1887
Volume 28, Issue 3
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238

Abstract

In light of a belief that Hawaiʻi Creole (HC) is mostly inappropriate in public domains of society, this study examines how it was employed in two university commencement speeches by a local politician in Hawaiʻi. The analysis adopts the perspective of heteroglossia ( Bakhtin 1981 ) in order to describe how HC is used together in the speeches with English and also some Hawaiian words. By focusing on the contrastive indexical meanings attached to all three languages, the analysis describes how the speaker combined humor and serious advice in his speeches. In particular, a focus is given to a specific feature of the HC grammar, the negative imperative, that was used by the speaker to underscore his main points. Discussion of the analysis considers the potential of the perspective of heteroglossia to understand the usage of HC in the public domain in Hawaiʻi to construct formal speeches of a decidedly ʻlocal’ style.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.16015.saf
2018-08-27
2019-10-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/prag.16015.saf.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1075/prag.16015.saf&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Apte, Mahadev L.
    1985Humor and Laughter: An Anthropological Approach. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bailey, Benjamin
    2007 “Heteroglossia and Boundaries.” InBilingualism: A Social Approach, ed. by Monica Heller , 257–274. London: Palgrave.10.1057/9780230596047_12
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230596047_12 [Google Scholar]
  3. 2012 “Heteroglossia.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Multilingualism, ed. by Marilyn Martin Jones , Adrian Blackledge , and Angela Creese , 499–507. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bakhtin, Mikhail
    1981The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, M. Holquist (ed.), C. Emerson , and M. Holquist (trans.) Austin: University of Texas Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bickerton, Derek , and William Wilson
    1987 “Pidgin Hawaiian.” InPidgin and Creole Languages: Essays in Memory of John E. Reinecke, ed. by Glenn Gilbert , 61–76. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press, pp.61–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boggs, Stephen
    1985Speaking, Relating, and Learning: A Study of Hawaiian Children at Home and at School. Norwood, New Jersey, Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 1972 “The Meaning of Questions and Narratives to Hawaiian Children. InFunctions of Language in the Classroom, ed. by Courtney Cazden , Vera John , and Dell Hymes , 299–327. New York: Teachers College Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cheshire, Jenny , Paul Kerswill , Sue Fox , and Eivind Torgersen
    2011 “Contact, the Feature Pool, and the Speech Community: The Emergence of Multicultural London English.” Journal of Sociolinguistics15 (2): 151–196.10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2011.00478.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2011.00478.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Da Pidgin Coup
    Da Pidgin Coup 2008 “Pidgin and Education: A Position Paper.” Educational Perspectives40: 30–39.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Day, Richard
    1989 “The Acquisition and Maintenance of Language by Minority Children.” Language Learning29 (2): 295–303.10.1111/j.1467‑1770.1979.tb01070.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1979.tb01070.x [Google Scholar]
  11. Drager, Katie
    2012 “Pidgin and Hawaiʻi English: An Overview.” IJLTIC1 (1): 61–73.10.12681/ijltic.10
    https://doi.org/10.12681/ijltic.10 [Google Scholar]
  12. Dunford, Bruce
    1999 “Hawaii Debates Classroom Pidgin.” Laredo Morning Times. Available atairwolf.lmtonline.com/news/archive/1128/pagea11.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Duranti, Alessandro
    1992 “Heteroglossia in Samoan Oratory.” Pacific Studies15 (4): 155–175.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Furukawa, Toshiaki
    2007 “ʻNo Flips in the Pool’: Discursive Practice in Hawai‘i Creole.” Pragmatics17 (3): 371–385.10.1075/prag.17.3.02fur
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.17.3.02fur [Google Scholar]
  15. Gal, Susan
    1988 “The Political Economy of Code Choice.” InCodeswitching: Anthropological and Sociolinguistic Perspectives, ed. by Marcia Heller , 245–264. Berlin, New York, and Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter.10.1515/9783110849615.245
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110849615.245 [Google Scholar]
  16. Garcia Vizcaino, Maria Jose
    2011 “Humor in Code-Mixed Airline Advertising.” Pragmatics21 (1): 145–170.10.1075/prag.21.1.08gar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.21.1.08gar [Google Scholar]
  17. Gumperz, John
    1982Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511611834
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611834 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hargrove, Ermile , and Sakoda Kent
    1999 “The Hegemony of English or Hau kam yu wen kawl wat ai spik ingglish wen you no no waz.” Bamboo Ridge75: 48–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Higgins, Christine
    2010 “Raising Critical Language Awareness in Hawaiʻi at Da Pidgin Coup.” InCreoles in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects, ed. by Betina Migge , Isabelle Leglise , and Angela Bartens , pp.39–62. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/cll.36.02hig
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.36.02hig [Google Scholar]
  20. 2015 “Earning Capital in Hawaiʻi’s Linguistic Landscape.” InUnequal Englishes across Multilingual Spaces, ed. by Ruanni Tupas , pp.145–162. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1057/9781137461223.0017
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137461223.0017 [Google Scholar]
  21. Hiramoto, Mie
    2011 “Is dat dog you’re eating?: Mock Filipino, Hawai‘i Creole, and Local Elitism.” Pragmatics21 (3): 341–371.10.1075/prag.21.3.03hir
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.21.3.03hir [Google Scholar]
  22. Johnstone, Barbara , and Scott Kiesling
    2008 “Indexicality and Experience: Variation and Identity in Pittsburgh.” Journal of Sociolinguistics12 (1): 5–33.10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2008.00351.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00351.x [Google Scholar]
