (1968) Identity: Youth and crisis. W. W. Norton & Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A.
    (2007) G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, (), –. 10.3758/BF03193146
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146 [Google Scholar]
  44. Fusar-Poli, P., Solmi, M., Brondino, N., Davies, C., Chae, C., Politi, P., Borgwardt, S., Lawrie, S. M., Parnas, J., & McGuire, P.
    (2019) Transdiagnostic psychiatry: A systematic review. World Psychiatry, (), –. 10.1002/wps.20631
    https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20631 [Google Scholar]
  45. George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M.
    (1984) Adult attachment interview. Unpublished Manuscript.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Graci, M. E., & Fivush, R.
    (2017) Narrative meaning making, attachment, and psychological growth and stress. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, (), –. 10.1177/0265407516644066
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407516644066 [Google Scholar]
  47. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L.
    (2004) Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, (), –. 10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94
    https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOBA.0000007455.08539.94 [Google Scholar]
  48. Grotevant, H. D., Lo, A. Y. H., Fiorenzo, L., & Dunbar, N. D.
    (2017) Adoptive identity and adjustment from adolescence to emerging adulthood: A person-centered approach. Developmental Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/dev0000352
    https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000352 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gutenbrunner, C., Salmon, K., & Jose, P. E.
    (2018) Do overgeneral autobiographical memories predict increased psychopathological symptoms in community youth? A 3-year longitudinal investigation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, (), –. 10.1007/s10802‑017‑0278‑5
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0278-5 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gutenbrunner, C., Salmon, K., & Jose, P.
    (2019) What predicts overgeneral memory in youth? Testing the CaR-FA-X model longitudinally in community adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, (), –. 10.1017/S0954579418000457
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579418000457 [Google Scholar]
  51. Habermas, T.
    (2011) Autobiographical reasoning: Arguing and narrating from a biographical perspective. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2011(), –. 10.1002/cd.285
    https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.285 [Google Scholar]
  52. Habermas, T., & de Silveira, C.
    (2008) The development of global coherence in life narratives across adolescence: Temporal, causal, and thematic aspects. Developmental Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/0012‑1649.44.3.707
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.707 [Google Scholar]
  53. Habermas, T., Delarue, I., Eiswirth, P., Glanz, S., Kramer, C., Landertinger, A., Krainhofner, M., Batista, J., & Goncalves, M. M.
    (2021) Differences between subclinical ruminators and reflectors in narrating autobiographical memories: Innovative moments and autobiographical reasoning. Frontiers in Psychology, , –. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.624644
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.624644 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hamlat, E. J., Connolly, S. L., Hamilton, J. L., Stange, J. P., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B.
    (2015) Rumination and overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescents: An integration of cognitive vulnerabilities to depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, (), –. 10.1007/s10964‑014‑0090‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0090-2 [Google Scholar]
  55. Harvey, A. G.
    (2004) Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders: A transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment. Oxford University Press. 10.1093/med:psych/9780198528883.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780198528883.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hayes, A. F.
    (2013) Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. (2018) Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (Methodology in the Social Sciences) (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hofmann, S. G., & Hayes, S. C.
    (2018) The future of intervention science: Process-based therapy. Clinical Psychological Science, (), –. 10.1177/2167702618772296
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702618772296 [Google Scholar]
  59. Insel, T., Cuthbert, B., Garvey, M., Heinssen, R., Pine, D. S., Quinn, K., Sanislow, C., & Wang, P.
    (2010) Research domain criteria (RDoC): Toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, (), –. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09091379
    https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09091379 [Google Scholar]
  60. Jensen, R. A. A., Thomsen, D. K., Bliksted, V. F., & Ladegaard, N.
    (2020) Narrative identity in psychopathology: A negative past and a bright but foreshortened future. Psychiatry Research, , –. 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113103
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113103 [Google Scholar]
  61. Jensen, R. A. A., Thomsen, D. K., Lind, M., Ladegaard, N., & Bliksted, V. F.
    (2021) Storying the past and the future: Agency and communion themes among individuals with schizophrenia and depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, (), –. 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001302
    https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000001302 [Google Scholar]
  62. Josephson, B. R., Singer, J., & Salovey, P.
    (1996) Mood regulation and memory: Repairing sad moods with happy memories. Cognition & Emotion, (), –. 10.1080/026999396380222
    https://doi.org/10.1080/026999396380222 [Google Scholar]
  63. Justo-Núñez, M., Morris, L., & Berry, K.
    (2022) Self-report measures of secure attachment in adulthood: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, (), –. 10.1002/cpp.2756
    https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2756 [Google Scholar]
  64. Kazdin, A. E.
    (2007) Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, (), –. 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091432
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091432 [Google Scholar]
  65. Khairudin, R., Nasir, R., Halim, F. W., Zainah, A., Shahrazad, W. W., Ismail, K., & Valipour, G.
    (2012) Emotion and explicit verbal memory: Evidence using Malay Lexicon. Asian Social Science, (), .
