1887
Volume 27, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1387-6740
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9935
GBP
Buy:£15.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Building on recent investigations of the role of gendered discourses in constructing and maintaining sex-segregated professions this article highlights the significance of small story analysis for the identification of positioning acts which function as rhetorical warrants for career choices and trajectories. It analyses small stories told by Speech and Language Therapists (SLTs) and investigates the tensions expressed in the negotiation and performance of their gendered professional identities. Small stories act as a medium of professional identity construction, rapport-building and as a site of contestation, employed to (re)appraise the social order, particularly with respect to 'women's' and 'men's' work. Gendered discourses are shown to impact not only on the amount of men entering the SLT profession but also the specialisms and progression routes that men and women pursue. The analysis points to the reproductive and regulatory power of gendered discourses on individuals' experience of their gendered subjectivity and professional identity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/ni.27.1.01mce
2017-07-21
2018-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Ashcraft, K. L.
    (2007) Appreciating the “work” of discourse: Occupational identity and difference as organizing mechanisms in the case of commercial airline pilots. Discourse & Communication, 1(1), 9–36. doi: 10.1177/1750481307071982
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481307071982 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bamberg, M.
    (1997) Positioning between structure and performance. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 7(1–4), 335–342. doi: 10.1075/jnlh.7.42pos
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jnlh.7.42pos [Google Scholar]
  3. (2004) We are young, responsible, and male: Form and function of ‘slut-bashing’ in the identity constructions in 15 year-old males. Human Development, 47, 331–353. doi: 10.1159/000081036
    https://doi.org/10.1159/000081036 [Google Scholar]
  4. (2005) Narrative discourse and identities. In M. Bamberg Narrative beyond literary criticism. Mediality, disciplinarity (pp.213–237). Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110201840.213
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110201840.213 [Google Scholar]
  5. (2006) Stories: Big and small. Why do we care?Narrative Inquiry, 16(1), 139–147. doi: 10.1075/ni.16.1.18bam
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ni.16.1.18bam [Google Scholar]
  6. (2011a) Who am I? Narration and its contribution to self and identity. Theory and Psychology, 21(1), 3–24. doi: 10.1177/0959354309355852
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354309355852 [Google Scholar]
  7. (2011b) Narrative practice and identity navigation. In J. A. Holstein and J. F. Gubrium (Eds.), Varieties of narrative analysis (pp.99–124). CA: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bamberg, M. , & Georgakopoulou, A.
    (2008) Small stories as a new perspective in narrative and identity analysis. Text and Talk, 23(3), 377–396. doi: 10.1515/TEXT.2008.018
    https://doi.org/10.1515/TEXT.2008.018 [Google Scholar]
  9. Baxter, J.
    (2010) The language of female leadership. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Blackburn, R. M. , Browne, J. , Brooks, B. , & Jarman, J.
    (2002) Explaining gender segregation. British Journal of Sociology, 53(4), 513–536. doi: 10.1080/0007131022000021461
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0007131022000021461 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bradley, H.
    (1993) Across the gender divide: the entry of men into ‘women’s jobs’. In C. Williams (Ed.), Doing‘women’s work’: Men in non-traditional occupations (pp.10–27). London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bucholtz, M. , & Hall, K.
    (2005) Identity and interaction: A sociocultural linguistic approach. Discourse Studies, 7(4–5), 585–614. doi: 10.1177/1461445605054407
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605054407 [Google Scholar]
  13. Byrne, N.
    (2008) Differences in types and levels of altruism based on gender and program. Journal of Allied Health, 37(1), 24–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cameron, D.
    (2006) Theorising the female voice in public contexts. In J. Baxter (Ed.), Speaking out: the female voice in public contexts (pp.3–20). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Condor, S.
    (2006) Public prejudice as collaborative accomplishment: Towards a dialogic social psychology of racism. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 16, 1–18. doi: 10.1002/casp.845
    https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.845 [Google Scholar]
  16. Condor, S. , Figgou, L. , Abell, J. , Gibson, S. , & Stevenson, C.
    (2006) ‘They’re not racist…’ Prejudice denial, mitigation and suppression in dialogue. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 441–462. doi: 10.1348/014466605X66817
    https://doi.org/10.1348/014466605X66817 [Google Scholar]
  17. Connell, R. W.
    (1995) Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Costa, J. , Silva, E. , & Vaz, F.