  23. Kawaiʻaeʻa, Keiki , A. K. Housman , and Makalapua Alencastre, M.
    (2007) “Pūʻā i ka ʻōlelo, ola ka ʻohana: Three Generations of Hawaiian Language Revitalization.” Hūlili: Multidisciplinary Research on Hawaiian Well-Being4: 183–237.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kimura, Larry , Kamanā, Kauanoe , and William Wilson
    2003 Hawaiian: Back from the Brink. Honolulu Advertiser, postedApril 23. Retrieved fromthe.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2003/Apr/24/op/op04a.html
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kleinjans, Edith
    1995 “Standard English Critical in Classroom.” The Honolulu Advertiser, 29January, B-1.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Labrador, Roderick
    2004 “’We can laugh at ourselves’: Hawaiʻi Ethnic Humor, Local Identity and the Myth of Multiculturalism.” Pragmatics14 (2/3): 291–316.10.1075/prag.14.2‑3.11lab
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.14.2-3.11lab [Google Scholar]
  27. Laitinen, Denise
    2012 “Political Predictions, Awards, and Networking at Annual Chamber Luncheon.” BigIslandNow.com (June 29, 2012), Available atbigislandnow.com/2012/06/29/political-predictions-awards-and-networking-at-annual-chamber-luncheon/
  28. Marlow, Mikaela , and Howard Giles
    2008 “Who you tink you, talkin propah? Hawaiian Pidgin Demarginalised.” Journal of Multicultural Discourses2: 53–68.10.2167/md060.0
    https://doi.org/10.2167/md060.0 [Google Scholar]
  29. Mufwene, Salikoko
    2001The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511612862
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612862 [Google Scholar]
  30. Nordstrom, Georganne
    2015 “Pidgin as Rhetorical Sovereignty: Articulating Indigenous and Minority Rhetorical Practices with the Language Politics of Place.” College English77 (4): 317–337.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ochs, Elinor
    2012 “Experiencing Language.” Anthropological Theory12 (2): 142–160.10.1177/1463499612454088
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1463499612454088 [Google Scholar]
  32. Ohnuma, Keiko
    2008 “‘Aloha Spirit’ and the Cultural Politics of Sentiment as National Belonging.” Contemporary Pacific20: 365–394.10.1353/cp.0.0005
    https://doi.org/10.1353/cp.0.0005 [Google Scholar]
  33. Pukuʻi, Mary Kawena , E. W. Haertig , and Catherine Lee
    1983Nana I Ke Kumu [Look to the Source]Vol1. Honolulu, Hawaii, Hui Hanai.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Rampton, Ben
    2011 “From ‘Multi-Ethnic Adolescent Heteroglossia’ to ‘Contemporary Urban Vernaculars’.” Language and Communication31: 276–294.10.1016/j.langcom.2011.01.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2011.01.001 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2014 “Dissecting Heteroglossia: Interaction Ritual or Performance in Crossing and Stylization.” InHeteroglossia as Practice and Pedagogy, ed. by Adrian Blackledge , and Angela Creese , 275–300. Springer Publishing.10.1007/978‑94‑007‑7856‑6_15
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7856-6_15 [Google Scholar]
  36. Reinecke, John
    1969Language and Dialect in Hawaiʻi: A Sociolinguistic History to 1935. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Reyes, Iliana
    2004 “Functions of Code Switching in Schoolchildren’s Conversations.” Bilingual Research Journal28 (1): 77–98.10.1080/15235882.2004.10162613
    https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2004.10162613 [Google Scholar]
  38. Reynolds, Susan
    1999 “Mutual Intelligibility? Comprehension Problems between American Standard English and Hawaiʻi Creole English in Hawaiʻi’s Public Schools.” InCreole Genesis: Attitudes and Discourse, ed. byJohn Rickford and Suzanne Romaine, 303–319. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/cll.20.21rey
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.20.21rey [Google Scholar]
  39. Roberts, Sarah
    2004 “The Role of Style and Identity in the Development of Hawaiian Creole.” InCreoles, Contact, and Language Change: Linguistic and Social Implications, ed. by Genevieve Escure , and Armin Schwegler , 331–350. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/cll.27.16rob
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.27.16rob [Google Scholar]
  40. Romaine, Suzanne
    1999 “Changing Attitudes to Hawai‘i Creole English: Fo’ find one good job, you gotta know how fo’ talk like one haole.” InCreole Genesis, Attitudes and Discourse, ed. by John Rickford , and Suzanne Romaine , 287–301. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/cll.20.20rom
    https://doi.org/10.1075/cll.20.20rom [Google Scholar]
