1887
Volume 73, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0108-8416
  • E-ISSN: 2212-9715
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

The use of basic word lists has long been common in the fields of second language acquisition and language typology. The application to the study of mutual intelligibility between closely related languages on the other hand has never gained much traction. This article will analyse the degree of mutual intelligibility between the vocabularies of Old English (Anglian) and Old Norse (Old Icelandic) with the use of the Leipzig-Jakarta List which ranks vocabulary by their resistance to borrowing. The entries were transliterated to the International Phonetic Alphabet and truncated so that only the word-roots remained. The entries were then compared using a rule-set based on phonetic deviations, the so-called Levenshtein Distance and a method derived from it called ALINE. The study finds a relatively low phonetic distance between the lists and concludes that they are overall close enough to be mutually intelligible.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/nowele.00042.kel
2020-10-16
2020-11-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Barnes, M.
    1992 Norse in the British Isles. In A. Faulkes & R. Perkins (eds.), Viking revaluations. Viking Society centenary symposium 14–15 May 1992, 65–84. London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Baetke, W.
    2006Wörterbuch zur altnordischen Prosaliteratur. Digital. Edited by H. Fix Greifswald: Universität Greifswald. Available at: emedien.ub.uni-greifswald.de/ebooks/altnord-wb/baetke_digital.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Benediktsson, H.
    1961 The earliest Germanic phonology. Lingua10. 237–254. 10.1016/0024‑3841(61)90130‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(61)90130-9 [Google Scholar]
  4. Berg, I.
    2016 A note on the relationship between Scandinavian and Low German. Journal of Historial Sociolinguistics2(2). 189–210. 10.1515/jhsl‑2016‑0012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsl-2016-0012 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bosworth, J. & T. N. Toller
    1955An Anglo-Saxon dictionary: Based on the manuscript collections of Joseph Bosworth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Braunmüller, K.
    2002 Semicommunication and accommodation: Observations from the linguistic situation in Scandinavia. International Journal of Applied Linguistics12(1). 1–23. 10.1111/1473‑4192.00022
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1473-4192.00022 [Google Scholar]
  7. 2012 Semi-communication and beyond. Some results of the Hamburg Hanseatic Project (1990–1995). In L. Elemevik & E. H. Jahr (eds.), Contact between Low German and Scandiavian in the Late Middle Ages. 25 years of research, 75–94. Stockholm: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademien för Svensk folkkultur.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brinton, L. J.
    1996Pragmatic markers in English: Grammaticalization and discourse functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110907582
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110907582 [Google Scholar]
  9. Brinton, L. J. & L. K. Arnovick
    2017The English language: A linguistic history, 3rd edn.Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1017/9781316286562
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316286562 [Google Scholar]
  10. Brunner, K.
    1965Altenglische Grammatik: Nach der angelsächsischen Grammatik von Eduard Sievers, 3rd edn.Tübingen: Niemeyer. 10.1515/9783110930894
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110930894 [Google Scholar]
  11. Campbell, A.
    1959Old English grammar. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Coates, R.
    2006 Behind the dictionary-forms of Scandinavian elements in England. Journal of the English Place-Name Society38. 43–61.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cole, M.
    2018 A native origin for Present-Day English they, their, them . Diachronica35(2). 165–209. 10.1075/dia.16026.col
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dia.16026.col [Google Scholar]
  14. Czaykowksa-Higgins, E. & M. D. Kinkade
    1998 Salish languages and linguistics. In E. Czaykowksa-Higgins & M. D. Kinkade (eds.), Salish languages and linguistics. Theoretical and descriptive perspectives, 1–68. Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110801255.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110801255.1 [Google Scholar]
  15. Davis, G.
    2006Comparative syntax of Old English and Old Icelandic. Oxford: Peter Lang.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Delsing, L.-O. & K. L. Åkeson
    2005Håller språket ihop Norden? En forskningsrapport om ungdomars förståelse av danska, svenska och norska. Copenhagen: Nordiska Ministerrådet. 10.6027/tn2005‑573
    https://doi.org/10.6027/tn2005-573 [Google Scholar]
  17. DOE = Cameron, A. , A. Crandell Amos , A. diPaolo Healey
    2018Dictionary of Old English: A to I online. Retrieved fromhttps://tapor.library.utoronto.ca/doe/
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Downey, S. , G. Sun & G. Kondrak
    2017 Alignment of Phonetic Sequences Using the ‘ALINE’ Algorithm (AlineR). R.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Downey, S. , G. Sun & P. Norquest
    2017 AlineR: An R package for optimizing feature-weighted alignments and linguistic distances. The R Journal9(1). 138. 10.32614/RJ‑2017‑005
    https://doi.org/10.32614/RJ-2017-005 [Google Scholar]
  20. Durkin, P.
    2014Borrowed words: A history of loanwords in English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574995.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574995.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  21. Fjalldal, M.