    (2009) The Role of Gender Inequalities in Explaining Income Growth, Poverty, and Inequality: Evidences from Latin American Countries. Working Paper, 52. Brasilia: International Policy Center for Inclusive Growth.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cross, S. , & Bagilhole, B.
    (2002) Girls’ jobs for the boys? Men, masculinity and non-traditional occupations. Gender Work and Organization, 9 (2), 204–226. doi: 10.1111/1468‑0432.00156
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0432.00156 [Google Scholar]
  20. Curtis, S. , Gesler, W. , Smith, G. , & Washburn, S.
    (2000) Approaches to sampling and case selection in qualitative research: Examples in the geography of health. Social Science and Medicine, 50, 1001–1014. doi: 10.1016/S0277‑9536(99)00350‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00350-0 [Google Scholar]
  21. Davies, B. , & Harré, R.
    (1990) Positioning: The discursive production of selves. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 20(1), 43–63. doi: 10.1111/j.1468‑5914.1990.tb00174.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.1990.tb00174.x [Google Scholar]
  22. (1999) Positioning and personhood. In R. Harre & L. van Langenhove (Eds.), Positioning theory: Moral contexts of international action (pp.32–52). Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. De Cillia, R. , Reisigl, M. & Wodak, R.
    (1999) The discursive construction of national identities. Discourse & Society, 10(2), 149–173. doi: 10.1177/0957926599010002002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926599010002002 [Google Scholar]
  24. De Fina, A. , & Georgakopoulou, A.
    (2008) Analysing narratives as practices. Qualitative Research, 8, 379–387. doi: 10.1177/1468794106093634
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794106093634 [Google Scholar]
  25. Du Bois, J. W.
    (2007) The stance triangle. In R. Englebretson (ed.). Stancetaking in discourse: Subjectivity, evaluation, interaction (pp.139–182). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/pbns.164.07du
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.164.07du [Google Scholar]
  26. Fitzsimons, A.
    (2002) Gender as a verb: Gender segregation at work. Ashgate, Aldershot.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Francis, B.
    (2002) Is the future really female? The impact and implications of gender for 14–16 year olds’ career choices. Journal of Education and Work, 15(1), 75–88. doi: 10.1080/13639080120106730
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080120106730 [Google Scholar]
  28. Francis, B. , & Skelton, C.
    (2001) Men teachers and the construction of heterosexual masculinity in the classroom. Sex Education, 1(1), 9–21. doi: 10.1080/14681810120041689
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14681810120041689 [Google Scholar]
  29. Galasińska, A. , & Galasińska, D.
    (2003) Discursive strategies for coping with sensitive topics of the Other. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 29(5), 849–863. doi: 10.1080/1369183032000149604
    https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183032000149604 [Google Scholar]
  30. Georgakopoulou, A.
    (2007) Small stories, interaction and identities. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/sin.8
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sin.8 [Google Scholar]
  31. (2013) Small stories research and social media practices: Narrative stancetaking and circulation in a Greek news story. Sociolinguistica, 27(1), 19–36.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Goffman, E.
    (1981) Footing. In E. Goffman (Ed.), Forms of talk (pp.124–159). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Greatorex, R. , & Sarafidou, K.
    (2011) Surgical Workforce 2010: Profile and trends. The Royal College of Surgeons of England.
  34. Gross, E.
    (1968) Plus ca change…? The sexual structure of occupations over time. Soc. Prob., 16, 198–208.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Gottfredson, L. , & Lapan, R.
    (1997) Assessing gender based circumscription of occupational aspirations. Journal of Career Assessment, 5(4), 419–441. doi: 10.1177/106907279700500404
    https://doi.org/10.1177/106907279700500404 [Google Scholar]
  36. Harré, R. , & van Langenhove, L.
    (1991) Varieties of positioning. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 21(4), 393–407. doi: 10.1111/j.1468‑5914.1991.tb00203.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.1991.tb00203.x [Google Scholar]
  37. (eds.) (1999) Positioning theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Hakim, C.
    (ed.) (2004) Key Issues in Women’s Work: Female Heterogeneity and the Polarisation of Women’s Employment. London: Glasshouse Press, Routledge Cavendish.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2000) Work – Lifestyle Choices in the 21st Century: Preference Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Hesmondhalgh, D. , & Baker, S.
