1887
Volume 15, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238

Abstract

The Japanese language is known for its sentence-final particles (SFPs hereafter) that express modality. Although modality would seem to be inseparable from context, only a limited number of studies have explicated the nature of SFPs based on data from conversations. This paper discusses the functions of SFP , based on 272 occurrences of the particle from over 7 hours of recorded conversation. I propose that , which is commonly defined as a doubt marker, frequently functions as a mitigation marker. My investigation also explores how speakers use this function beyond the sentence level. It suggests that traditional descriptions of the syntactic environments in which SFPs occur are not always substantiated by how is actually used. Yet, seemingly unsystematic uses of are quite systematic in terms of its semantic and pragmatic aspects. These findings suggest that in studying Japanese sentence-final particles, it’s important to study naturally occurring conversations.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.15.4.02mat
2005-01-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Adachi, Taro
    (1999) Nihongo gimonbun ni okeru handan no shoso [ Discussion on judgment in Japanese interrogative sentences ]. Tokyo, Japan: Kuroshio.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. (2002) Ch.5 Shitsumon to utagai [Question and doubt]. InKazuto Miyazaki, Taro Adachi, Harumi Noda, & Nobuyo Takanashi., Modarti [ Modality ]. Tokyo, Japan: Kuroshio, pp. 173-202.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aoki, Hiromi , Mizuki Miyashita , Tsuyoshi Ono , & Misumi Sadler
    (To appear). A corpus of conversational Japanese. (to be published in Arizona Papers in Japanese Linguistics).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, Penelope , & Stephen Levinson
    (1978) Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In Esther N. Goody (ed.), Questions and politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 56-290.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chafe, Wallace L
    (1994) Discourse, consciousness, and time. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cook, Haruko Minegishi
    (1992) Meanings of non-referential indexes: A case study of the Japanese sentence-final particle ne. Text 12.4: 507-539.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Du Bois, Jone , Stephan Schueze-Coburn , Susanna Cumming , & Danae Paolino
    (1993) Outline of discourse transcription. In Jane A. Edwards & Martin D. Lampert (eds.), Talking data: Transcription and coding methods for language research. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 45-89.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fujita, Yasuyuki
    (1987) ‘Utagau’ to iu koto – Inyo no shiten kara – [Status of ‘doubt’ – perspective based on quotation –]. Nihongogaku6-11: 93-106.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Gendai Yoogo no Kisochishiki
    (1994) Gendai yoogo no kisochishiki [Basic knowledge of current terms] Tokyo, Japan: Juyuukokuminsha.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Ijima Masahiro
    (1999) Joshi kara saguru Nihon bunpo [Understanding Japanese grammar based on particles]. Gengo 28.6: 108-112.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kataoka, Kuniyoshi
    (1995) Affect in Japanese women’s letter writing: Use of sentence-final particles ne and yo and orthographic conventions. Pragmatics 5.4: 427-453.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. (1997) Affect and letter-writing: Unconventional conventions in casual writing by young Japanese women. Language in society26: 103-136. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500019424
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500019424 [Google Scholar]
  13. Kindaichi, Haruhiko , & Yasaburoo Ikeda
    (eds.) (1978) Gakken kokugodaijiten [ Gakken Japanese dictionary ]. Tokyo, Japan: Gakushukenkyusha, pp.362.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Konoshima, Masatoshi
    (1966) Kokugo joshi no kenkyu -joshi no sobyou [ Study in Japanese particles – overview of particles ]. Tokyo, Japan: Ofusca.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Labov, William , & Joshua Waletzky
    (1967) Narrative analysis: Oral versions of personal experience. In June Helm (ed.), Essays on the verbal and visual arts. Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 12-44.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Makino, Seiichi , & Michio Tsutsui
    (1995) A Dictionary of intermediate Japanese grammar. Tokyo, Japan: The Japan Times.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Matsugu, Yuka
    (2000) Reconsideration of feminine/masculine categorizations of sentence-final particles and usage by each sex in Japanese natural, informal conversation. Unpublished manuscript.
