1887
image of Korean general extenders tunci ha and kena ha ‘or something’
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN 2406-4238
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

    Korean general extenders and ‘or something’

    Approximation, hedging, and pejorative stance in cross-linguistic comparison

  • Author(s): Professor Minju KimORCID icon
  • Source: Pragmatics
    Available online: 03 December 2019
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.18035.kim
    • Received : 27 Jun 2018
    • Accepted : 22 May 2019
    • Version of Record published : 03 Dec 2019

Abstract

Abstract

Using natural conversation corpora, I demonstrate that the Korean x- ‘x-or do’ and x- ‘x-or do’, which originally list options (e.g., ‘x or y do’) have emerged as independent constructions that can indicate approximation, epistemic uncertainty, tentativeness, and even polite hedging. I argue that these Korean “general extenders” ( ) followed a similar (inter)subjectification process to English x- and Japanese x- ‘x-or do.’ I also illustrate how these two Korean general extenders specialize in different hedging strategies.

Ironically, Korean and Japanese can also convey a speaker’s negative affective stance. I demonstrate that was frequently used in making non-imposing suggestions (hedging) and obtained its negative affect in the context of suggesting an obvious but untried solution (i.e., the frustration of the suggesting speaker). This result differs from Suzuki ’s argument of the Japanese case which attributes this development to a speaker’s non-committal attitude.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.18035.kim
2019-12-03
2019-12-14
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aijmer, K.
    2002English Discourse Particles: Evidence from a Corpus. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.10
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.10 [Google Scholar]
  2. Barsalou, L.
    1983 “Ad hoc Categories.” Memory and Cognition11: 211–227. 10.3758/BF03196968
    https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196968 [Google Scholar]
  3. Brems, L., Ghesquière, L. and Van de Velde, F.
    eds. 2014Intersubjectivity and Inter-subjectification in Grammar and Discourse: Theoretical and Descriptive Advances. Vol.65. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S. and Finegan, E.
    1999Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bybee, J. L.
    2006 “From usage to grammar: The mind’s Response to Repetition.” Language82(4): 711–733. 10.1353/lan.2006.0186
    https://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2006.0186 [Google Scholar]
  6. 2010Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511750526
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511750526 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bybee, J. L., Revere, P. and Pagliuca, W.
    1994The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect, and Modality in the languages of the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Channell, J.
    1994Vague language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cheshire, J.
    2007 “Discourse Variation, Grammaticalisation and Stuff like That.” Journal of Sociolinguistics11(2): 155–193. 10.1111/j.1467‑9841.2007.00317.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2007.00317.x [Google Scholar]
  10. Carter, R. and McCarthy, M.
    2006Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive Guide; Spoken and Written English Grammar and Usage. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cho, Y-M., Lee, H-S., Schulz, C., Sohn, H-M. and Sohn, S-O.
    2012Integrated Korean: Intermediate 1. 2nd edition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dines, E. R.
    1980 “Variation in Discourse – ‘and stuff like that’.” Language in Society9: 13–33. 10.1017/S0047404500007764
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500007764 [Google Scholar]
  13. Drake, A. V.
    2015 “Indexing Uncertainty: The Case of Turn-final or.” Research on Language and Social Interaction48(3): 301–318. 10.1080/08351813.2015.1058606
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2015.1058606 [Google Scholar]
  14. Emanatian, M.
    1992 “Chagga ‘come’ and ‘go’: Metaphor and the Development of Tense-Aspect.” Studies in Language16(1): 1–33. 10.1075/sl.16.1.02ema
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sl.16.1.02ema [Google Scholar]
  15. Erman, B.
    1995 “Grammaticalization in Progress: The Case of or something.” InPapers from the XVth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, ed. byInger, M., Simonsen, HG. and Lødrup, H., 136–147. Oslo, Norway: Department of Linguistics, University of Oslo.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Evans, N. and Watanabe, H.
    eds. 2016Insubordination (Vol.115). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.115
