Volume 30, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238



Most encounters between strangers in urban public spaces involve the ritual of civil inattention (Goffman 1963). Generalized diffusion of this ritual upholds the urban interaction order. This article outlines a typology of infractions of the ritual of civil inattention, and focuses on two types: uncivil attention and uncivil inattention. Drawing on interviews ( = 326) about participants’ most recent encounter with a rude stranger in urban public space gathered by the Researching Incivilities in Everyday Life (RIEL) Project, variations between verbally, physically, and gesturally initiated incivilities are examined. Data suggests a correlation between types of initiating move and subsequent verbal exchange. Analysis demonstrates the value of ritual framing for understanding interactional conflict between strangers, and indicates that the broader concept of incivility can supplement and extend existing impoliteness research by encompassing both linguistic and non-linguistic forms of interactional conflict.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Alexander, J. C.
    2004a “Rethinking Strangeness: From Structures in Space to Discourses in Civil Society.” Thesis Eleven79: 87–104. 10.1177/0725513604046959
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0725513604046959 [Google Scholar]
  2. 2004b “Cultural Pragmatics: Social Performance between Ritual and Strategy.” Sociological Theory22: 527–573. 10.1111/j.0735‑2751.2004.00233.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0735-2751.2004.00233.x [Google Scholar]
  3. 2006The Civil Sphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162509.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162509.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  4. Alexander, J. C., B. Giesen, and J. L. Mast
    (Eds.) 2006Social Performance: Symbolic Action, Cultural Pragmatics, and Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511616839
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511616839 [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson, E.
    2011The Cosmopolitan Canopy: Race and Civility in Everyday Life. New York: Norton.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bargiela-Chiappini, F.
    2003 “Face and Politeness: New (Insights) for Old (Concepts).” Journal of Pragmatics35: 1453–1469. 10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00173‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00173-X [Google Scholar]
  7. Barros García, M. J., and M. Terkourafi
    2014 “First-Order Politeness in Rapprochement and Distancing Cultures” Pragmatics24: 1–34. 10.1075/prag.24.1.01bar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.24.1.01bar [Google Scholar]
  8. Berger, C. R., and R. J. Calabrese
    1975 “Some Explorations in Initial Interaction and Beyond: Toward a Developmental Theory of Interpersonal Communication.” Human Communication Research1: 99–112. 10.1111/j.1468‑2958.1975.tb00258.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1975.tb00258.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Blum, A. F., and P. McHugh
    1971 “The Social Ascription of Motives.” American Sociological Review36: 98–109. 10.2307/2093510
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2093510 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bou-Franch, P., and Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, P.
    2014 “The Pragmatics of Textual Participation in the Social Media.” Journal of Pragmatics, 73: 1–3. 10.1016/j.pragma.2014.08.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2014.08.009 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bourriard, N.
    2002Relational Aesthetics. Dijon: Les Presses du Réel.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bousfield, D.
    2007 “Beginnings, Middles and Ends: A Biopsy of the Dynamics of Impolite Exchanges.” Journal of Pragmatics39: 2185–2216. 10.1016/j.pragma.2006.11.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2006.11.005 [Google Scholar]
  13. 2008Impoliteness in interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.167
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.167 [Google Scholar]
  14. 2010 “Researching Impoliteness and Rudeness: Issues and Definitions.” InInterpersonal Pragmatics, ed. byM. Locher and S. Graham, 101–134. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2018 “Face(t)s of Self and Identity in Interaction.” Journal of Politeness Research14: 225–243. doi:  10.1515/pr‑2018‑0014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/pr-2018-0014 [Google Scholar]
  16. Bousfield, D., and J. Culpeper
    2008 “Impoliteness: Eclecticism and Diaspora.” Journal of Politeness Research. 4(2): 161–168. 10.1515/JPLR.2008.008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/JPLR.2008.008 [Google Scholar]
  17. Bousfield, D., and Locher, M.
    2008Impoliteness in language. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Brown, P., Levinson, S. C.
    1987Politeness: some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511813085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085 [Google Scholar]
  19. Brenner, N.
    2013 “Theses on Urbanization.” Public Culture25: 85–114. 10.1215/08992363‑1890477
    https://doi.org/10.1215/08992363-1890477 [Google Scholar]
  20. Collins, R.
    2005Interaction Ritual Chains. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Culpeper, J.
