1887
Volume 16, Issue 2-3
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238

Abstract

Turn-taking is usually considered to follow a simple set of rules, enacted through a perhaps more complicated system of signals. The most significant aspect of the turn-taking process is that, in most cases, it proceeds in a very smooth fashion. Speakers signal to each other that they wish to either yield or take the turn through syntactic, pragmatic, and prosodic means. In this paper, I explore how the turn-taking process develops in two different sets of Spanish conversations. In the first group of conversations, speakers take turns spontaneously, presumably as they would do in everyday situations. In the second group, turns were mechanically controlled, and communication was one-way. A comparison of the two types of conversation provides insights into the signals used in spontaneous turn-taking.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.16.2-3.04tab
2006-01-01
2019-08-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Auer, Peter
    (1996) On the prosody and syntax of turn-continuations. In E. Couper-Kuhlen and M. Selting (eds.), Prosody in Conversation: Interactional Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 57-100. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511597862.004
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597862.004 [Google Scholar]
  2. Bangerter, Adrian , Herbert H. Clark , and Anna R. Katz
    (2004) Navigating joint projects in telephone conversations. Discourse Processes37.1: 1-23. doi: 10.1207/s15326950dp3701_1
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326950dp3701_1 [Google Scholar]
  3. Beattie, Geoffrey
    (1977) The dynamics of interruption and the filled pause. The British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 16.3: 283-284. doi: 10.1111/j.2044‑8260.1977.tb00230.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1977.tb00230.x [Google Scholar]
  4. (1979) Planning units in spontaneous speech: Some evidence from hesitation in speech and speaker gaze direction in conversation. Linguistics17: 61-78.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. (1981) The regulation of speaker turns in face-to-face conversation: Some implications for conversation in sound-only communication channels. Semiotica34.1-2: 55-70. doi: 10.1515/semi.1981.34.1‑2.55
    https://doi.org/10.1515/semi.1981.34.1-2.55 [Google Scholar]
  6. Beattie, Geoffrey , Anne Cutler , and Mark Pearson
    (1982) Why is Mrs. Thatcher interrupted so often?Nature300.23: 744-747. doi: 10.1038/300744a0
    https://doi.org/10.1038/300744a0 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bickmore, Timothy W. , and Justine Cassell
    (2005) Social dialogue with embodied conversational agents. In J. van Kuppevelt , L. Dybkjaer and N. Bernsen (eds.), Advances in Natural Multimodal Dialogue Systems. Berlin: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Briz, Antonio
    (1993) Los conectores pragmáticos en español coloquial (I): Su papel argumentativo. Contextos 11.21-22: 145-188.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brown, Penelope , and Stephen Levinson
    (1978) Universals in language use: Politeness phenomena. In E. N. Goody (ed.), Questions and Politeness: Strategies in Social Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 56-289.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Byron, Donna K. , and Peter A. Heeman
    (1998) Identifying discourse markers in spoken dialog, AAAI Spring Symposium on Applying Machine Learning and Discourse Processing. Stanford, CA.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chafe, Wallace
    (1994) Discourse, Consciousness and Time: The Flow and Displacement of Conscious Experience in Speaking and Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Condon, Sherri L
    (1986) The discourse functions of OK. Semiotica60: 73-101. doi: 10.1515/semi.1986.60.1‑2.73
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/semi.1986.60.1-2.73 [Google Scholar]
  13. (2001) Discourse ok revisited: Default organization in verbal interaction. Journal of Pragmatics33: 491-513. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(00)00039‑4
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(00)00039-4 [Google Scholar]
  14. Cortés Rodríguez, Luis
    (1998) Marcadores del discurso y análisis cuantitativo. In M.A. Martín Zorraquino and E. Montolío Durán (eds.), Los marcadores del discurso: Teoría y análisis. Madrid: Arco, pp. 143-160.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cutler, Anne , and Mark Pearson
    (1986) On the analysis of prosodic turn-taking cues. In C. Johns-Lewis (ed.), Intonation in Discourse. San Diego, CA: College Hill, pp. 139-156.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Duncan, Starkey
    (1972) Some signals and rules for taking speaking turns in conversations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology23: 283-292. doi: 10.1037/h0033031
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033031 [Google Scholar]
  17. (1973) Toward a grammar for dyadic conversation. Semiotica 9.1: 29-46. doi: 10.1515/semi.1973.9.1.29
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/semi.1973.9.1.29 [Google Scholar]
  18. Duncan, Starkey , and Donald W. Fiske
    (1977) Face-to-Face Interaction: Research, Methods, and Theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. (1985) Interaction Structure and Strategy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Edelsky, Carole
    (1981) Who's got the floor? Language in Society10: 383-421. doi: 10.1017/S004740450000885X
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S004740450000885X [Google Scholar]
  21. Ferrara, Kathleen
    (1997) Form and function of the discourse marker 'anyway': Implications for discourse analysis. Linguistics35: 343-378. doi: 10.1515/ling.1997.35.2.343
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ling.1997.35.2.343 [Google Scholar]
  22. Ford, Cecilia , Barbara A. Fox , and Sandra A. Thompson
    (1996) Practices in the construction of turns: The 'TCU' revisited. Pragmatics6.3: 427-454.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ford, Cecilia , and Sandra A. Thompson