    1993 How valid is the Anglo-Scandinavian language passage in Gunnlaug’s Saga as historical evidence?Neophilologus77. 601–609. 10.1007/BF00999968
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00999968 [Google Scholar]
  22. Fleming, R.
    2010Britain after Rome. The fall and rise, 400–1070. London: Allen Lane.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Foote, P. G.
    1974Gunnlaugssaga ormstungu. London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Forte, A. , R. D. Oram & F. Pedersen
    2005Viking empires. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gooskens, C. & W. Heeringa
    2004 The position of Frisian in the Germanic language area. In D. Gilbers , M. Schreuder & N. Knevel (eds.), On the boundaries of phonology and phonetics, 61–87. Groningen: University of Groningen.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gooskens, C.
    2006 Linguistic and extra-Linguistic Predictors of inter-Scandinavian intelligibility. Linguistics in the Netherlands23. 101–13. 10.1075/avt.23.12goo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/avt.23.12goo [Google Scholar]
  27. 2007 The contribution of linguistic factors to the intelligibility of closely related languages. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development28(6). 445–467. 10.2167/jmmd511.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/jmmd511.0 [Google Scholar]
  28. Haas, W.
    2014 Sprache in Variation – und warum sich die Deutschschweizer trotzdem verstehen. In E. Glaser , A. Kolmer , M. Meyer & E. Stark (eds.), Sprache(n) verstehen, 127–150. Zürich: vdf Hochschulverlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hadley, D.
    2002 Viking and native: Re-thinking identity in the Danelaw. Early Medieval Europe11(1). 45–70. 10.1111/1468‑0254.00100
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0254.00100 [Google Scholar]
  30. Hagland, J. R.
    2000 “Alls vér erum einnar tungu” – igjen: Språkhistorisk realitet eller litterært topos?Íslenskt mál og almenn málfræði22. 107–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Harðarson, G.
    1999 “Alls vér erum einnar tungu”. Um skyldleika ensku og íslensku í Fyrstu málfræðiritgerðinni. Íslenskt mál og almenn málfræði21. 11–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Haspelmath, M. & U. Tadmor
    2009 The Loanword Typology Project and the World Loanword Database. In M. Haspalmath & U. Tadmor (eds.). Loanwords in the world’s languages. A comparative handbook. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110218442.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110218442.1 [Google Scholar]
  33. Haugen, E.
    1966 Semicommunication: The language gap in Scandinavia. Sociological Inquiry36(2). 280–297. 10.1111/j.1475‑682X.1966.tb00630.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1966.tb00630.x [Google Scholar]
  34. Heeringa, W.
    2004 Measuring dialect pronunciation differences using Levensthein Distance. PhD Thesis, University of Groningen.
  35. Heusler, A.
    1932Altisländisches Elementarbuch. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. van Heuven, V. J.
    2008 Making sense of strange sounds: (Mutual) intelligibility of related language varieties. A review. International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing2(1–2). 39–62. 10.3366/E1753854809000305
    https://doi.org/10.3366/E1753854809000305 [Google Scholar]
  37. Higham, N. J. & M. J. Ryan
    2013The Anglo-Saxon world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Hines, J.
    1990 Philology, archaeology and the adventus Saxonum vel Anglorum. In A. Bammesberger & A. Wollmann (eds.), Britain 400–600: Language and history, 17–36. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Hogg, R. M.
    1992A grammar of Old English. Volume 1: Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. International Phonetic Association
    International Phonetic Association 2013Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the international phonetic alphabet, 14th print edn.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Jensen, J. B.
    1989 On the Mutual Intelligibility of Spanish and Portuguese. Hispania72(4). 848–852. 10.2307/343562
    https://doi.org/10.2307/343562 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kirchmeier, S. & E. S. Jansen
    2016 Nordisk sprogforståelse og kommunikationsstrategier. Sprog i Norden 2016, 61–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Kondrak, G.
    2000 A new algorithm for the alignment of phonetic sequences. Proceedings of the first meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics Conference, 288–295. N.p.: Association for Computational Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 2002 Algorithms for language reconstruction. PhD Thesis, University of Toronto.