    1996 “Towards an Anatomy of Impoliteness.” Journal of Pragmatics25: 349–367. 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00014‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00014-3 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2005 “Impoliteness and Entertainment in the Television Quiz Show: The Weakest Link.” Journal of Politeness Research. Language, Behaviour, Culture1: 35–72. 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.35
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.35 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2010 “Conventionalised Impoliteness Formulae.” Journal of Pragmatics42: 3232–3245. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.05.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.05.007 [Google Scholar]
  24. 2011Impoliteness: Using language to cause offence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511975752
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511975752 [Google Scholar]
  25. Culpeper, J., M. Haugh, and D. Z. Kádár
    (Eds.) 2017The Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)politeness. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑37508‑7
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-37508-7 [Google Scholar]
  26. Culpeper, J., Terkourafi, M.
    2017 “Pragmatic Approaches (Im)politeness,” in: The Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)Politeness, ed. byCulpeper, J., Haugh, M., Kádár, D.11–39, London: Palgrave. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑37508‑7_2
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-37508-7_2 [Google Scholar]
  27. Duneier, M., and H. Molotch
    1999 “Talking City Trouble: Interactional Vandalism, Social Inequality, and the ‘Urban Interaction Problem’.” American Journal of Sociology104: 1263–1295. www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/210175
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Durkheim, É.
    1964The Division of Labour in Society. New York: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 1995The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. New York: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Dynel, M., and F. Poppi
    2019 “Risum teneatis, amici?: The Socio-Pragmatics of RoastMe Humour.” Journal of Pragmatics139: 1–21. doi:  10.1016/j.pragma.2018.10.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.10.010 [Google Scholar]
  31. Eelen, G.
    2001A critique of politeness theories. Manchester: St. Jerome.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Edmondson, W. and J. House
    1981Let’s Talk, and Talk about It: A Pedagogic Interactional Grammar of English. München: Urban u. Schwarzenberg.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Evans, M., Jeffries, L., & O’Driscoll, J.
    (Eds.) 2019The Routledge Handbook of Language in Conflict. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429058011
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429058011 [Google Scholar]
  34. Flint, N., M. Haugh, and Merrison, A.
    2019 “Modulating Troubles Affiliating in Initial Interactions: The Role of Remedial Accounts.” Pragmatics29(3): 384–409. 10.1075/prag.17010.fli
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.17010.fli [Google Scholar]
  35. Gardner, C. B.
    1980 “Passing by: Street Remarks, Address Rights, and the Urban Female.” Sociological Inquiry50: 328–356. 10.1111/j.1475‑682X.1980.tb00026.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1980.tb00026.x [Google Scholar]
  36. Gardner, C.
    1988 “Access Information: Public Lies and Private Peril.” Social Problems35: 384–397. 10.2307/800593
    https://doi.org/10.2307/800593 [Google Scholar]
  37. 1995Passing by: Gender and Public Harassment. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Garfinkel, H.
    1967Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Goffman, E.
    1959The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Anchor Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 1963Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social Organization of Gatherings. New York: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 1967Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. New York: Anchor Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 1971Relations in Public: Microstudies of the Public Order. New York: Harper Row.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 1983 “The Interaction Order.” American Sociological Review48: 1–17. 10.2307/2095141
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2095141 [Google Scholar]
  44. Goffman, E., and J. Verhoeven
    1980 “An Interview with Erving Goffman.” Research on Language and Social Interaction26: 317–348.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Graham, S. L.
    2019 “Interaction and Conflict in Digital Communication.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Language in Conflict, ed. byM. Evans, L. Jeffries, and J. O’Driscoll, pp.310–327. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429058011‑17
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429058011-17 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hamilton, M. A.
    2012 “Verbal Aggression: Understanding the Psychological Antecedents and Social Consequences.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology31: 5–12. 10.1177/0261927X11425032
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X11425032 [Google Scholar]
  47. Harris, J. W.
    1995 “Etiquette, Lynching, and Racial Boundaries in Southern History: A Mississippi Example.” The American Historical Review100: 387. 10.2307/2169004
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2169004 [Google Scholar]
  48. Horgan, M.
    2012 “Strangers and Strangership.” Journal of Intercultural Studies33: 607–622. 10.1080/07256868.2012.735110
    https://doi.org/10.1080/07256868.2012.735110 [Google Scholar]
  49. 2017a “Interaction, Indifference, Injustice: Elements of a Normative Theory of Urban Solidarity.” InInterrogating the Social: A Critical Sociology for the 21st Century, ed. byF. Kurasawa, 61–94. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin. 10.1007/978‑3‑319‑59948‑9_3
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59948-9_3 [Google Scholar]
  50. 2017b “Mundane Mutualities: Solidarity and Strangership in Everyday Urban Life.” InPlace, Diversity and Solidarity, ed. byOosterlynck, S., Schuermans, N., and Loopmans, M., 19–32, New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315622866‑2
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315622866-2 [Google Scholar]
  51. Horgan, Mervyn
    2019a “Everyday Incivility and the Urban Interaction Order: Theorizing Moral Affordances in Ritualized Interaction.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, 7(1), 32–55. 10.1075/jlac.00018.hor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00018.hor [Google Scholar]