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.115 [Google Scholar]
  17. Fraser, B.
    2010 “Pragmatic Competence: The Case of Hedging.” InNew Approaches to Hedging, ed. byKaltenböck, G., Mihatsch, W. and Schneider, S., 15–34. Emerald: Bingley. 10.1163/9789004253247_003
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004253247_003 [Google Scholar]
  18. Hopper, P. J. and Traugott, E. C.
    2003Grammaticalization. 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  19. Itani, R.
    1992 “Japanese Conjunction kedo ‘but’ in Utterance-final Use: A Relevance-based Analysis.” English Linguistics9: 265–283. 10.9793/elsj1984.9.265
    https://doi.org/10.9793/elsj1984.9.265 [Google Scholar]
  20. Jefferson, G.
    1990 “List Construction as a Task and Resource.” InInteraction Competenceed. byPsathas, G., 63–92. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kim, M.
    2015 “From Choice to Counter-expectation: Semantic-pragmatic Connections of the Korean Disjunctive, Concessive, and Scalar Focus Particle -na,” Journal of Pragmatics80: 1–21. 10.1016/j.pragma.2014.12.012
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.12.012 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2018 “From Connective to Final Particle: Korean tunci “or” and Cross-Linguistic Comparisons,” Journal of Pragmatics135: 24–38. 10.1016/j.pragma.2018.07.004
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.07.004 [Google Scholar]
  23. Lindström, A.
    1997 Designing Social Actions: Grammar, Prosody, and Interaction in Swedish Conversation. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
  24. Mulder, J. and Thompson, S. A.
    2008 “The Grammaticization of but as a Final Particle in English Conversation.” InCrosslinguistic Studies of Clause Combining: The Multifunctionality of Conjunctions. ed. byLaury, R.179–204, Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.80.09mul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.80.09mul [Google Scholar]
  25. Overstreet, M.
    1999Whales, Candlelight, and Stuff like That: General Extenders in English Discourse, New York: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Overstreet, M. and Yule, G.
    1997 “On Being Inexplicit and Stuff in Contemporary American English,” Journal of English Linguistics25: 250–258. 10.1177/007542429702500307
    https://doi.org/10.1177/007542429702500307 [Google Scholar]
  27. Prince, E., Frader, J. and Bosk, C.
    1982 “On Hedging in Physician-physician Discourse.” InLinguistics and the Professions. Proceedings of the Second Annual Delaware Symposium on Language Studies. ed. byDi Pietro, R. J., 83–97, Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Suzuki, S.
    1998 “Pejorative Connotation: A Case of Japanese.” InDiscourse Markers: Descriptions and Theory, ed. byJucker, A. H. and Ziv, Y.261–276, Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.57.13suz
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.57.13suz [Google Scholar]
  29. 2008 “Expressivity of Vagueness: Alienation in the verb-tari suru Construction.” Japanese Language and Literature42(1):157–169.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tagliamonte, S. A. and Denis, D.
    2010 “The Stuff of Change: General Extenders in Toronto, Canada.” Journal of English Linguistics38(4):335–368. 10.1177/0075424210367484
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0075424210367484 [Google Scholar]
  31. Traugott, E. C.
    2003 “From Subjectification to Intersubjectification.” InMotives for Language Change. ed. byHickey, R.124–139, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511486937.009
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486937.009 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2010 “Revisiting Subjectification and Intersubjectification.” InSubjectification, Intersubjectification and Grammaticalization. ed. byDavidse, K., Vandelanotte, L. and Cuyckens, H.29–70, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 2014 “Intersubjectification and Clause Periphery.” InIntersubjectivity and Intersubjectification in Grammar and Discourse: Theoretical and Descriptive Advances (Vol. 65). ed. byBrems, L., Ghesquière, L. and Van de Velde, F., 7–28, Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Traugott, E. C. and Dasher, R. B.
    2005Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Vaughan, E., McCarthy, M., and Clancy, B.
    2017 “Vague Category Markers as Turn-final Items in Irish English.” World Englishes36(2): 208–223. 10.1111/weng.12254
    https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12254 [Google Scholar]
  36. Yeon, J. and Brown, L.
    2011Korean: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.18035.kim
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/prag.18035.kim
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error