Volume 25, Issue 2
  • ISSN 0929-0907
  • E-ISSN: 1569-9943
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The current study investigates Arabic orientational metaphors in Modern Standard Arabic. Specifically, it is a corpus-based study that tries to retrieve conceptual orientational metaphors of , and spatial orientation. The study assumes that every orientation can be described using a set of different lexemes, and these lexemes express different linguistic orientational metaphors with different levels of usage frequency. It is hypothesized that studying the relationships between these lexemes, their etymologies, and frequency can provide a detailed, integrative account of metaphorical aspects and conceptual systems related to each spatial orientation. A bottom-up methodology to identify metaphorical usages of spatial lexemes was applied to the . The results list the spatial linguistic metaphors comprising conceptual metaphors and show for each orientation that mapping orientations onto conceptual metaphors is a complicated process, which integrates linguistic and cognitive levels. The cognitive-perceptual and cultural implications of these findings are discussed.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. De la Fuente, Juanma, Julio Santiago, Antonio Roman, Cristina G. Dumitrache & Daniel Casasanto
    2014 When you think about it, your past is in front of you: How culture shapes spatial conceptions of time. Psychological Science25. 1682–1690. 10.1177/0956797614534695
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614534695 [Google Scholar]
  2. Dunning, Ted E.
    1993 Accurate methods for the statistics of surprise and coincidence. Computational Linguistics19. 61–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Evert, Stefan
    2008 Corpora and collocations. InAnke Lüdeling & Merja Kytö (eds.), Corpus linguistics: An international handbook, 1212–1248. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Fedriani, Chiara
    2016 Ontological and orientational metaphors in Latin. InWilliam Michael Short (ed.), Embodiment in Latin semantics, 115–140. New York: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Fellbaum, Christiane
    2006 WordNet(s). InKeith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics, 2nd edn, 665–700. Oxford: Elsevier. 10.1016/B0‑08‑044854‑2/00946‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00946-9 [Google Scholar]
  6. Gibbs, Raymond
    (ed.) 2008The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. New York: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511816802
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816802 [Google Scholar]
  7. Gibbs, Raymond & Ana Cristina Macedo
    2010 Metaphor and embodied cognition. DELTA: Documentação de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada26. 679–700. www.scielo.br/scielo.phpscript=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-44502010000300014&lng=en&nrm=iso.(18November 2017) doi:  10.1590/S0102‑44502010000300014
    https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-44502010000300014 [Google Scholar]
  8. Green, Spence & Christopher Manning
    2010 Better Arabic parsing: Baselines, evaluations, and analysis. InCOLING ’10 Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 394–402. Beijing, China; August23–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hardie, Andrew
    . UCREL Significance Test System. Lancaster University. Available atcorpora.lancs.ac.uk/sigtest/ (23November 2017).
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hong, Tian, Xianyou He, Richard Tillman, Xueru Zhao & Yumei Deng
    2017 The vertical and horizontal spatial-temporal conceptual metaphor representation of Chinese temporal words. Psychology8. 1679–1692. 10.4236/psych.2017.811111
    https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2017.811111 [Google Scholar]
  11. Horn, Fabian
    2016 Metaphor and spatial conceptualization: Observation on orientational metaphors in Lycophron’s Alexandra. InFabian Horn & Cilliers Breytenbach (eds.), Spatial metaphors: Ancient texts and transformations, 85–102. Berlin: Topoi.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kilgarriff, Adam, Vit Baisa, Jan Bŭsta, Miloš Jacubíček, Vojtěch Kovář, Jan Michelfeit, Pavel Rychlý & Vít Suchomel
    2014 The Sketch Engine: Ten years on. Lexicography1. 7–36. 10.1007/s40607‑014‑0009‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s40607-014-0009-9 [Google Scholar]
  13. Kolesnikova, Olga
    2016 Survey of word co-occurrence measures for collocation detection. Computacion Y Sistema20. 327–344.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lakoff, George
    1987Women, fire, and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press. 10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226471013.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  15. 2012 Explaining embodied cognition results. Topics in Cognitive Science4. 773–785. 10.1111/j.1756‑8765.2012.01222.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-8765.2012.01222.x [Google Scholar]
  16. Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson
    1980Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Levinson, Stephen
    2003Space in language and cognition: Explorations in cognitive diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511613609
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511613609 [Google Scholar]
  18. Majid, Asif, Melissa Bowerman, Sotaro Kita, Daniel B. M. Haun & Stephen C. Levinson
    2004 Can language restructure cognition? The case for space. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences8. 104–114. 10.1016/j.tics.2004.01.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.01.003 [Google Scholar]
  19. Matta, Hilda
    2016 Orientational metaphors in English, German, and Egyptian-Arabic: A comparative study with comments on the underlying theoretical basis. A paper presented inThe Metaphors: Retrospect and Prospects Conference. Genoa, Italy. May 22.
  20. Pragglejaz Group
    Pragglejaz Group 2007 MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor & Symbol22. 1–39. 10.1080/10926480709336752
    https://doi.org/10.1080/10926480709336752 [Google Scholar]
  21. Semino, Elena & Zsófia Demjen
    (eds.) 2017The Routledge handbook of metaphors and language. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Speer, Robert & Catherine Havasi
    2012 Representing general relational knowledge in ConceptNet 5. Proceedings of theEighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-2012).
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Steen, Gerard J.
    2017 Identifying metaphors in language. InElena Semino & Zsófia Demjen (eds.), The Routledge handbook of metaphors and language, 73–87. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Steen, Gerard J., Aletta G. Dorst, J. Berenike Herrmann, Anna A. Kaal, Tina Krennmayr & Trijntje Pasma
    2010A method for linguistic metaphor identification: From MIP to MIPVU. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/celcr.14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/celcr.14 [Google Scholar]
  25. Stefanowitsch, Anatol
    2006 Words and their metaphors: A corpus based approach. InAnatol Stefanowitsch & Stefan T. Gries (eds.), Corpus-based approach to metaphors and metonymy, 63–105. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Tissari, Heli
    2017 Corpus-linguistics approaches to metaphor analysis. InElena Semino & Zsófia Demjen (eds.), The Routledge handbook of metaphors and language, 117–130. London & New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Arabic; cognitive linguistics; lexical networks; metaphors
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error