    [Google Scholar]
  66. King, L. A., & Miner, K. N.
    (2000) Writing about the perceived benefits of traumatic events: Implications for physical health. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, (), –. 10.1177/0146167200264008
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167200264008 [Google Scholar]
  67. Klimstra, T. A., & Denissen, J. J. A.
    (2017) A theoretical framework for the associations between identity and psychopathology. Developmental Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/dev0000356
    https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000356 [Google Scholar]
  68. Laible, D.
    (2011) Does it matter if preschool children and mothers discuss positive vs. negative events during reminiscing? Links with mother-reported attachment, family emotional climate, and socioemotional development. Social Development(), –. 10.1111/j.1467‑9507.2010.00584.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00584.x [Google Scholar]
  69. Levine, A., & Heller, R. S. F.
    (2016) Attached: The new science of adult attachment and how it can help you find – and keep – love. InD. Eskenazi & C. Alfonso, A. (Eds.), Psychodynamic Psychiatry (Vol., pp.–). Guilford Press, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Ligiéro, D. P., & Gelso, C. J.
    (2002) Countertransference, attachment, and the working alliance: The therapist’s contribution. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, (), –. 10.1037/0033‑3204.39.1.3
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.39.1.3 [Google Scholar]
  71. Lind, M., Adler, J., & Clark, L.
    (2020) Narrative identity and personality disorder: An empirical and conceptual review. Current Psychiatry Reports, (), –. 10.1007/s11920‑020‑01187‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-020-01187-8 [Google Scholar]
  72. Lind, M., Sharp, C., & Dunlop, W. L.
    (2022) Why, how, and when to integrate narrative identity within dimensional approaches to personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, (), –. 10.1521/pedi_2012_35_540
    https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2012_35_540 [Google Scholar]
  73. Lind, M., Vanwoerden, S., Bo, S., & Sharp, C.
    (2022) Borderline personality disorder in adolescence: The role of narrative identity in the intrapsychic reasoning system. Personality Disorders, (), –. 10.1037/per0000517
    https://doi.org/10.1037/per0000517 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lind, M., Vanwoerden, S., Penner, F., & Sharp, C.
    (2019) Inpatient adolescents with borderline personality disorder features: Identity diffusion and narrative incoherence. Personality Disorders, (), –. 10.1037/per0000338
    https://doi.org/10.1037/per0000338 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lipson, S. K., Zhou, S., Wagner, B., Beck, K., & Eisenberg, D.
    (2016) Major differences: Variations in undergraduate and graduate student mental health and treatment utilization across academic disciplines. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, (), –. 10.1080/87568225.2016.1105657
    https://doi.org/10.1080/87568225.2016.1105657 [Google Scholar]
  76. López-Ortega, M., Torres-Castro, S., & Rosas-Carrasco, O.
    (2016) Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): Secondary analysis of the Mexican health and aging study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, (), –. 10.1186/s12955‑016‑0573‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-016-0573-9 [Google Scholar]
  77. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F.
    (1995) Manual for the depression anxiety & stress scales (2nd ed.). Psychology Foundation.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. McAdams, D. P.
    (1985) Power, intimacy, and the life story: Personological inquiries into identity. Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. (1989) The development of a narrative identity. InD. M. Buss & N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology. Springer. 10.1007/978‑1‑4684‑0634‑4_12
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-0634-4_12 [Google Scholar]
  80. (1996) Personality, modernity, and the storied self: A contemporary framework for studying persons. Psychological Inquiry, (), –. 10.1207/s15327965pli0704_1
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0704_1 [Google Scholar]
  81. (2001) The psychology of life stories. Review of General Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/1089‑2680.5.2.100
    https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.5.2.100 [Google Scholar]
  82. (2006) The Life Story Interview. Unpublished manuscript, Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. (2006) Guided Autobiography. Retrieved2022, 20 Marchfromhttps://www.sesp.northwestern.edu/docs/guided_autobiograph.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  84. (2008) Personal narrative and life story. InO. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp.–). The Guilford Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. (2017) Life-story approach to identity. InV. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences (pp.–). Springer International Publishing. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑28099‑8_530‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_530-1 [Google Scholar]
  86. (2019) “First we invented stories, then they changed us”: The evolution of narrative identity. Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture, (), –. 10.26613/esic.3.1.110
    https://doi.org/10.26613/esic.3.1.110 [Google Scholar]
