Volume 71, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0108-8416
  • E-ISSN: 2212-9715
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes


This article investigates the status of so-called verb-final declaratives in Otfrid’s , with a focus on whether clauses in which there is no apparent subordinator and the finite verb occurs later than the expected verb-first or verb-second position can be treated as verb-third (V3) clauses, as they are defined for Old High German in works such as Axel (2007) and Tomaselli (1995) . Drawing on a set of 746 clauses, I argue that there is no evidence that the finite verbs in these clauses have undergone verb movement, as is claimed in the aforementioned works, nor are the asyndetic verb-late clauses with a verb in surface third position consistent with the patterns identified in the generative literature for the V3 type.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Antonsen, E.
    1975A concise grammar of the older runic inscriptions. Tübingen: Niemeyer. doi: 10.1515/9783111411583
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111411583 [Google Scholar]
  2. Axel, K.
    2007Studies on Old High German syntax: Left sentence periphery, verb placement and verb second. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.112
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.112 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bech, K.
    2001Word order patterns in Old and Middle English: A syntactic and pragmatic study. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Bergen.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Behaghel, O.
    1932Deutsche Syntax. vol.IV. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bible Gateway, ESV Bible
    Bible Gateway, ESV Bible. Copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a division of Good News Publishers. www.biblegateway.com/.
  6. Bostock, J. K.
    1976A handbook on Old High German literature. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dal, I.
    1966Kurze deutsche Syntax auf historischer Grundlage. 3rd edn.Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dresher, E. B. , Lahiri, A.
    2003 Main stress left in Early Middle English. Paper presented at the16th International Conference on Historical Linguistics. University of Copenhagen, 11th–15th August 2003.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Ebert, R. P.
    1978Historische Syntax des Deutschen. Stuttgart: Metzler.10.1007/978‑3‑476‑03873‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-476-03873-9 [Google Scholar]
  10. Eggers, H.
    (ed.) 1964Der althochdeutsche Isidor. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Eggenberger, J.
    1961Das Subjektpronomen im Althochdeutschen. Ein syntaktischer Beitrag zur Frühgeschichte des deutschen Schrifttums. Grabs: Selbstverlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Ekerot, L.
    1988Så-konstruktionen i svenskan: konstruktionstypen “om vädret tillåter, så genomföres övingen” i funktionellt grammatiskt perspektiv. Lund: Lund.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Eythórsson, T.
    1995Verbal syntax in the early Germanic languages. Ph.D. dissertation. Cornell University.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hall, T. A.
    1999 Phonotactics and the prosodic structure of German function words. In T. A. Hall , U. Kleinherz (eds.), Studies on the phonological word. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.174.06hal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.174.06hal [Google Scholar]
  15. Harbert, W.
    2007The Germanic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hinterhölzl, R. , Petrova, S.
    2010 From V1 to V2 in West Germanic. Lingua120. 315–328. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2008.10.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2008.10.007 [Google Scholar]
  17. Hopper, P.
    1975The syntax of the simple sentence in Proto-Germanic. The Hague: Mouton.10.1515/9783110879087
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110879087 [Google Scholar]
  18. Jaeggli, O. , Safir, K.
    1989 The null-subject parameter and parametric theory. In O. Jaeggli , K. Safir (eds.), The null subject parameter. Dordrecht: Kluwer. doi: 10.1007/978‑94‑009‑2540‑3_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2540-3_1 [Google Scholar]
  19. Jäger, A.
    2005 Negation in Old High German. Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft24. 227–262. doi: 10.1515/zfsw.2005.24.2.227
    https://doi.org/10.1515/zfsw.2005.24.2.227 [Google Scholar]
  20. Koopman, W.
    1997 Another look at clitics in Old English. Transactions of the Philological Society95. 73–93. doi: 10.1111/1467‑968X.00013
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-968X.00013 [Google Scholar]
  21. Lenerz, J.
    1985 Diachronic syntax: Verb position and COMP in German. In J. Toman (ed.), Studies in German grammar, 103–132. Dordrecht: Foris.10.1515/9783110882711‑006
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110882711-006 [Google Scholar]
  22. Lockwood, W.
    1968Historical German syntax. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Magoun, F.
