1887
Volume 28, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

The aim of this article is twofold: first, to analyze and characterize forms of address in present-day Basque from a linguistic and sociolinguistic point of view, and, second, to underscore some of the distinctive features that make Basque interesting with regard to address.

This work characterizes forms and systems of address in Basque based on two main factors: second-person pronouns and allocutivity. Five types are proposed depending on dialectal variety, and the existing differences in each of these systems are described. This article aims to fill a gap in Basque studies by analyzing modes of address in present-day Basque as a whole and going beyond mere grammatical analysis: previous studies are rather partial and confusing in terms of linguistic description, dialectal distribution and social usage (hierarchy among modes of address); in contrast, this article, based on extensive field work, gives an account of the different address systems according to the dialect and shows the sociopragmatic value (i.e., level of formality or politeness and personal distance) that each mode of address acquires in its system.

The article will also highlight some of the distinctive linguistic features that make Basque interesting with regard to address. Forms of address in Basque display strong similarities with those in other languages in terms of the pronominal system and its historical development, yet they also show some distinctive features, namely: verbal allocutivity, which presents the speaker-hearer axis; gender differences in verb forms for familiar address; and the grammaticalization of expressive palatalization in the case of the form of address ( being an expressive variant of the polite pronoun ). Current trends towards simplification of the systems of address are also discussed, as is the existence of groups of speakers who use a simplified system.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.00009.alb
2018-08-27
2019-08-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Alberdi, Xabier (Jabier)
    1994 Euskararen tratamenduak: erabilera [Use of modes of address in Basque]. Ph.D. University of the Basque Country.
  2. 1995 “The Development of the Basque System of Terms of Address and the Allocutive Conjugation.” InTowards a History of the Basque Language, ed. by Jose Ignacio Hualde , Joseba Andoni Lakarra and Robert Larry Trask , 275–295. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 1996Euskararen tratamenduak: erabilera [Use of modes of address in Basque: Use]. Bilbao: Euskaltzaindia.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Artola, Koldo
    1991 “Fidela Bernat anderea, euskal hiztun erronkariarra [Mrs. Fidela Bernat, a Basque Speaker from the Erronkari valley].” Fontes Linguae Vasconum58: 247–281.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Azkarate, Miren
    2012 “The Current Situation of the Basque Language Speakers.” InThe Challenge of a Bilingual Society in the Basque Country, ed. by Pello Salaburu , and Xabier Alberdi , 113–135. Reno (Nevada): Center for Basque Studies, University of Nevada (Reno); Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Azkue, Resurrección María
    1923–1925Morfología vasca [Gramática básica dialectal del Euskera]) [1969, Bilbao: La Gran Enciclopedia Vasca.]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 1932Particularidades del dialecto roncalés. Bilbao: Ed. Vasca.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Basque Autonomous Community. Department of Education, Language Policy and Culture [Google Scholar]
  9. Bishop, Kelly ; and Jim Michnowicz
    2010 “Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish.” Hispania93: 413–429.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bonaparte, Louis-Lucien
    1863Carte des sept provinces basques montrant la délimitation actuelle de l’euscara et sa division en dialectes, sous-dialectes et variétés. London: Stanford’s Geographical Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 1869Le verbe basque en tableaux, accompagné de notes grammaticales, selon les huit dialectes de l’Euskara…, London. Online version: www.ehu.eus/seg/_media/egile/bonaparte/obra/n0885192_pdf_1_-1dm.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Braun, Friederike ; Armin Kohz , and Klaus Schubert
    1986Anredeforschung: Kommentierte Bibliographie zur Soziolinguistik der Anrede. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brown, Penelope ; and Stephen C. Levinson
    1987Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511813085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085 [Google Scholar]
  14. Brown, Roger ; and M. Ford
    1961 “Address in American English.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology62: 375–85. Also inLanguage in Culture and Society, ed. by D. Hymes (1964), 234–244. New York: Harper and Row.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brown, Roger ; and Albert Gilman
    1960 “The Pronouns of Power and Solidarity.” InStyle in Language, ed. by Thomas A. Sebeok , 253–276. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Brown, Penelope ; and Stephen C. Levinson
    1987Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511813085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085 [Google Scholar]
  17. Comrie, Bernard
    1976 “Linguistic Politeness Axes: Speaker-Addressee, Speaker-Referent, Speaker-Bystander.” Pragmatics Microfiche1.7: A3. Department of Linguistics. Cambridge: Univ. of Cambridge.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Head, Brian F.
    1978 “Respect Degrees in Pronominal Reference.” InUniversals of Human Language, vol.3, ed. by Joseph H. Greenberg , Charles A. Ferguson , and Edith A. Moravcsik , 151–211. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fernández, Mauro ; and Katharina Gerhalter
