Volume 28, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238
Buy:£15.00 + Taxes


Racism as a means for accomplishing homogeneity is at the center of this study which draws on Critical Discourse Analysis and focuses on descriptions of racist behaviors included in immigrant students’ school essays. We investigate how the dominant assimilative and homogenizing discourse operates in Greece and how immigrant students position themselves towards this dominant discourse. Our analysis focuses on the ways the immigrant students of our sample construct legitimizing and hybrid resistance identities. We demonstrate that legitimizing identities are found in the vast majority of the essays of our data due to the racist behaviors experienced by immigrant people. On the other hand, the explicit description of such behaviors appears only in few essays. We argue that in these few essays, via referring to racist behaviors of majority people against them, immigrant students manage to build hybrid resistance identities.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Anderson, Benedict
    1991Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. 2nd edition. London: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Archakis, Argiris
    2014 “Immigrant Voices in Students’ Essay Texts: Between Assimilation and Pride.” Discourse & Society25 (3): 297–314. doi: 10.1177/0957926513519539
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926513519539 [Google Scholar]
  3. 2016 “National and Post-National Discourses and the Construction of Linguistic Identities by Students of Albanian Origin in Greece.” Multilingua: Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication35 (1): 57–83. doi: 10.1515/multi‑2014‑0055
    https://doi.org/10.1515/multi-2014-0055 [Google Scholar]
  4. Archakis, Argiris , and Villy Tsakona
    2012The Narrative Construction of Identities in Critical Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137264992
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137264992 [Google Scholar]
  5. 2016 “Legitimizing and Resistance Identities in Immigrant Students’ School Essays: Towards a Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy.” Brno Studies in English42 (1): 5–22. doi: 10.5817/BSE2016‑1‑1
    https://doi.org/10.5817/BSE2016-1-1 [Google Scholar]
  6. Augoustinos, Martha , and Danielle Every
    2007 “The Language of ‘Race’ and Prejudice: A Discourse of Denial, Reason, and Liberal-Practical Politics.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology26 (2): 123–141. doi: 10.1177/0261927X07300075
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X07300075 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bamberg, Michael
    1997 “Positioning between Structure and Performance.” Journal of Narrative and Life History7: 335–342. doi: 10.1075/jnlh.7.42pos
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jnlh.7.42pos [Google Scholar]
  8. 2011 “Narrative Practice and Identity Navigation.” InVarieties of Narrative Analysis, ed. by James A. Holstein , and Jaber F. Gubrium , 99–124. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bamberg, Michael , Anna De Fina , and Deborah Schiffrin
    2011 “Discourse and Identity Construction.” InHandbook of Identity Theory and Research, ed. by Seth J. Schwartz , Koen Luyckx , and Vivian L. Vignoles , 177–199. New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4419‑7988‑9_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7988-9_8 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bhabha, Homi K.
    1994/2004The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Billig, Michael
    1995Banal Nationalism. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blommaert, Jan
    2005Discourse: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511610295
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610295 [Google Scholar]
  13. Boutoulousi, Eleni
    2002 “The Multicultural School: Critical Approaches and Cultural Awareness.” InDiscovering the Wealth of Diversity through Art: Meeting Proceedings of the Comenius and Education without Borders Programs, 28March–2April 2001, ed. by Avra Avdi , and Anastasia Chrysafidou , 39–88. Thessaloniki: Πήγασος [Pegasus].
