Volume 1, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238
Preview this article:


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Benveniste, E
    (1966) Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris: Gallimard.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Berman, R. & E. Olshtain
    (1983) Features of first language transfer in second language attrition. Applied Linguistics4:2, 222-234. doi: 10.1093/applin/4.3.222
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/4.3.222 [Google Scholar]
  3. Blum-Kulka, S
    (1982) Learning to say what you mean in a second language: a study of the speech act performance of learners of hebrew as a second language. Applied Linguistics3:1, 29-59. doi: 10.1093/applin/3.1.29
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/3.1.29 [Google Scholar]
  4. Chick, K
    (1985) The interactional accomplishment of discrimination in South Africa. Language in Society14, 299-326. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500011283
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500011283 [Google Scholar]
  5. Cohen, A.D
    (1975) Forgetting a second language. Language Learning25, 127-138. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1975.tb00113.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1975.tb00113.x [Google Scholar]
  6. Cohen, A.D. & Olshtain, E
    (1981) Developing a measure of sociocultural competence: the case of apology. Language Learning31:1, 113-134. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1981.tb01375.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1981.tb01375.x [Google Scholar]
  7. Dorian, N.C
    (ed.) (1989) Investigating obsolescence: Studies in language contraction and death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620997
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620997 [Google Scholar]
  8. Dyen, I
    (1974) Genetic classification and affix reconstruction: the PIE ending of the genitive singular of stem nouns. In J.M. Anderson & Ch. Jones (eds.)Historical linguistics, vol. 2. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 123-140.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fabian, J
    (1982) Scratching the surface: observations on the poetics of lexical borrowing in Shaba Swahili. Anthropological Linguistics24:1, 14-50.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. (1983) Time and the other: How anthropology makes its object. New York: Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. (1986) Language and colonial power: The appropriation of Swahili in the former Belgian Congo. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Faerch, C. & G. Kasper
    (1983) Plans and strategies in foreign language communication. In C. Faerch & G. Kasper (eds.)Strategies in interlanguage communication. London: Longman, 20-60.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gardner, R. & W. Lambert
    (1972) Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Goyvaerts, D.L
    (1988) Indoubil: a Swahili hybrid in Bukavu. Language in Society17, 231-239. doi: 10.1017/S004740450001277X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001277X [Google Scholar]
  15. Gulstad, D.E
    (1974) Reconstruction in syntax. In J.M. Anderson & Ch. Jones (eds.)Historical linguistics, vol. I. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 117-158.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gumperz, J.J
    (1982) Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511611834
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611834 [Google Scholar]
  17. (1990) The conversational analysis of interethnic communication. In R.C. Scarcella , E.S. Andersen & S.D. Krashen (eds.)Developing communicative competence in a second language. New York: Newbury House, 223-239.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. (ed.) (1982) Language and social identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Harder, P
    (1980) Discourse as self-expression: On the reduced personality of the second language learner. Applied Linguistics1:3, 262-280. doi: 10.1093/applin/1.3.262
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/1.3.262 [Google Scholar]
  20. Holmes, J
    (1978) Sociolinguistic competence in the classroom. In J.C. Richards (ed.)Understanding second and foreign language learning: Issues and approaches. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 134-116.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Holmes, J. & D.F. Brown
    (1977) Sociolinguistic competence and second language learning. In R.W. Brislin & M.P. Hamnett (eds.)Topics in culture learning 5. Honolulu: East-West Center, 72-82.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Janicki, K
    (1986) Accommodation in native speaker-foreigner interaction. In J. House & S. Blum-Kulka (eds.)Interlingual and intercultural communication: Discourse and cognition in translation and second language acquisition. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 169-178.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kachru, B.B
    (ed.) (1983) The other tongue: English across cultures. Oxford: Pergamon.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Keller, R
    (1982) Sprachwandel. Tübingen: Francke.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. (1985) Towards a theory of linguistic change. In T.T. Ballmer (ed.)Linguistic dynamics: Discourse, procedures and evolution. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 211-237.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Loveday, L.J
    (1982) Communicative interference: a framework for contrastively analyzing communicative competence exemplified with the linguistic behaviour of Japanese performing in english. International Review of Applied Linguistics20, 1-16. doi: 10.1515/iral.1982.20.1‑4.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iral.1982.20.1-4.1 [Google Scholar]
  27. Lukâcs, G
    (1971) History and class consciousness. London: Merlin.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Mougeon, R
    Ed. Beniak & D. Valois (1984) Variation in the phonological integration of loanwords in a bilingual speech community. Toronto: Centre for Franco Ontarian Studies.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Muysken, P.C
    (1984) Linguistic dimensions of language contact: the state of the art in inter-linguistics. Revue québécoise de Linguistique14, 49-76. doi: 10.7202/602527ar
    https://doi.org/10.7202/602527ar [Google Scholar]
  30. Myers-Scotton, C