    (2015) Sex, gender and work segregation in the cultural industries. Sociological Review, 63(S1), 23–36. doi: 10.1111/1467‑954X.12238
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.12238 [Google Scholar]
  41. Huppatz, K.
    (2012) Gender Capital at Work: Intersections of Femininity, Masculinity, Class and Occupation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137284211
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137284211 [Google Scholar]
  42. Jacobs, J. A.
    (1993) Men in female-dominated fields: Trends and turnover. In C. L. Williams (Ed.), Doing “Women’s Work”: Men in non-traditional occupations (pp.49–63). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. doi: 10.4135/9781483326559.n4
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483326559.n4 [Google Scholar]
  43. Jenson, J. , Laufer, J. , & Maruani, M.
    (2000) The gendering of inequalities: Women, men and work, trans. H. Arnold . Aldershot: Ashgate.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Klasen, S. , & Lamanna, F.
    (2009) The impact of gender inequality in education and employment on economic growth: New evidence for a panel of countries. Feminist Economics, 15(3), 91–132. doi: 10.1080/13545700902893106
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13545700902893106 [Google Scholar]
  45. Korobov, N.
    (2013) Positioning identities: A discursive approach to the negotiation of gendered categories. Narrative Inquiry, 23(1), 111–131. doi: 10.1075/ni.23.1.06kor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ni.23.1.06kor [Google Scholar]
  46. Ladegaard, H. J.
    (2011) Stereotypes and the discursive accomplishment of intergroup differentiation: Talking about ‘the other’ in a global business organization. Pragmatics, 21(1), 85–109. doi: 10.1075/prag.21.1.05lad
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.21.1.05lad [Google Scholar]
  47. (2012) The discourse of powerlessness and repression: Identity construction in domestic helper narratives. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 16(4), 450–482. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2012.00541.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2012.00541.x [Google Scholar]
  48. (2015) Coping with trauma in domestic migrant worker narratives: Linguistic, emotional and psychological perspectives. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 19(2), 189–221. doi: 10.1111/josl.12117
    https://doi.org/10.1111/josl.12117 [Google Scholar]
  49. Ladegaard, H. J. , & Cheng, H. F.
    (2014) Constructing the cultural ‘other’: prejudice and intergroup conflict in university students’ discourses about ‘the other’. Language and Intercultural Communication, 14(2), 156–175. doi: 10.1080/14708477.2013.849718
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2013.849718 [Google Scholar]
  50. Litosseliti, L.
    (2006) Gender and language: Theory and practice. London: Hodder Arnold.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Litosseliti, L. , & Leadbeater, C.
    (2013a) Speech and Language Therapy: Perspectives on a Gendered Profession. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 48(1), 90–101. doi: 10.1111/j.1460‑6984.2012.00188.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-6984.2012.00188.x [Google Scholar]
  52. (2013b) Gendered Discourses in Speech and Language Therapy. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice, 8(3), 295–314. doi: 10.1558/japl.v8i3.295
    https://doi.org/10.1558/japl.v8i3.295 [Google Scholar]
  53. Lucius-Hoene, G. , & Deppermann, A.
    (2004a) Narrative Identität und Positionierung. Gesprächsforschung – Online-Zeitschrift zur verbalen Interaktion, 5, 166–183.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. (2004b) Rekonstruktion narrative Identität. Ein Arbeitsbuch zur Analyse narrative Interviews. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Lupton, B.
    (2006) Explaining men’s entry into female-concentrated occupations: Issues of masculinity and social class. Gender, Work and Organization, 13(2), 103–128. doi: 10.1111/j.1468‑0432.2006.00299.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2006.00299.x [Google Scholar]
  56. Mehan, H.
    (1990) ‘Oracular reasoning in a psychiatric exam: the resolution of conflict in language’. In A. D. Grimshaw (Ed.), Conflict talk: Sociolinguistic investigations of arguments in conversation (pp.160–77). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. McEntee-Atalianis, L. J.
    (2013) Stance and metaphor: Mapping changing representations of (organisational) identity. Discourse and Communication, 7(3), 319–340. doi: 10.1177/1750481313494498
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481313494498 [Google Scholar]
  58. McKinson, F.
    (2007) Why do men become speech and language therapists?RCSLT Bulletin, April, 12–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Muldoon, O. T. , & Reilly, J.