  41. Rubin, Joan
    1968 “Bilingual Usage in Paraguay.” InReadings in the Sociology of Language, ed. by Joshua Fishman , 512–530. Berlin, New York, Amsterdam: Mouton.10.1515/9783110805376.512
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110805376.512 [Google Scholar]
  42. Sakoda, Kent , and Jeff Siegel
    2003Pidgin Grammar: An Introduction to the Creole Language of Hawai‘i. Honolulu: Bess Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sato, Charlene
    1985 “Linguistic inequality in Hawaiʻi: The Post-Creole Dillema.” InLanguage of Inequality, ed. by Nessa Wolfson , and Joan Manes , 255–272. Berlin, New York, Amsterdam: Mouton.10.1515/9783110857320.255
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110857320.255 [Google Scholar]
  44. Sato, Charlene
    1993 “Language Change in a Creole Continuum.” InProgression and Regression in Language: Sociocultural, Neuropsychological, and Linguistic Perspectives, ed. byKenneth Hyltenstam and Ake Viberg, 122–143. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Siegel, Jeff
    2008 “Pidgin in the Classroom.” Educational Perspectives41 (1–2): 55–65.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 2006 “Language Ideologies and the Education of Speakers of Marginalized Varieties: Adopting a Critical Language Awareness Approach.” Linguistics and Education17: 157–174.10.1016/j.linged.2006.08.002
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2006.08.002 [Google Scholar]
  47. 1995 “How to Get a Laugh in Fijian: Code-Switching and Humor.” Language in Society24 (1): 95–110.10.1017/S004740450001842X
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S004740450001842X [Google Scholar]
  48. Silverstein, Michael
    2003 “Indexical Order and the Dialectics of Sociolinguistic Life.” Language and Communication23: 193–229.10.1016/S0271‑5309(03)00013‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5309(03)00013-2 [Google Scholar]
  49. Takaki, Ronald
    1983Pau hana: Plantation Life and Labor in Hawaii, 1835–1920. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Teves, Stephanie Nohelani
    2012 “We’re All Hawaiians Now: Kanaka Maoli Performance and the Politics of Aloha.” Ph.D. dissertation. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan.
  51. Tsuzaki, Stanley
    1966 “Hawaiian English: Pidgin, Creole, or Dialect.” Pacific Speech1 (2): 25–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Voegelin, Carl , and Florence Voegelin
    1964 “Hawaiian Pidgin and Mother Tongue.” Anthropological Linguistics6 (7): 20–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Watson, Karen
    1975 “Transferable Communicative Toutines: Strategies and Group Identity in Two Speech Events.” Language in Society4: 53–70.10.1017/S0047404500004498
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500004498 [Google Scholar]
  54. Watson-Gegeo, Karen , and Stephen Boggs
    1977 “From Verbal Play to Talk Story: The Role of Routines in Speech Events among Hawaiian Children.” InChild Discourse, ed. by Susan Ervin-Tripp , and Claudia Mitchell-Kernan , 67–90. New York: Academic Press.10.1016/B978‑0‑12‑241950‑8.50010‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-241950-8.50010-1 [Google Scholar]
  55. Wilson, William
    1998 “I ka ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i ke ola, [life is found in the Hawaiian Language]”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language132: 123–137.10.1515/ijsl.1998.132.123
    https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1998.132.123 [Google Scholar]
  56. Wong, Alia
    2013 “Fo teach Pidgin o not fo teach Pidgin- Das da question.” Honolulu Civil Beat. Available at: www.civilbeat.com/2013/03/18498-fo-teach-pidgin-o-not-fo-teach-pidgin-das-da-question/ (accessed2 March 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Wong, Laiana
    1999 “Language Varieties and Language Policy: The Appreciation of Pidgin.” InSociopolitical Perspectives on Language Policy and Planning in the USA, ed. by Thom Huebner , and Kathyrn Davis , 221–237. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/sibil.16.15won
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.16.15won [Google Scholar]
  58. Woolard, Kathryn
    1987 “Codeswitching and Comedy in Catalonia.” IPRA Papers in Pragmatics1 (1): 106–122.10.1075/iprapip.1.1.04woo
    https://doi.org/10.1075/iprapip.1.1.04woo [Google Scholar]
  59. 2004 “Codeswitching.” InA Companion to Linguistic Anthropology, ed. by Alessandra Durant . Malden, MA: Blackwell. Editor’s address:
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.16015.saf
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error