    (1996) Interactional units in conversation: Syntactic, intonational, and pragmatic resources for the management of turns. In E. Ochs , E. Schegloff and S.A. Thompson (eds.), Interaction and Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 134-184. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511620874
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620874 [Google Scholar]
  24. Fox Tree , Jean E. , and Josef C. Schrock
    (1999) Discourse markers in spontaneous speech: Oh what a difference an oh makes. Journal of Memory and Language40: 280-295. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1998.2613
    https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1998.2613 [Google Scholar]
  25. (2002) Basic meanings of you know and I mean . Journal of Pragmatics34: 727-747. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00027‑9
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00027-9 [Google Scholar]
  26. Fraser, Bruce
    (1999) What are discourse markers?Journal of Pragmatics31: 931-952. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(98)00101‑5
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(98)00101-5 [Google Scholar]
  27. Furo, Hiroko
    (2001) Turn-Taking in English and Japanese: Projectability in Grammar, Intonation, and Semantics. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Goffman, Erving
    (1981) Forms of Talk. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Goodwin, Charles
    (1981) Conversational Organization: Interaction between Speakers and Hearers. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Grosz, Barbara J. , and Candace L. Sidner
    (1986) Attention, intentions, and the structure of discourse. Computational Linguistics12.3: 175-204.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hayashi, R
    (1991) Floor structure of English and Japanese conversation. Journal of Pragmatics16: 1-30. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(91)90003‑G
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(91)90003-G [Google Scholar]
  32. Heritage, John
    (1984) A change-of-state token and aspects of its sequential placement. In J.M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.), Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 299-345.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hidalgo, Antonio
    (1998) Alternancia de turnos y conversación. Sobre el papel regulador de los suprasegmentos en el habla simultánea. Lingüística Española Actual 20.2: 217-238.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hopper, Robert
    (1992) Telephone Conversation. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Houtkoop, Hanneke , and Harrie Mazeland
    (1985) Turns and discourse units in everyday conversation. Journal of Pragmatics9: 595-619. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(85)90055‑4
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(85)90055-4 [Google Scholar]
  36. Jaffe, Joseph , and Stanley Feldstein
    (1970) Rhythms of Dialogue. New York: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Jefferson, Gail
    (1983) On a failed hypothesis: 'Conjunctionals' as overlap-vulnerable. Tilburg Papers in Language and Literature28: 29-33.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. (1984) Notes on a systematic deployment of the acknowledgment tokens "yeah" and "mm hm". Papers in Linguistics17: 197-216. doi: 10.1080/08351818409389201
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351818409389201 [Google Scholar]
  39. Jones, Rod , and Joanna Thornborrow
    (2004) Floors, talk and the organization of classroom activities. Language in Society33: 399-423. doi: 10.1017/S0047404504043040
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404504043040 [Google Scholar]
  40. Kendon, Adam
    (1994) Do gestures communicate?: A review. Research on Language and Social Interaction 27.3: 175-200. doi: 10.1207/s15327973rlsi2703_2
    https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327973rlsi2703_2 [Google Scholar]
  41. (1995) Gestures as illocutionary and discourse structure markers in Southern Italian conversation. Journal of Pragmatics 23.3: 247-279. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(94)00037‑F
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)00037-F [Google Scholar]
  42. (2002) Some uses of the head shake. Gesture 2.2: 147-182. doi: 10.1075/gest.2.2.03ken
    https://doi.org/10.1075/gest.2.2.03ken [Google Scholar]
  43. Knott, Alistair , and Ted Sanders
    (1998) The classification of coherence relations and their linguistic markers: An exploration of two languages. Journal of Pragmatics30: 135-175. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(98)00023‑X
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(98)00023-X [Google Scholar]
  44. Lerner, Gene H
    (2003) Selecting next speaker: The context-sensitive operation of a context-free organization. Language in Society 32.2: 177-201. doi: 10.1017/S004740450332202X
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S004740450332202X [Google Scholar]
  45. Local, John
    (1996) Conversational phonetics: Some aspects of news receipts in everyday talk. In E. Couper-Kuhlen and M. Selting (eds.), Prosody in conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 177-230. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511597862.007
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597862.007 [Google Scholar]
  46. Local, John , and John Kelly
    (1986) Projection and "silences": Notes on phonetic and conversational structure. Human Studies9: 185-204. doi: 10.1007/BF00148126
    https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00148126 [Google Scholar]
  47. Maclay, Howard , and Charles E. Oswood
    (1959) Hesitation phenomena in spontaneous English speech. Word15: 19-44.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Martin, James R
    (1984) Language, register and genre. In F. Christie (ed.), Children Writing: Reader. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press, pp. 21-30.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Pierrehumbert, Janet
    (1980) The Phonology and Phonetics of English intonation. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT, Cambridge, Mass.
