1887
Art and the expression of complex identities
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238

Abstract

are presented as a distinct subgroup of Mexican ‘peasants’ who enact a liberal individualist ideology that centrally values private property, especially land, and hard work as the legitimate route to ‘progress’. Both male and female are tough and independent “ranch” people who construct their identities in contrast to ‘Indians’ on the one hand (whom view as communally-oriented), and ‘city people’ (whom see as fancily-dressed, and acting, “dandies”) on the other. A history of frontier isolation and mobility in society’ facilitated the development of both autonomy and strong ties of reciprocity for mutual support in hostile conditions, as well as common ways of living, dressing, and speaking. This valuing of both autonomy and affiliation undermines the often-invoked dichotomy between “Mexicans” and “North Americans” as being communal, or group-oriented, and individualistic, or self-oriented, respectively. Rather than predominantly one or the other, value both autonomy and affiliation. This historically constructed identity is enacted in a particular way of speaking, ‘frankness’, direct, straightforward, candid language that goes directly to a point. Informal verbal performances by members of these families within their homes, both in Chicago and Mexico, are analyzed for their construction of identity through .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.10.1.03far
2000-01-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Año Nuevo Kerr, L.
    (1977) Mexican Chicago: Chicano assimilation aborted, 1939–54. In M.G. Holli & P. d’A. Jones (eds.), Ethnic Chicago. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Erdmans Publishing Co., pp.269–298.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barragán López, E.
    (1990) Más allá de los caminos. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (1997) Con un pie en el estribo: Formacíon y deslizamientos de las sociedades rancheras en la construccíon del méxico moderno. Zamora, Michoacán, Mexico: El Colegio de Michoacán.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barragán López, E. , O. Hoffmann , T. Linck , and D. Skerritt
    (eds.) (1994) Rancheros y sociedades rancheras. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bauman, R.
    (1977/1984) Verbal art as performance. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bauman, R. and J. Sherzer
    (1989) Introduction to the second edition. In R. Bauman and J. Sherzer (eds.), Explorations in the ethnography of speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ix-xxvii. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511611810.001
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611810.001 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bonfil Batalla, G.
    (1996) México profundo: Reclaiming a civilization. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brading, D.
    (1994) Epilogue, A 25 años del encuentro con “Rancheros.” In Esteban Barragán López , Odile Hoffmann , Thierry Linck , and David Skerritt (eds.), Rancheros y sociedades rancheras. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán, pp.329–334.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bravo, D.
    (1996) La risa en el regateo: Estudio sobre el estilo comunicativo de negociadores epañoles y suecos. Stockholm: Institutionen för spanska och portugisiska.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brown, P. and S. Levinson
    (1987) Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chávez, Marta.
    (1994) Una es la de todo. In E. Barragán López et al(eds.), Rancheros y sociedades rancheras. Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacán, pp.109–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chávez Carbajal, M. G.
    (1995) El rostro colectivo de la nación mexicana. Morelia, Michoacán: Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cintron, R.
    (1997) Angel’s town: Chero ways, gang life, and rhetorics of the everyday. Boston: Beacon Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cosio Villegas, D. , I. Bernal, A. Moreno Toscano, L. González, E. Blanquel , and L. Meyer
    (1995) A compact history of Mexico. Mexico: Colegio de Mexico.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. De la Peña, G.
    (1984) Ideology and practice in Southern Jalisco: Peasants, rancheros, and urban entrepreneurs. In R. Smith (ed.), Kinship ideology and practice in Latin America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, pp.204–234.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Delgado-Gaitán, C.