  52. Horgan, M.
    2019b “Review of ‘Politeness, Impoliteness and Ritual: Maintaining the Moral Order in Interpersonal Interaction’”. Contemporary Sociology48, 318–320. doi:  10.1177/0094306119842138x
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0094306119842138x [Google Scholar]
  53. House, Juliane
    2013 “Developing Pragmatic Competence in English as a Lingua Franca: Using Discourse Markers to Express (Inter)Subjectivity and Connectivity.” Journal of Pragmatics59: 57–67. 10.1016/j.pragma.2013.03.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.03.001 [Google Scholar]
  54. Ickes, W., A. Park, and R. L. Robinson
    2012 “F#!%ing Rudeness: Predicting the Propensity to Verbally Abuse Strangers.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology31: 75–94. 10.1177/0261927X11425036
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X11425036 [Google Scholar]
  55. Ickes, W. J.
    2009Strangers in a Strange Lab. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372953.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372953.001.0001 [Google Scholar]
  56. Jackson, L., C. Harris, and G. Valentine
    2017 “Rethinking Concepts of the Strange and the Stranger.” Social & Cultural Geography18: 1–15. 10.1080/14649365.2016.1247192
    https://doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2016.1247192 [Google Scholar]
  57. Jay, T.
    2018 “Swearing, Moral Order, and Online Communication.” Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict6: 107–126. doi:  10.1075/jlac.00005.jay
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00005.jay [Google Scholar]
  58. Kádár, D.
    2012 “Relational Ritual.” InHandbook of Pragmatics, ed. byJ.-O. Östman and J. Verschueren, 1–40. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hop.16.rel2
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hop.16.rel2 [Google Scholar]
  59. 2013Relational Rituals and Communication. Basingstoke: Palgrave. 10.1057/9780230393059
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230393059 [Google Scholar]
  60. 2017Politeness, Impoliteness and Ritual: Maintaining the Moral Order in Interpersonal Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781107280465
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107280465 [Google Scholar]
  61. Katz, J.
    1999How Emotions Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kendrick, K., and P. Drew
    2016 “Recruitment: Offers, Requests, and the Organization of Assistance in Interaction.” Research on Language and Social Interaction49: 1–19. 10.1080/08351813.2016.1126436
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2016.1126436 [Google Scholar]
  63. Khan, K.
    2019 “Hate Crimes: Language, Vulnerability and Conflict.” InThe Routledge Handbook of Language in Conflict, ed. byM. Evans, L. Jeffries, and J. O’Driscoll, 417–432. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780429058011‑23
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429058011-23 [Google Scholar]
  64. Kienpointner, M.
    1997 “Varieties of Rudeness: Types and Functions of Impolite Utterances.” Functions of Language4: 251–287. 10.1075/fol.4.2.05kie
    https://doi.org/10.1075/fol.4.2.05kie [Google Scholar]
  65. Korobov, N.
    2011 “Mate-Preference Talk in Speed-Dating Conversations.” Research on Language & Social Interaction44: 186–209. 10.1080/08351813.2011.567102
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2011.567102 [Google Scholar]
  66. Lankenau, S.
    1999 “Panhandling Repertoires and Routines for Overcoming the Nonperson Treatment.” Deviant Behavior20: 183–206. 10.1080/016396299266551
    https://doi.org/10.1080/016396299266551 [Google Scholar]
  67. Leech, G.
    1983Principles of Pragmatics. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Leiter, M.
    2013Analyzing and Theorizing the Dynamics of the Workplace Incivility Crisis. New York: Springer. 10.1007/978‑94‑007‑5571‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5571-0 [Google Scholar]
  69. Liinamaa, S.
    2014 “Contemporary Art’s ‘Urban Question’ and Practices of Experimentation.” Third Text28: 529–544. 10.1080/09528822.2014.970771
    https://doi.org/10.1080/09528822.2014.970771 [Google Scholar]
  70. Limberg, H.
    2009 “Impoliteness and Threat Responses.” Journal of Pragmatics41: 1376–1394. 10.1016/j.pragma.2009.02.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.02.003 [Google Scholar]
  71. Locher, M.
    2010 “Introduction: Politeness and Impoliteness in Computer-Mediated Communication.” Journal of Politeness Research6(1): 1–5. 10.1515/jplr.2010.001
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2010.001 [Google Scholar]
  72. Locher, M. & Graham, S.
    2010Interpersonal Pragmatics. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110214338
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110214338 [Google Scholar]
  73. Locher, M., Watts, R.
    2005 Politeness Theory and Relational Work. Journal of Politeness Research1, 9–33. 10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.9
    https://doi.org/10.1515/jplr.2005.1.1.9 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lofland, L.