  50. Placencia, María Elena
    (1997) Opening up closings-the Ecuadorian way. Text 17.1: 53-81.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Pomerantz, Anita
    (1984) Agreeing and disagreeing with assessments: Some features of preferred/dispreferred turn shapes. In J.M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds.), Structures of Social Interaction: Studies in Conversation Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 57-101.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Raymond, Geoffrey
    (2004) Prompting action: The stand-alone "so" in ordinary conversation. Research on Language and Social Interaction 37.2: 185-218. doi: 10.1207/s15327973rlsi3702_4
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327973rlsi3702_4 [Google Scholar]
  53. Redeker, Gisela
    (1990) Ideational and pragmatic markers of discourse structure. Journal of Pragmatics14: 367-381. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90095‑U
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90095-U [Google Scholar]
  54. (1991) Review article: Linguistic markers of linguistic structure. Linguistics 29.6: 1139-1172.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Sacks, Harvey
    (1992) Lectures on Conversation(Gail Jefferson ed. Vol. II). London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Sacks, Harvey , Emmanuel Schegloff , and Gail Jefferson
    (1974) A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking in conversation. Language50: 696-735. doi: 10.2307/412243
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412243 [Google Scholar]
  57. Schegloff, Emmanuel
    (1968) Sequencing in conversational openings. American Anthropologist70: 10751095. doi: 10.1525/aa.1968.70.6.02a00030
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1968.70.6.02a00030 [Google Scholar]
  58. (1982) Discourse as an interactional achievement: Some uses of uh huh and other things that come between sentences. In D. Tannen (ed.), Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk. Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 71-93.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. (1988) Discourse as an interactional achievement II: An exercise in Conversation Analysis. In D. Tannen (ed.), Linguistics in Context: Connecting Observations and Understanding. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, pp. 135-158.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Schegloff, Emmanuel , and Harvey Sacks
    (1973) Opening up closings. Semiotica8: 289-327. doi: 10.1515/semi.1973.8.4.289
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/semi.1973.8.4.289 [Google Scholar]
  61. Schiffrin, Deborah
    (1987) Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511611841
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611841 [Google Scholar]
  62. Selting, Margret
    (1998) TCUs and TRPs: The construction of units in conversational talk. InLiSt Interaction and Linguistic Structures4: inlist.uni-konstanz.de/issues/4/index.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  63. (2000) The construction of units in conversational talk. Language in Society29: 477-517. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500004012
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500004012 [Google Scholar]
  64. Serrano, María José
    (1995) El uso de la verdad y pues como marcadores discursivos de respuesta. Español Actual64: 5-16.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Stephens, Jane , and Geoffrey Beattie
    (1986) On judging the ends of speaker turns in conversation. Journal of Language and Social Psychology5.2: 119-134. doi: 10.1177/0261927X8652003
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X8652003 [Google Scholar]
  66. Taboada, Maite
    (2003) Modeling task-oriented dialogue. Computers and the Humanities 37.4: 431-454. doi: 10.1023/A:1025729107628
    https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025729107628 [Google Scholar]
  67. (2004) Building Coherence and Cohesion: Task-Oriented Dialogue in English and Spanish. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/pbns.129
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/pbns.129 [Google Scholar]
  68. Taboada
    , Maite (in press) Discourse markers as signals (or not) of rhetorical relations. Journal of Pragmatics.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Tanaka, Hiroko
    (2001) Adverbials for turn projection in Japanese: Toward a demystification of the "telepathic" mode of communication. Language in Society 30.4: 559-587. doi: 10.1017/S004740450100402X
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S004740450100402X [Google Scholar]
  70. Wennerstrom, Ann , and Andrew F. Siegel
    (2003) Keeping the floor in multiparty conversations: Intonation, syntax, and pause. Discourse Processes36.2: 77-107. doi: 10.1207/S15326950DP3602_1
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15326950DP3602_1 [Google Scholar]
  71. Yngve, Victor H
    (1970) On getting a word in edgewise. InPapers from the Sixth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society. Chicago: University of Chicago, pp. 567-577.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.16.2-3.04tab
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Conversation , Spanish , Task-oriented conversation and Turn-taking
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error