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 2004 “Discourse and Racism: Linguistic and Social Developments.” Μελέτες για την Ελληνική Γλώσσα [Studies in Greek Linguistics] 24: 506–518.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2005 “Hidden Images in Journalistic Discourse.” InWorkshop of the Department of Journalism and Mass Media Communication “Image and Discourse in the Media”, 4.112005, Thessaloniki. Cd publication.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Brown, Penelope , and Stephen C. Levinson
    1987Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Castells, Manuel
    2010The Power of Identity. 2nd edition. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Charalambous, Constadina , Charalambous, Panayiota , Khan, Kamran and Ben Rampton
    2016 “Security and Language Policy.” Working Papers in Urban Language & Literacies194: 1–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cohen, Sarah
    2008Making Visible the Invisible: Dual Language Teaching Practices in Monolingual Instructional Settings. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, Canada. https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/11191
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cummins, Jim
    2004 “Multiliteracies Pedagogy and the Role of Identity Texts.” InTeaching for Deep Understanding: Towards the Ontario Curriculum That We Need, ed. by Kenneth Leithwood , Pat McAdie , Nina Bascia , and Anne Rodigue , 68–74. Toronto: Corwin Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Duchêne, Alexandre , Melissa Moyer , and Celia Roberts
    2013 “Introduction: Recasting Institutions and Work in Multilingual and Transnational Spaces.” InLanguage, Migration and Social Inequality: A Critical Sociolinguistic Perspective on Institutions and Work, ed. by Alexandre Duchêne , Melissa Moyer , and Celia Roberts , 6–21. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dynel, Marta
    2012 “Swearing Methodologically: The (Im)Politeness of Expletives in Anonymous Commentaries on Youtube.” Journal of English Studies10: 25–50. doi: 10.18172/jes.179
    https://doi.org/10.18172/jes.179 [Google Scholar]
  23. Every, Danielle , and Martha Augoustinos
    2007 “Constructions of Racism in the Australian Parliamentary Debates on Asylum Seekers.” Discourse & Society18 (4): 411–436. doi: 10.1177/0957926507077427
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926507077427 [Google Scholar]
  24. Fairclough, Norman
    2003Analyzing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gkaintartzi, Anastasia , Kiliari, Angeliki , and Roula Tsokalidou
    2016 “Heritage Language Maintenance and Education in the Greek Sociolinguistic Context: Albanian Immigrant Parents’ Views.” Cogent Education3: 1–17. doi: 10.1080/2331186X.2016.1155259
    https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1155259 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gogonas, Nikos
    2010Bilingualism and Multiculturalism in Greek Education: Investigating Ethnic Language Maintenance among Pupils of Albanian and Egyptian Origin in Athens. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hanson-Easy, Scott Alen , and Martha Augoustinos
    2012 “Narratives from the Neighborhood: The Discursive Construction of Integration Problems in Talkback Radio.” Journal of Sociolinguistics16 (1): 28–55. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2011.00519.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2011.00519.x [Google Scholar]
  28. Kapplani, Gazmend , and Nicola Mai
    2005 “‘Greece belongs to Greeks!’: The case of the Greek flag in the hands of an Albanian student.” InThe New Albanian Migration, ed. by Russell King , Nicola Mai , and Schwander Sievers , 153–172. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Kiliari, Angeliki
    2005Multilingualism and Language Education: A Sociolinguistic Approach. Thessaloniki: Βάνιας [Vanias].
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Michail, Domna , and Anastasia Christou
    2016 “Diasporic Youth Identities of Uncertainty and Hope: Second-Generation Albanian Experiences of Transnational Mobility in an Era of Economic Crisis in Greece.” Journal of Youth Studies19 (7): 1–16. doi: 10.1080/13676261.2015.1136052
    https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2015.1136052 [Google Scholar]
  31. Papandreou, Periklis G.
    2013Children of Immigration in Athens: The Politics of Belonging and the Dark Sides of Adjustment. Athens: Νήσος Εκδοσεις [Nissos Publications].
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Piller, Ingrid
    2001 “Naturalization Language Testing and its Basis in Ideologies of National Identity and Citizenship.” International Journal of Bilingualism5(3): 259–277. doi: 10.1177/13670069010050030201
    https://doi.org/10.1177/13670069010050030201 [Google Scholar]
  33. Sacks, Harvey
    1995Lectures on Conversation, 2vols, 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781444328301
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444328301 [Google Scholar]
  34. Said, Edward W.
    1983The World, the Text and the Critic. London: Verso.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sifianou, Maria , and Arın Bayraktaroğlu
    2012 “‘Face’, Stereotyping, and Claims of Power: The Greeks and Turks in Interaction.” InThe Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication, ed. by Christina Bratt Paulston , Scott F. Kiesling , and Elizabeth S. Rangel , 292–312. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9781118247273.ch15
    https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118247273.ch15 [Google Scholar]
  36. Tsiakalos, George
    2011A Guide for Antiracist Education. Thessaloniki: Εκδοσεις Επικεντρο [Epikentro Publications].
    [Google Scholar]
  37. van der Valk, Ineke
    2003 “Political Discourse on Ethnic Minority Issues: A Comparison of the Right and the Extreme Right in the Netherlands and France (1990–97).” Ethnicities3 (2): 183–213. doi: 10.1177/1468796803003002002
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796803003002002 [Google Scholar]
  38. van Dijk, Teun A.
    1992 “Discourse and the Denial of Racism.” Discourse & Society3 (1): 87–118. doi: 10.1177/0957926592003001005
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926592003001005 [Google Scholar]
  39. 1993Elite Discourse and Racism. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. doi: 10.4135/9781483326184
    https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483326184 [Google Scholar]
  40. 1998Ideology: An Interdisciplinary Approach. London: Sage.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 2005Racism and Discourse in Spain and Latin America. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/dapsac.14
    https://doi.org/10.1075/dapsac.14 [Google Scholar]
  42. 2008Discourse and Power. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑137‑07299‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-07299-3 [Google Scholar]
  43. Wodak, Ruth , and John E. Richardson
    eds. 2013Analyzing Fascist Discourse: European Fascism in Talk and Text. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error