  87. McAdams, D. P., Lensky, D. B., Daple, S. A., & Allen, J.
    (1988) Depression and the organization of autobiographical memory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, (), –. 10.1521/jscp.1988.7.4.332
    https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1988.7.4.332 [Google Scholar]
  88. McAdams, D. P., & McLean, K. C.
    (2013) Narrative identity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, (), –. 10.1177/0963721413475622
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721413475622 [Google Scholar]
  89. McAdams, D. P., Reynolds, J., Lewis, M., Patten, A. H., & Bowman, P. J.
    (2001) When bad things turn good and good things turn bad: Sequences of redemption and contamination in life narrative and their relation to psychosocial adaptation in midlife adults and in students. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, (), –. 10.1177/0146167201274008
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201274008 [Google Scholar]
  90. McHugh, M. L.
    (2012) Interrater reliability: The kappa statistic. Biochemia Medica, (), –. 10.11613/BM.2012.031
    https://doi.org/10.11613/BM.2012.031 [Google Scholar]
  91. McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S.
    (2011) Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, (), –. 10.1016/j.brat.2010.12.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.12.006 [Google Scholar]
  92. McLean, K. C., & Lilgendahl, J. P.
    (2008) Why recall our highs and lows: Relations between memory functions, age, and well-being. Memory, (), –. 10.1080/09658210802215385
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210802215385 [Google Scholar]
  93. McLean, K. C., & Mansfield, C. D.
    (2012) The co-construction of adolescent narrative identity: Narrative processing as a function of adolescent age, gender, and maternal scaffolding. Developmental Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/a0025563
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025563 [Google Scholar]
  94. Milojevich, H. M., & Quas, J. A.
    (2017) Parental attachment and children’s memory for attachment-relevant stories. Applied Developmental Science, (), –. 10.1080/10888691.2016.1140577
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2016.1140577 [Google Scholar]
  95. Mitchell, C., Reese, E., Salmon, K., & Jose, P.
    (2020) Narrative coherence, psychopathology, and wellbeing: Concurrent and longitudinal findings in a mid-adolescent sample. Journal of Adolescence, , –. 10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.12.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.12.003 [Google Scholar]
  96. Murphy, J. M.
    (2020) Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). In (pp.–). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 10.1002/9781119547167.ch126
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119547167.ch126 [Google Scholar]
  97. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Watkins, E. R.
    (2011) A heuristic for developing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology: Explaining multifinality and divergent trajectories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, (), –. 10.1177/1745691611419672
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691611419672 [Google Scholar]
  98. Ono, M., Devilly, G. J., & Shum, D. H. K.
    (2016) A meta-analytic review of overgeneral memory: The role of trauma history, mood, and the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma, (), –. 10.1037/tra0000027
    https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000027 [Google Scholar]
  99. Oppenheim, D., & Waters, H. S.
    (1995) Narrative processes and attachment representations: Issues of development and assessment. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, (), –. 10.2307/1166179
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1166179 [Google Scholar]
  100. Pals, J. L.
    (2006) Narrative identity processing of difficult life experiences: Pathways of personality development and positive self-transformation in adulthood. Journal of Personality, (), –. 10.1111/j.1467‑6494.2006.00403.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00403.x [Google Scholar]
  101. Parola, N., Zendjidjian, X. Y., Alessandrini, M., Baumstarck, K., Loundou, A., Fond, G., Berna, F., Lançon, C., Auquier, P., & Boyer, L.
    (2017) Psychometric properties of the Ruminative Response Scale-short form in a clinical sample of patients with major depressive disorder. Patient Preference and Adherence, , –. 10.2147/PPA.S125730
    https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S125730 [Google Scholar]
  102. Pavot, W., & Diener, E.
    (2013) The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWL). https://www.midss.org/
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Pennebaker, J. W., & Francis, M. E.
    (1999) Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). E. Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Perlin, Joshua D., & Fivush, R.
