Volume 28, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238


The present study provides an overview of the quotative utterances made with (past form of ‘to say’) and (the combination of and the past form of the construction) in naturally occurring conversations in Japanese. The examination of approximately 13 hours of conversations shows that is used in 91.1% of first-person quotations (‘I said that…’). In second-person (‘you said that…’) and third-person (‘he/she said that…’) quotations, is used in 90.0%, and 77.3% of the cases, respectively. The present study argues that the high percentage of for second- and third-person quotative utterances is due to the fact that the - construction, which is included in , is used as an evidential marker. The present study also analyzes the deviant cases from the dominant pattern (i.e. using for third-person utterances), and demonstrates how -’s evidential function is utilized manipulatively in conversation.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): -te iru; evidential marker; itta; itte ita; Japanese; pragmatics; psychological impact; subjectivity
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