  18. Matsumoto, Yoshiko
    (2001) Gender identity and the presentation of self in Japanese. In Sarah Benor , Mary Rose , Devyani Sharma , Julie Sweetland , & Qing Zhang (eds.), Gendered practices in language. Stanford: CSLI Publications, pp. 1-18.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Matsumura, Akira
    (1989) Daijirin [Japanese dictionary]. Tokyo, Japan: Sanseido, pp. 485.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Maynard, Senko. K
    (1993) Discourse modality: Subjectivity, emotion, and voice in the Japanese language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/pbns.24
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.24 [Google Scholar]
  21. Minami, Fujio
    (1985) Shitsumonbun no kozo [Structure of question sentences] . Tokyo, Japan: Asakurashoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. The Ministry of Education
    (2000) Kokugo ni kansuru Seronchoosa [ A public opinion poll on Japanese language ]. Tokyo, Japan: Zaimusho.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Miyachi, Yu
    (1960) II 2 Hyogen ito [II 2 Intention of expression]. In Kokuritsu Kokugo Kenkyujo (ed.), Hanashi kotoba no bunkei (1) – Taiwa shiryo ni yoru kenkyu – [ Structure patterns of spoken language (1) – study based on conversations ]. Tokyo, Japan: Shueishuppan, pp. 86-136.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Miyake, Tomohiro
    (2000) Ginen hyomei no hyogen ni tsuite – kana, kashira o chushin ni – [About doubt expression – focus on kana, kashira]. In Tsurumidaigaku (ed.), Tsurumidaigaku Kiyo Dai1bu Kokugo, Gokubunhen37: 8-21. Yokohama, Japan: Tsurumidaigaku.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Moriyama, Takuro , Yoshio Nitta , & Hiroshi Kudo
    (2002) Nihongo no bunpo 3: Modariti [ Grammar in Japanese 3: Modality ]. Tokyo, Japan: Iwanamishoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Nihondaijitenkankokai
    (1976) Nihonkokugodaijiten vol. 5 [ Japanese language dictionary vol. 5 ], 25. Tokyo, Japan: Shogakukan.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Nitta, Yoshio
    (1991) Nihongo no modariti to ninsho [ Modality and subjectivity in Japanese ]. Tokyo, Japan: Hitsujishobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. (1994) <Utagai> o arawasu keishiki no toikaketeki shiyo – ‘kana’ o chushin to shita oboegaki – [How forms to express <doubt> is used as if they are questions – memo focus on ‘kana’]. In Osaka Daigaku Bungakubu Nihongakka Gendainihongogaku Koza (ed.), Gendai nihongo kenkyu 1. 6-14. Toyonaka, Japan: Osaka Daigaku Bungakubu.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. (1997) ‘Idesan, kekkon suru daro ka’ – <toikake> to <utagai no hyogen> [‘I wonder if Mr. Ide will get married’ – <question> and <expression of doubt>]. Gekkan gengo 29.2: 24-31.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Okamoto, Shigeko
    (1996) Indexical meaning, linguistic ideology, and Japanese women’s speech. Barkley linguistics society22: 209-301.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Saji, Keizo
    (1991) Nihongo no bunpo no kenkyu [ Study of Japanese grammar ]. Tokyo, Japan: Hitsujishobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sanseidohenshujo
    (1984) Kojirin [ Japanese dictionary ]. Tokyo, Japan: Sanseido, pp.370.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Sato, Takeyoshi
    (2000) Tenbo: Gendai no nihongo [ Prospect: The Japanese language of today ]. Tokyo, Japan: Hakuteisha.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Shougakutosho
    (ed.) (1987) Kokugodaijiten gensen [ Japanese dictionary selective ]. Tokyo, Japan: Shogakukan.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Suzuki, Satoko
    (1995) A study of the sentence-final mitai na . Journal of the association of teachers of Japanese 29.2: 55-78. doi: 10.2307/489589
    https://doi.org/10.2307/489589 [Google Scholar]
  36. Takubo, Yukinori , & Satoshi Kinsui
    (1996) Taiwa to kyoyuchishiki danwa kanri riron no tachiba kara [Conversation and mutual knowledge, from a perspective of discourse management theory –]. Gekkan gengo25-1: 30-39.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tokieda, Motoki
    (1951) Taijin kankei o koosei suru joshi, jodoshi [Particles and auxiliary verbs that construct interpersonal relationship]. Kokugo kokubun no kenkyu 29.9: 1-10.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.15.4.02mat
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): doubt , interrogative , Japanese , mitigation , naturally occurring conversation and sentence-final particle
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error