    2017Pronombres de segunda persona y fórmulas de tratamiento en español: Una nueva bibliografía (1867–2016). LinRed14 (2017) On line: www.linred.es/informacion_pdf/LR_informacion20_20170219.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fishman, Joshua A.
    1991Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages. Clevedon, Philadelphia, and Adelaide: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Gardner, Elizabeth Frances , and Elmo Martin, Samuel
    1952Honorific and Familiar Speech in Japanese. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hill, Beverly ; Sachiko Ide , Shoko Ikuta , Akiko Kawasaki , and Tsunao Ogino
    1986 “Universals of Linguistic Politeness: Quantitative Evidence from Japanese and American English.” Journal of Pragmatics10: 347–371.10.1016/0378‑2166(86)90006‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(86)90006-8 [Google Scholar]
  23. Hualde, Juan Ignacio , and Jon Ortiz de Urbina
    (eds.) 2003A Grammar of Basque. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter Mouton.10.1515/9783110895285
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110895285 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hummel, Martin ; Bettina Kluge , and María Eugenia Vázquez
    2010Formas y Fórmulas de Tratamiento en el Mundo Hispánico. México: El Colegio de México.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ide, Sachiko
    1989 “Formal Forms and Discernment: Two Neglected Aspects of Universals of Linguistic Politeness.” Multilingua8: 223–248.10.1515/mult.1989.8.2‑3.223
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1989.8.2-3.223 [Google Scholar]
  26. Joseph, John Earl
    1987 “Subject Relevance and Deferential Address in the Indo-European Languages.” Lingua73 : 259–277.10.1016/0024‑3841(87)90021‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(87)90021-0 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lafitte, Pierre
    1944Grammaire basque [Navarro-labourdin littéraire], corrected and revised edition 1962, Bayonne: Editions des ‘Amis du Musée Basque’ et ‘Ikas’.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lafon, Réné
    1943Le Système du Verbe Basque au XVI’ Siècle. Bordeaux: Delmas (2nd ed., Zarautz: Elkar 1980).
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 1947 “Sur la catégorie de genre grammatical en basque.” Bulletin HispaniqueXLIX : 373–394.10.3406/hispa.1947.3104
    https://doi.org/10.3406/hispa.1947.3104 [Google Scholar]
  30. 1951 “Quelques traits essentiels de la langue basque.” Boletín de la Real Sociedad Vascongada de Amigos del País, Año7 : 13–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 1957 “Remarques sur l’emploi du masculin et du féminin en basque.” Via Domitia4 : 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 1959 “Place de la 2ème personne du singulier dans la conjugaison basque.” Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique54: 103–129.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lapesa, Rafael
    1970 “Personas gramaticales y tratamientos en español.” Revista de la Universidad de Madrid19: 141–167.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Michelena, Luis
    1961Fonética HistóricaVvasca. San Sebastian: Publicaciones del Seminario Julio de Urquijo de la Excma. Diputación de Guipúzcoa.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 1981 “Lengua común y dialectos vascos.” Anuario del Seminario de Filología Vasca Julio de Urquijo15: 291–313.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Moreno, María Cristobalina
    2002 “The Address System in the Spanish of the Golden Age.” Journal of Pragmatics34: 15–47.10.1016/S0378‑2166(00)00074‑6
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(00)00074-6 [Google Scholar]
  37. Oyharçabal, Beñat
    1993 “Verb Agreement with Nonarguments: On Allocutive Agreement.” InGenerative Studies in Basque Grammar, ed. by Jose I. Hualde , and Jon Ortiz de Urbina , 89–114. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Páez Urdaneta, Iraset
    1981Historia y Geografía Hispanoamericana del Voseo. Caracas: La Casa de Bello.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Real Academia Española y Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española
    Real Academia Española y Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española 2009Nueva Gramática de la Lengua Española. Madrid: Espasa Calpe.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Rebuschi, George
    1984Structure de l’énoncé en Basque. Paris: Société d’Etudes Linguistiques et Anthropologiques de France.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Salaburu, Pello , and Xabier Alberdi
    2012The Challenge of a Bilingual Society in the Basque Country. Reno (Nevada): Center for Basque Studies, University of Nevada (Reno); Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sampedro, María
    2016Las Formas de Tratamiento “Tú” y Uusted” en el Español Centro-Norte Peninsular: Estudio Sociolingüístico. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Silva-Corvalán, Carmen , and Andrés Enrique-Arias
    2017Sociolingüística y Pragmática del Español. 2nd edition, Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Zuazo, Koldo
    1998 “Euskalkiak gaur [Basque dialects today]” Fontes Linguae Vasconum78: 191–233.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 2003Euskalkiak. Herriaren Lekukoak. [Basque dialects. People’s witnesses] Donostia: Elkar.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.00009.alb
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/prag.00009.alb
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): address , allocutivity , Basque , forms of address and linguistic politeness
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error