  45. Kondrak, G. & T. Sherif
    2006 Evaluation of several phonetic similarity algorithms on the task of cognate identification. In J. Nerbonne & E. Hinrichs (eds.), Proceedings of the COLING-ACL Workshop on Linguistic Distances, 43–50. Association for Computational Linguistics. 10.3115/1641976.1641983
    https://doi.org/10.3115/1641976.1641983 [Google Scholar]
  46. Kruskal, J. B.
    1983 An overview of sequence comparison: Time warps, string edits, and Macromolecules. SIAM Review25(2). 201–37. 10.1137/1025045
    https://doi.org/10.1137/1025045 [Google Scholar]
  47. Lass, R.
    1994Old English. A historical linguistic companion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511621000
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621000 [Google Scholar]
  48. Lavelle, R.
    2010Alfred’s wars. Sources and interpretations of Anglo-Saxon warfare in the Viking Age. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Levenshtein, V. I.
    1966 Binary codes capable of correcting deletions, insertions, and reversals. Soviet Physics Doklady10(8). 707–710.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Mattingly, D.
    2006An imperial possession. Britain in the Roman Empire. London: Penguin.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. McCarthy, M.
    1999 What constitutes a basic vocabulary for spoken communication?Studies in English Language and Literature1. 233–249.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Moulton, W. G.
    1988 Mutual intelligibility among speakers of early Germanic dialects. In D. G. Calder & T. C. Christy (eds.), Germania. Comparative studies in the Old Germanic languages and literatures, 9–28. Wolfeboro, NH: D. S. Brewer.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Nedoma, R.
    2006Kleine Grammatik des Altisländischen. Heidelberg: Winter.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Nesse, A.
    2002Språkkontakt mellon norsk og tysk i hansatidens Bergen. Oslo: Novus forlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 2012 Norwegian and German in Bergen. In L. Elemevik & E. H. Jahr (eds.), Contact between Low German and Scandiavian in the Late Middle Ages. 25 Years of Research, 95–112. Uppsala: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademien för svensk folkkultur.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Nielsen, H. F.
    2015 The vowel systems of Old English, Old Norse and Old High German compared. In J. O. Aksedal & H. F. Nielsen (eds.), Early Germanic languages in contact, 261–276. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 10.1075/nss.27.14nie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/nss.27.14nie [Google Scholar]
  57. Noreen, A.
    1970Altnordische Grammatik. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Ogden, C. K.
    1932Basic English. A general introduction with rules and grammar, 2nd edn. London: Kegan Paul.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Pagel, M. , Q. D. Atkinson & A. Meade
    2007 Frequency of word-use predicts rates of lexical evolution throughout Indo-European history. Nature449(11). 717–721. 10.1038/nature06176
    https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06176 [Google Scholar]
  60. Richards, J. D.
    2000Viking Age England. Stroud: Tempus.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Robinson, O. W.
    1992Old English and its closest relatives. A Survey of the earliest Germanic languages. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Sağın-Şimşek, Ç. & W. König
    2011 Receptive multilingualism and language understanding: Intelligibility of Azerbaijani to Turkish speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism16(3). 315–331. 10.1177/1367006911426449
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006911426449 [Google Scholar]
  63. Salway, P.
    1981Roman Britain. Oxford: Clarendon.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Sawyer, B. & P. Sawyer
    1993Medieval Scandinavia: From conversion to reformation, circa 800–1500. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Schrijver, P.
    2014Language contact and the origin of Germanic languages. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Swadesh, M.
    1950 Salish internal relationships. International Journal of American Linguistics16(4). 157–167. 10.1086/464084
    https://doi.org/10.1086/464084 [Google Scholar]
  67. Swan, M.
    2001 Authorship and anonymity. In P. Pulsiano & E. Treharne (eds.), A companion to Anglo-Saxon literature, 71–83. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Tadmor, U. , M. Haspelmath & B. Taylor
    2010 Borrowability and the notion of basic vocabulary. Diachronica21(2). 226–246.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Toon, T. E.
    1992 Old English dialects. In R. M. Hogg (ed.), The Cambridge history of the English language, 421–426. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Townend, M.
    2002Language and history in Viking Age England. Linguistic relations between speakers of Old Norse and Old English. Turnhout: Brepols. 10.1484/M.SEM‑EB.5.106296
    https://doi.org/10.1484/M.SEM-EB.5.106296 [Google Scholar]
  71. Wright, J. & E. M. Wright
    1982Old English grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/nowele.00042.kel
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/nowele.00042.kel
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error