    (2021) Revisiting redemption: A life span developmental account of the functions of narrative redemption. Human Development, (), –. 10.1159/000514357
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000514357 [Google Scholar]
  105. Pilkonis, P.
    (2018) Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Scale (PAI-BOR)-Personality Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F.
    (2008) Contemporary approaches to assessing mediation in communication research. InThe Sage sourcebook of advanced data analysis methods for communication research. (pp.–). Sage Publications, Inc. 10.4135/9781452272054.n2
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452272054.n2 [Google Scholar]
  107. Rawal, A., & Rice, F.
    (2012) Examining overgeneral autobiographical memory as a risk factor for adolescent depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, (), –. 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.02.025
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.02.025 [Google Scholar]
  108. Reese, E.
    (2018) Attachment and memory research: Reflecting on a shared past and a collaborative future. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, (), –. 10.1111/mono.12399
    https://doi.org/10.1111/mono.12399 [Google Scholar]
  109. Reese, E., Chen, Y., McAnally, H. M., Myftari, E., Neha, T., Wang, Q., & Jack, F.
    (2014) Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, (), –. 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.02.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.02.005 [Google Scholar]
  110. Reese, E., Haden, C. A., Baker-Ward, L., Bauer, P., Fivush, R., & Ornstein, P. A.
    (2011) Coherence of personal narratives across the lifespan: A multidimensional model and coding method. Journal of Cognitive Development, (), –. 10.1080/15248372.2011.587854
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15248372.2011.587854 [Google Scholar]
  111. Reese, E., Myftari, E., McAnally, H. M., Chen, Y., Neha, T., Wang, Q., Jack, F., & Robertson, S. J.
    (2017) Telling the tale and living well: Adolescent narrative identity, personality traits, and well-being across cultures. Child Development, (), –. 10.1111/cdev.12618
    https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12618 [Google Scholar]
  112. Roelofs, J., Muris, P., Huibers, M., Peeters, F., & Arntz, A.
    (2006) On the measurement of rumination: A psychometric evaluation of the ruminative response scale and the rumination on sadness scale in undergraduates. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, (), –. 10.1016/j.jbtep.2006.03.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2006.03.002 [Google Scholar]
  113. Sajjadi, S. F., Gross, J., Sellbom, M., & Hayne, H.
    (2021) Narrative identity in borderline personality disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, –. 10.1037/per0000476
    https://doi.org/10.1037/per0000476 [Google Scholar]
  114. Sales, J. M., Merrill, N. A., & Fivush, R.
    (2013) Does making meaning make it better? Narrative meaning making and well-being in at-risk African-American adolescent females. Memory, (), –. 10.1080/09658211.2012.706614
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2012.706614 [Google Scholar]
  115. Salmon, K., Isler, L., Jose, P., Glynn, R., Mitchell, C., Dewhirst, M., Buxton, B., Gutenbrunner, C., & Reese, E.
    (2021) Delving into the detail: Greater episodic detail in narratives of a critical life event predicts an increase in adolescent depressive symptoms across one year. Behaviour Research and Therapy, , –. 10.1016/j.brat.2020.103798
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103798 [Google Scholar]
  116. Seligowski, A. V., Lee, D. J., Bardeen, J. R., & Orcutt, H. K.
    (2015) Emotion regulation and posttraumatic stress symptoms: A meta-analysis. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, (), –. 10.1080/16506073.2014.980753
    https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2014.980753 [Google Scholar]
  117. Shiner, R. L., Klimstra, T. A., Denissen, J. J. A., & See, A. Y.
    (2021) The development of narrative identity and the emergence of personality disorders in adolescence. Current Opinion in Psychology, , –. 10.1016/j.copsyc.2020.07.024
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2020.07.024 [Google Scholar]
  118. Singer, J. A., Blagov, P., Berry, M., & Oost, K. M.
    (2013) Self-defining memories, scripts, and the life story: Narrative identity in personality and psychotherapy. Journal of Personality, (), –. 10.1111/jopy.12005
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12005 [Google Scholar]
  119. Sokol, J.
    (2009) Identity development throughout the lifetime: An examination of Eriksonian theory. Graduate Journal of Counseling Psychology, .
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Sumner, J. A., Griffith, J. W., & Mineka, S.