    (2003) Career choice in nursing students: gendered constructs as psychological barriers, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(1), 93–100. doi: 10.1046/j.1365‑2648.2003.02676.x
    https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02676.x [Google Scholar]
  60. Norton, B. , & Early, M.
    (2011) Researcher identity, narrative inquiry and language teaching research. TESOL Quarterly, 45, 415–439. doi: 10.5054/tq.2011.261161
    https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2011.261161 [Google Scholar]
  61. The Observer Editorial
    The Observer Editorial (2015, June13). The Observer view on sexism in science. www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jun/13/observer-editorial-britain-needs-more-female-scientists
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Office for National Statistics (ONS)
    Office for National Statistics (ONS) (2009) Labour Force Survey: Employment status by occupation and sex April to June 2009. (www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/Product.asp?vlnk=14248).
  63. Potter, J. , & Wetherell, M.
    (1987) Discourse and social psychology. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Pringle, R.
    (1993) Male secretaries. In C. L. Williams (Ed.), Doing “Women’s Work”: Men in non-traditional occupations (pp.128–151). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. doi: 10.4135/9781483326559.n8
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483326559.n8 [Google Scholar]
  65. Reskin, B.
    (1993) Sex segregation in the workplace. Annual Review of Sociology, 19, 241–270. doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.19.080193.001325
    https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.19.080193.001325 [Google Scholar]
  66. Reskin, B. F. , & Roos, P. A.
    (1990) Job queues, gender queues. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Sarangi, S. , & Candlin, C.
    (2010) Applied Linguistics and professional practice: Mapping a future agenda. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice, 7(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1558/japl.v7i1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1558/japl.v7i1.1 [Google Scholar]
  68. Siltanen, J. , Jarman, J. , & Blackburn, R. M.
    (1995) Gender inequality in the labour market, occupational concentration and segregation. Geneva: International Labour Office.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Simpson, R.
    (2004) Men in non-traditional occupations: career entry, career orientation and experience of role strain. Gender Work and Organization, 12(4), 363–380. doi: 10.1111/j.1468‑0432.2005.00278.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2005.00278.x [Google Scholar]
  70. Sznycer, K.
    (2013) Strong female speakers: the resistant discourse of tennis players. Gender & Language, 7(3), 303–32. doi: 10.1558/genl.v7i3.303
    https://doi.org/10.1558/genl.v7i3.303 [Google Scholar]
  71. Times Higher Education
    Times Higher Education (2014, April24). Women in STEM ‘sole focus’ of gender imbalance debate. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/women-in-stem-sole-focus-of-gender-imbalance-debate/2012863.article
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Vasquez, C.
    (2011) TESOL, teacher identities and the need for small story research. TESOL Quarterly, 45, 535–545. doi: 10.5054/tq.2011.256800
    https://doi.org/10.5054/tq.2011.256800 [Google Scholar]
  73. Wetherell, M. , Stiven, H. , & Potter, J.
    (1987) Unequal egalitarianism: A preliminary study of discourses concerning gender and employment opportunities. British Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 59–71. doi: 10.1111/j.2044‑8309.1987.tb00761.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1987.tb00761.x [Google Scholar]
  74. Wetherell, M.
    (1998) Positioning and interpretative repertoires: Conversation analysis and post-structuralism in dialogue. Discourse and Society, 9(3), 387–412. doi: 10.1177/0957926598009003005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926598009003005 [Google Scholar]
  75. Williams, C.
    (1992) The glass escalator: hidden advantages for men in the female professions. Social Problems, 39(3), 253–267. doi: 10.2307/3096961
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3096961 [Google Scholar]
  76. Williams, C. L.
    (1993) Introduction. In C. L. Williams (Ed.), Doing ‘women’s work’: Men in non-traditional occupations (pp.1–9). London: Sage. doi: 10.4135/9781483326559.n1
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483326559.n1 [Google Scholar]
  77. Williams, C.
    (2013) The glass escalator, revisited: Gender inequality in neoliberal times. Gender & Society, 27, 609–629. doi: 10.1177/0891243213490232
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243213490232 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ni.27.1.01mce
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error