1887
Volume 28, Issue 1
  • ISSN 0929-0907
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9943
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

While databases of taboo language word norms exist, none focus specifically on slurs as a category of taboo language. Furthermore, no existing databases include measures of linguistic reclamation, a phenomenon which may specifically affect the processing of slurs. I produced a database in which 155 native or near-native speakers of British English rated 41 LGBTQ+ slurs for a number of word properties and measures of linguistic reclamation. I then ran correlation and demographic group comparison analyses on the resulting database. I found a clear correlation pattern between properties and reclamation behaviours. I also found that there were age-related differences in age of acquisition and familiarity ratings; that gender identity and sexual identity differences were affected by being the target of slurs; and that sexual identity particularly affected differences in reclamation ratings.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/pc.00023.edm
2022-03-16
2022-05-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allan, Keith & Kate Burridge
    2006Forbidden words: Taboo and the censoring of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511617881
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511617881 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allan, Keith
    2019 Taboo Words and Language: An Overview. InKeith Allan (ed.), The Oxford Book of Taboo Words and Language. 1–27. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson, Adam K. & Elizabeth A. Phelps
    2002 Is the human amygdala critical for the subjective experience of emotion? Evidence of intact dispositional affect in patients with amygdala lesions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience14(5). 709–720. 10.1162/08989290260138618
    https://doi.org/10.1162/08989290260138618 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baker, Paul
    2008Sexed texts: Language, gender and sexuality. London: Equinox.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bayer, Mareike, Werner Sommer & Annekathrin Schacht
    2012 P1 and beyond: Functional separation of multiple emotion effects in word recognition. Psychophysiology49. 959–969. 10.1111/j.1469‑8986.2012.01381.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01381.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Bianchi, Claudia
    2014 Slurs and appropriation: An echoic account. Journal of Pragmatics66. 35–44. 10.1016/j.pragma.2014.02.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.02.009 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bradley, Margaret M. & Peter J. Lang
    1999Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW): Instruction Manual and Affective Ratings (Technical Report C-1). Gainesville, FA: University of Florida.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brontsema, Robin
    2004 A queer revolution: Reconceptualizing the debate over linguistic reclamation. Colorado Research in Linguistics17. 10.25810/dky3‑zq57
    https://doi.org/10.25810/dky3-zq57 [Google Scholar]
  9. Brown, Penelope
    1980 How and why are women more polite: Some evidence from a Mayan community. InSally McConnell-Ginet, Ruth Borker & Nelly Furman (eds.), Women and language in literature and society, 111–136. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brown, Roger & James Kulik
    1977 Flashbulb memories. Cognition5. 73–99. 10.1016/0010‑0277(77)90018‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(77)90018-X [Google Scholar]
  11. Brysbaert, Marc & Michael J. Cortese
    2011 Do the effects of subjective frequency and age of acquisition survive better word frequency norms?Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology64. 545–559. 10.1080/17470218.2010.503374
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2010.503374 [Google Scholar]
  12. Callahan, Matthew P. & Kyle T. Zukowski
    2019 Reactions to transgender women and men in public restrooms: Correlates and gender differences. Journal of Homosexuality66(1). 117–138. 10.1080/00918369.2017.1395661
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2017.1395661 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cameron, Deborah
    2006On language and sexual politics. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chen, Melinda Y-C.
    1998 ‘“I am an Animal!”: Lexical Reappropriation, Performativity, and Queer’. Engendering Communication: Proceedings from the Fifth Berkeley Women and Language Conference, 128–140.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Coates, Jennifer
    1988 Gossip revisited: Language in all female groups. InJennifer Coates & Deborah Cameron (eds.), Language & Gender: A Reader (2nd ed.) 263–274. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Coleman-Fountain, Edmund
    2014 Lesbian and gay youth and the question of labels. Sexualities17(7). 802–817. 10.1177/1363460714531432
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460714531432 [Google Scholar]
  17. Crissman, Halley P., Christina Czuhajewski, Michelle H. Moniz, Missy Plegue & Tammy Chang
    2019 Youth perspectives regarding the regulating of bathroom use by transgender individuals. Journal of Homosexuality67(14). 10.1080/00918369.2019.1618646
    https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2019.1618646 [Google Scholar]
  18. Croom, Adam M.
    2011 Slurs. Language Sciences33(3). 343–358. 10.1016/j.langsci.2010.11.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2010.11.005 [Google Scholar]
  19. Elischberger, Holger B., Jessica J. Glazier, Eric D. Hill & Lynn Verduzco-Baker
    2016 “Boys don’t cry” – or do they? Adult attitudes toward and beliefs about transgender youth. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research75(5–6). 197–214. 10.1007/s11199‑016‑0609‑y
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0609-y [Google Scholar]
  20. Field, Andy
    2013Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics, 4th edn. London: SAGE.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fishman, Pamela M.