    1943a Otfrid’s Ad Liutbertum . PMLA58(4). 869–890. doi: 10.2307/458915
    https://doi.org/10.2307/458915 [Google Scholar]
  24. 1943b Otfrid’s Ad Liutbertum and OHG Tatian. Modern Languages Notes58(5). 357–361. doi: 10.2307/2910374
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2910374 [Google Scholar]
  25. Näf, A.
    1979Die Wortstellung in Notkers Consolatio. Berlin: De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Petrova, S.
    2006 A discourse-based approach to verb placement in Early West-Germanic. In S. Ishihara , M. Schmitz , A. Schwarz (eds.), Interdisciplinary studies on information structure (ISIS) 5, 1–32. Potsdam: Universitätsverlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Petrova, S. , Solf, M.
    2008 Rhetorical relations and verb placement in the Early Germanic languages: A cross-linguistic perspective. In C. Fabricius-Hansen , W. Ramm (eds.), “Subordination” versus “coordination” in sentence and text: A cross-linguistic perspective, 329–51. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/slcs.98.18pet
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.98.18pet [Google Scholar]
  28. Piper, P.
    (ed.) 1884Otfrids Evangelienbuch. II. Teil: Glossar und Abriss der Grammatik. Freiburg: Akademische Verlagsbuchhandlung.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Robinson, O. W.
    1997Clause subordination and verb placement in the Old High German ‘Isidor’ translation. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rohrbacher, B. W.
    1999Morphology-Driven Syntax: a Theory of V to I Raising and Pro-drop. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/la.15
    https://doi.org/10.1075/la.15 [Google Scholar]
  31. Russom, G.
    2001 Metrical evidence for subordinate stress in Old English. Journal of Germanic Linguistics13. 39–64.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Schrodt, R.
    2004Althochdeutsche Grammatik II: Syntax. Tübingen: Niemeyer. doi: 10.1515/9783110930870
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110930870 [Google Scholar]
  33. Sievers, E.
    (ed.) 1961Tatian: Lateinisch und altdeutsch mit ausführlichem Glossar. 2nd edn.Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Somers, K. , Dubenion-Smith, S.
    2014 The intersection between syntax and meter in the Old Saxon Hêliand . Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik72. 83–134. doi: 10.1163/9789401211017_005
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789401211017_005 [Google Scholar]
  35. Somers Wicka, K.
    2009From phonology to syntax: Pronominal cliticization in Otfrid’s Evangelienbuch. Tübingen: Niemeyer. doi: 10.1515/9783484971554
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783484971554 [Google Scholar]
  36. Sundquist, J.
    2007 Variable use of negation in Middle Low German. In J. Salmons , S. Dubenion-Smith (eds.), Historical linguistics 2005: Selected papers from the 17th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Madison, 31 July–5 August 2005. Amsterdam: Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/cilt.284.12sun
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cilt.284.12sun [Google Scholar]
  37. TITUS edition of Otfrid Evangelienbuch
    TITUS edition of Otfrid Evangelienbuch. Last modifiedAugust 23, 2010. titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/etcs/germ/ahd/otfrid/otfri.htm.
  38. Tomaselli, A.
    1995 Cases of verb-third in Old High German. In A. Battye , I. Roberts (eds.), Clause structure and language change, 345–69. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Vollmann-Profe, G.
    (ed.) 1987Otfrid von Weissenburg. Evangelienbuch. Althochdeutsch/Neuhochdeutsch. Stuttgart: Reclam.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Walkden, G.
    2014Syntactic reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712299.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712299.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  41. Wissmann, W.
    1960 Zum althochdeutschen Tatian. In W. Krause (ed.), Indogermanica. Festschrift für Wolfgang Krause, 249–267. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Wöllstein-Leisten, A. , Heilmann, A. , Stepan, P. , Vikner, S.
    1997Deutsche Satzstruktur. Grundlagen der syntaktischen Analyse. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Wunder, D.
    1965Der Nebensatz bei Otfrid. Untersuchungen zur Syntax des deutschen Nebensatzes. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error