    (2010) Overgeneral autobiographical memory as a predictor of the course of depression: A meta-analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, (), –. 10.1016/j.brat.2010.03.013
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.03.013 [Google Scholar]
  121. Sumner, J. A., Mineka, S., & McAdams, D. P.
    (2013) Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the Autobiographical Memory Test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms. Memory, (), –. 10.1080/09658211.2012.746372
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2012.746372 [Google Scholar]
  122. Sutin, A. R., Costa, P. T., Wethington, E., & Eaton, W.
    (2010) Perceptions of stressful life events as turning points are associated with self-rated health and psychological distress. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, (), –. 10.1080/10615800903552015
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800903552015 [Google Scholar]
  123. Takano, K., Ueno, M., Moriya, J., Mori, M., Nishiguchi, Y., & Raes, F.
    (2017) Unraveling the linguistic nature of specific autobiographical memories using a computerized classification algorithm. Behavior Research Methods, (), –. 10.3758/s13428‑016‑0753‑x
    https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-016-0753-x [Google Scholar]
  124. Tavernier, R., & Willoughby, T.
    (2012) Adolescent turning points: The association between meaning-making and psychological well-being. Developmental Psychology, (), –. 10.1037/a0026326
    https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026326 [Google Scholar]
  125. Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S.
    (2003) Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, (), –. 10.1023/A:1023910315561
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023910315561 [Google Scholar]
  126. Trivedi, J. K.
    (2006) Cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders: Current status. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, (), –. 10.4103/0019‑5545.31613
    https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.31613 [Google Scholar]
  127. Van den Broeck, K., Claes, L., Pieters, G., & Raes, F.
    (2012) Memory specificity in borderline personality disorder: Associations with depression and self-discrepancy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, , –. 10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.02.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.02.001 [Google Scholar]
  128. Vanderveren, E., Bijttebier, P., & Hermans, D.
    (2019) Autobiographical memory coherence and specificity: Examining their reciprocal relation and their associations with internalizing symptoms and rumination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, , –. 10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.02.003 [Google Scholar]
  129. (2020) Autobiographical memory coherence in emotional disorders: The role of rumination, cognitive avoidance, executive functioning, and meaning making. PLoS One, (), –. 10.1371/journal.pone.0231862
    https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231862 [Google Scholar]
  130. Vanderveren, E., Bogaerts, A., Claes, L., Luyckx, K., & Hermans, D.
    (2021) Narrative coherence of turning point memories: Associations with psychological well-being, identity functioning, and personality disorder symptoms. Frontiers in Psychology, (), –. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.623903
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.623903 [Google Scholar]
  131. Verschueren, M., Claes, L., Gandhi, A., & Luyckx, K.
    (2020) Identity and psychopathology: Bridging developmental and clinical research. Emerging Adulthood, (), –. 10.1177/2167696819870021
    https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696819870021 [Google Scholar]
  132. Vine, V., & Aldao, A.
    (2014) Impaired emotional clarity and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic deficit with symptom-specific pathways through emotion regulation. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, (), –. 10.1521/jscp.2014.33.4.319
    https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2014.33.4.319 [Google Scholar]
  133. Warne, N., Collishaw, S., & Rice, F.
    (2019) Examining the relationship between stressful life events and overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescents at high familial risk of depression. Memory, (), –. 10.1080/09658211.2018.1508591
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2018.1508591 [Google Scholar]
  134. Waterman, A. S.
    (1982) Identity development from adolescence to adulthood: An extension of theory and a review of research. Developmental Psychology, , –. 10.1037/0012‑1649.18.3.341
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.18.3.341 [Google Scholar]
  135. Waters, T. E. A., & Fivush, R.
    (2015) Relations between narrative coherence, identity, and psychological well-being in emerging adulthood. Journal of Personality, (), –. 10.1111/jopy.12120
    https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12120 [Google Scholar]
  136. Williams, J. M. G., Barnhofer, T., Crane, C., Hermans, D., Raes, F., Watkins, E., & Dalgleish, T.
    (2007) Autobiographical memory specificity and emotional disorder. Psychological Bulletin, (), –. 10.1037/0033‑2909.133.1.122
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.122 [Google Scholar]
  137. Windgassen, S., Goldsmith, K., Moss-Morris, R., & Chalder, T.
    (2016) Establishing how psychological therapies work: The importance of mediation analysis. Journal of Mental Health, (), –. 10.3109/09638237.2015.1124400
    https://doi.org/10.3109/09638237.2015.1124400 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: emotion ; rumination ; memory ; psychopathology ; attachment ; narrative identity ; turning points ; well-being
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error