    (1983) The negotiation of identities in conversation: a theory of markedness and code choice. International Journal of the Sociology of Language44, 115-136.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. (1988) Code switching as indexical of social negotiations. In M. Heller (ed.)Codeswitching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 151-186.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (1990) Accounting for structure in Swahili/English codeswitching. Working Papers in Kiswahili 9.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ohala, J.J
    (1974) Experimental historical phonology. In J.M. Anderson & Ch. Jones (eds.)Historical linguistics, vol. 2. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 353-390.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Poplack, S. , D. Sankoff & C. Miller
    (1988) The social correlates and linguistic consequences of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics26:1, 47-104. doi: 10.1515/ling.1988.26.1.47
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1988.26.1.47 [Google Scholar]
  35. Prigogine, I
    (1980) From being to becoming: Time and complexity in the physical sciences. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Prince, E.F
    (1988) On pragmatic change: the borrowing of discourse functions. Journal of Pragmatics12:5/6, 505-518. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(88)90045‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(88)90045-8 [Google Scholar]
  37. Py, B
    (1982) Interlangue et dégénérescence d’une compétence linguistique. In A. Trévise (ed.)“Encrages”, numéro spécial: Acquisition d’une langue étrangère 2. Paris: Université de Paris VIII, 76-86.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (1986) Native language attrition amongst migrant workers: towards an extension of the concept of interlanguage. In E. Kellerman & M. Sharwood Smith (eds.)Crosslinguistic influence in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon, 163-172.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Rintell, E
    (1979) Getting your speech act together: the pragmatic ability of second language learners. Working Papers in Bilingualism17, 97-106.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Romaine, S
    (1989) Bilingualism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rutherford, W
    (1989) Interlanguage and pragmatic word order. In S.M. Gass & J. Schachter (eds.)Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 163-181. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139524544.012
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524544.012 [Google Scholar]
  42. Ryan, E.B
    (1983) Social psychological mechanisms underlying native speaker evaluations of non-native speech. Studies in Second Language Acquisition5, 148-159. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100004824
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100004824 [Google Scholar]
  43. Scarcella, R.S. , E.S. Andersen & S.D. Krashen
    (eds.) (1990) Developing communicative competence in a second language. New York: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Scollon, R. & S.B.K. Scollon
    (1981) Narrative, literacy, and face in interethnic communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. (1983) Face in interethnic communication. In J.C. Richards & R.W. Schmidt (eds.)Language and communication. London and New York: Longman, 156-188.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Sharwood Smith, M
    (1981) Consciousness-raising and the second language learner. Applied Linguistics2:2, 277-294.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. (1983) On first language loss in the second language acquirer: problems of transfer. In S.M. Gass & L. Selinker (eds.)Language transfer in language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sherzer, J
    (1987) A discourse-centered approach to language and culture. American Anthropologist89, 295-309. doi: 10.1525/aa.1987.89.2.02a00010
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1987.89.2.02a00010 [Google Scholar]
  49. Spolsky, B
    (1969) Attitudinal aspects of second language learning. Language Learning19, 271-283. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1969.tb00468.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1969.tb00468.x [Google Scholar]
  50. Tao, H. & S.A. Thompson
    (1991) English backchannels in Mandarin conversations: a case study of superstratum pragmatic ‘interference’. Journal of Pragmatics16, 209-223. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(91)90093‑D
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(91)90093-D [Google Scholar]
  51. Thomas, J
    (1983) Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics4:2, 91-112. doi: 10.1093/applin/4.2.91
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/4.2.91 [Google Scholar]
  52. (1984) Cross-cultural discourse as ‘unequal encounter’: towards a pragmatic analysis. Applied Linguistics5:3, 226-235. doi: 10.1093/applin/5.3.226
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/5.3.226 [Google Scholar]
  53. Thomason, S.G. & T. Kaufman
    (1988) Language contact, creolization, and genetic linguistics. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Trévise, A
    (1986) Is it transferable, topicalization?In E. Kellerman & M. Sharwood Smith (eds.)Crosslinguistic influence in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon, 186-207.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Van Coetsem, F
    (1988) Loan phonology and the two transfer types in language contact. Dordrecht: Foris.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Vennemann, T
    (1974) Topics, subjects and word order: from SXV to SVX via TVX. In J.M. Anderson & Ch. Jones (eds.)Historical linguistics, vol. 1, 339-376.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Verschueren, J
    (1987) Pragmatics as a theory of linguistic adaptation. First working document drafted for the International Pragmatics Association in preparation of a Handbook of Pragmatics. Ipra Working Document 1.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. (1991) A pragmatic model for the dynamics of communication. In I.Z. Zagar (ed.)Speech acts: Fiction or reality?Ljubljana: IPrA distribution centre for Yugoslavia, 37-48.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Vildomec, V
    (1971) Multilingualism. Leiden: Sijthoff.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Winter, W
    (1973) Areal linguistics: some general considerations. In Th.A. Sebeok (ed.)Current trends in linguistics, vol. 11: Diachronical, areal, and typological linguistics. The Hague and Paris: Mouton, 135-148.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Wolfson, N
    (1981) Compliments in a cross-cultural perspective. TESOL Quarterly15:2, 117-124. doi: 10.2307/3586403
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3586403 [Google Scholar]
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error