    (1993) Parenting in two generations of Mexican American families. International Journal of Behavioral Development16.3: 409–427. doi: 10.1177/016502549301600303
    https://doi.org/10.1177/016502549301600303 [Google Scholar]
  17. Farr, M.
    (1993) Essayist literacy and other verbal performances. Written Communication10.1: 4–38. doi: 10.1177/0741088393010001001
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088393010001001 [Google Scholar]
  18. (1994 a) Biliteracy in the home: Practices among mexicano families in Chicago. In D. Spener (ed.), Adult biliteracy in the United States. McHenry, IL and Washington, D.C.: Delta Systems and Center for Applied Linguistics, pp.89–110.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (1994 b)  En los dos idiomas: Literacy practices among mexicano families in Chicago. In B. Moss (ed.), Literacy across Communities. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, pp.9–47.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (1994c)  Echando relajo: Verbal art and gender among mexicanas in Chicago. InCultural performances: Proceedings of the third Berkeley women and language conference. Berkeley: University of California, pp.168–186.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (1998) El relajo como microfiesta. In H. Pérez (ed.), Mexico en fiesta. Zamora, Michoacán, Mexico: El Colegio de Michoacán, pp.457–470.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. (in press)Literacy and religion: Reading, writing, and gender among Mexican women in Chicago. In P. Griffin , J.K. Peyton , W. Wolfram , & R. Fasold (eds.) Language in Action: New Studies of Language in Society. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Farr, M. and J. Guerra
    (1995) Literacy in the community: A study of mexicano families in Chicago. Discourse Processes. Special Issue, Literacy Among Latinos, 19.1: 7–19. doi: 10.1080/01638539109544902
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01638539109544902 [Google Scholar]
  24. Guerra, J.
    (1998) Close to home: Oral and literate practices in a transnational mexicano community. New York: Teachers College Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Guerra, J. and M. Farr
    . (in press)Writing on the margins: Spiritual and autobiographical discourse among mexicanas in Chicago. In G. Hull , and K. Schultz (eds.) School’s out! Literacy at work and in the community. New York: Teachers College Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. González, L.
    (1974) San José de Gracia: Mexican village in transition. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. (1991) Del hombre a caballo y la cultura ranchera. Tierra Adentro52: 3–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Haverkate, H.
    (1994) La cortesía verbal: Estudio pragmalingüistico. Madrid: Editorial Gredos.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hernández-Flores, N.
    (1999) Politeness ideology in Spanish colloquial conversations: The case of advice. Pragmatics9.1: 37–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hymes, D.
    (1974a) Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. (1974b) Ways of speaking. In R. Bauman and J. Sherzer (eds.), Explorations in the ethnography of speaking (first edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.433–451.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. (1975) Breakthrough into performance. In D. Ben-Amos and K.S. Goldstein (eds.), Folklore: Performance and communication. The Hague: Mouton, pp.11–74. Also in D. Hymes (1981) In vain I tried to tell you: Essays in Native American ethnopoetics pp. 79–141.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Jacobs, I.
    (1982) Ranchero revolt: The Mexican revolution in Guerrero. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. LeVine, R.A. and M.I. White
    (1986) Human conditions: The cultural basis of educational development. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lomnitz-Adler, C.
    (1992) Exits from the labyrinth: Culture and ideology in the Mexican national space. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Melhuus, M.
    (1996) Power, value, and the ambiguous meanings of gender. In M. Melhuus and K.A. Stolen (eds.), Machos, mistresses, Madonnas: Contesting the power of Latin American gender imagery. London: Verso, pp.230–259.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Milroy, L.
    (1980) Language and social networks. Oxford: Blackwell.
  38. Ochs, E.
    (1992) Indexing gender. In A. Duranti and C. Goodwin (eds.), Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp.335–358.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Schiller, N.G. , L. Basch , and C. Blanc-Szanton
    (1992) Transnationalism: A new analytic framework for understanding migration. In N.G. Schiller , L. Basch , & C. Blanc-Szanton (eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of SciencesVol. 645: 1–24. doi: 10.1111/j.1749‑6632.1992.tb33484.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb33484.x [Google Scholar]
  40. Scott, J.
    (1990) Weapons of the weak. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Tannen, D.
    (1989) Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Valdés, G.
    (1996) Con respeto: Bridging the distances between culturally diverse families and schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Wierzbicka, A.
    (1991) Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.10.1.03far
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): franqueza , identity , Mexican , transnational , verbal performance and way of speaking
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error