    1980 Conversational insecurity. InHoward Giles, W. Peter Robinson & Philip M. Smith (eds.), Language: Social Psychological Perspectives, 127–132. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 10.1016/B978‑0‑08‑024696‑3.50024‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-024696-3.50024-7 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gaucher, Danielle, Brianna Hunt & Lisa Sinclair
    2015 Can pejorative terms ever lead to positive social consequences? The case of SlutWalk. Language Sciences52. 10.1016/j.langsci.2015.03.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2015.03.005 [Google Scholar]
  23. Gramsci, Antonio
    1971Selections from Prison Notebooks. Trans.Quintin Hoare & Geoffrey Nowell-Smith. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 1985Selections from Cultural Writings. Eds.David Forgacs, & Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, trans.William Boelhower. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hart, Anna
    2001 Mann-Whitney test is not just a test of medians: Differences in spread can be important. BMJ323. 391–393. 10.1136/bmj.323.7309.391
    https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7309.391 [Google Scholar]
  26. Herbert, Cassie
    2015 Precarious projects: The performative structure of reclamation. Language Sciences52. 131–138. 10.1016/j.langsci.2015.05.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2015.05.002 [Google Scholar]
  27. Holmes, Janet
    1995Women, men and politeness. New York: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Janschewitz, Kristin
    2008 Taboo, emotionally valenced, and emotionally neutral word norms. Behavior Research Methods40(4), 1065–1074. 10.3758/BRM.40.4.1065
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.4.1065 [Google Scholar]
  29. Jay, Timothy, Catherine Caldwell-Harris & Krista King
    2008 Recalling taboo and nontaboo words. American Journal of Psychology121. 83–103. 10.2307/20445445
    https://doi.org/10.2307/20445445 [Google Scholar]
  30. Juhasz, Barbara J., Melvin J. Yap, Joanna Dicke, Sarah C. Taylor & Margaret M. Gullick
    2011 Tangible words are recognized faster: The grounding of meaning in sensory and perceptual systems. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology64(9). 1683–1691. 10.1080/17470218.2011.605150
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2011.605150 [Google Scholar]
  31. Kensinger, Elizabeth A. & Suzanne Corkin
    2003 Memory enhancement for emotional words: Are emotional words more vividly remembered than neutral words?Memory & Cognition31(8). 1169–1180. 10.3758/BF03195800
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195800 [Google Scholar]
  32. LaBar, Kevin. S., & Elizabeth A. Phelps
    1998 Arousal-mediated memory consolidation: Role of the medial temporal lobe in humans. Psychological Science9(6). 490–493. 10.1111/1467‑9280.00090
    https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00090 [Google Scholar]
  33. Lehmann, Erich L.
    2006Nonparametrics: Statistical methods based on ranks. New York: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Madan, Chris R., Andrea T. Shafer, Michelle Chan & Anthony Singhal
    2017 Shock and awe: Distinct effects of taboo words on lexical decision and free recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology70(4). 793–810. 10.1080/17470218.2016.1167925
    https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2016.1167925 [Google Scholar]
  35. Mann, Henry. B. & Donald R. Whitney
    1947 On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. Annals of Mathematical Sciences18. 50–60. 10.1214/aoms/1177730491
    https://doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177730491 [Google Scholar]
  36. Parent, Mike C. & Kevin Silva
    2018 Critical consciousness moderates the relationship between transphobia and “bathroom bill” voting. Journal of Counseling Psychology65(4). 403–412. 10.1037/cou0000270
    https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000270 [Google Scholar]
  37. Russell, Stephen. T., Thomas J. Clarke, & Justin Clary
    2009 Are Teens “Post Gay”? Contemporary Adolescents’ Sexual Identity Labels. Journal of Youth and Adolescence38(7). 884–890. 10.1007/s10964‑008‑9388‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9388-2 [Google Scholar]
  38. Spearman, Charles
    1904 The proof and measurement of association between two things. The American Journal of Psychology15(1). 72–101. 10.2307/1412159
    https://doi.org/10.2307/1412159 [Google Scholar]
  39. Stevens, Hugh
    2011 Normality and queerness in gay fiction. InHugh Stevens (ed.), The Cambridge companion to gay and lesbian writing, 81–96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. White, Edmund
    1980 The Political Vocabulary of Homosexuality. InLucy Burke, Tony Crowley, & Alan Girvin (eds.) 2000, The Routledge Language and Cultural Theory Reader, 189–196. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/pc.00023.edm
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/pc.00023.edm
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): gender identity; linguistic reclamation; sexual identity; slurs; taboo language; word norms
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error