    1973A World of Strangers: Order and Action in Urban Public Space. New York: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 1998The Public Realm: Exploring the City’s Quintessential Social Territory. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Mills, C. W.
    1940 “Situated Actions and Vocabularies of Motive.” American Sociological Review5: 904–913. 10.2307/2084524
    https://doi.org/10.2307/2084524 [Google Scholar]
  77. Mondada, L.
    2009 “Emergent Focused Interactions in Public Places: A Systematic Analysis of the Multimodal Achievement of a Common Interactional Space.” Journal of Pragmatics41: 1977–1997. 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.019
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.019 [Google Scholar]
  78. 2018 “Greetings as a Device to Find Out and Establish the Language of Service Encounters in Multilingual Settings.” Journal of Pragmatics126: 10–28. 10.1016/j.pragma.2017.09.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2017.09.003 [Google Scholar]
  79. Morrill, C., D. A. Snow, and C. H. White
    (Eds.) 2005Together Alone: Personal Relationships in Public Places. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Ontario Ministry of Infrastructure
    Ontario Ministry of Infrastructure 2013Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe. Toronto: Ministry of Infrastructure. https://www.placestogrow.ca/content/ggh/2013-06-10-Growth-Plan-for-the-GGH-EN.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Parvaresh, V., and T. Tayebi
    2018 “Impoliteness, Aggression and the Moral Order.” Journal of Pragmatics132: 91–107. doi:  10.1016/j.pragma.2018.05.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.05.010 [Google Scholar]
  82. Raudenbush, D. T.
    2012 “Race and Interactions on Public Transportation: Social Cohesion and the Production of Common Norms and a Collective Black Identity.” Symbolic Interaction35: 456–473. 10.1002/symb.36
    https://doi.org/10.1002/symb.36 [Google Scholar]
  83. Schutz, A.
    1970On Phenomenology and Social Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Scott, M. B., and S. M. Lyman
    1968 “Accounts.” American Sociological Review33: 46–62. www.jstor.org/stable/2092239
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Sifianou, M.
    2019 “Im/politeness and In/Civility: A Neglected Relationship?” Journal of Pragmatics, 147: 49–64. doi:  10.1016/j.pragma.2019.05.008
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.05.008 [Google Scholar]
  86. Sifianou, M., & Tzanne, A.
    2010 “Conceptualizations of Politeness and Impoliteness in Greek.” Intercultural Pragmatics, 7(4): 661–687. 10.1515/iprg.2010.029
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2010.029 [Google Scholar]
  87. Simmel, G.
    1971On Individuality and Social Forms. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Smith, G.
    1997 “Incivil Attention and Everyday Intolerance: Vicissitudes of Exercising in Public Places.” Perspectives on Social Problems9: 59–79.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Smith, P., T. L. Phillips, and R. D. King
    2010Incivility: The Rude Stranger in Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511781803
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511781803 [Google Scholar]
  90. Smith, R. J.
    2017 “The Practical Organisation of Space, Interaction, and Communication in and as the Work of Crossing a Shared Space Intersection.” Sociologica2: 1–19. 10.2383/88200
    https://doi.org/10.2383/88200 [Google Scholar]
  91. Stokoe, E.
    2010 “‘Have You Been Married, or …?’: Eliciting and Accounting for Relationship Histories in Speed-Dating Interaction.” Research on Language & Social Interaction43: 260–282. 10.1080/08351813.2010.497988
    https://doi.org/10.1080/08351813.2010.497988 [Google Scholar]
  92. Svennevig, J.
    2014 “Direct and Indirect Self-Presentation in First Conversations.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology33: 302–327. 10.1177/0261927X13512307
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X13512307 [Google Scholar]
  93. Sznaider, N.
    2001The Compassionate Temperament: Care and Cruelty in Modern Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Terkourafi, M.
    2012 “Politeness and Pragmatics.” InThe Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics, ed. byK. Allan, and K. Jaszczolt, 617–637. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9781139022453.034
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139022453.034 [Google Scholar]
  95. Terkourafi, M., and D. Kádár
    2017 “Convention and Ritual (Im)politeness.” InThe Palgrave Handbook of Linguistic (Im)politeness, ed. byJ. Culpeper, M. Haugh, and D. Kádár, 171–195. Basingstoke: Palgrave. 10.1057/978‑1‑137‑37508‑7_8
    https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-37508-7_8 [Google Scholar]
  96. Valentine, G.
    2008 “Living with Difference: Reflections on Geographies of Encounter.” Progress in Human Geography32: 323–337. 10.1177/0309133308089372
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133308089372 [Google Scholar]
  97. Vergis, N., and M. Terkourafi
    2015 “The Role of the Speaker’s Emotional State in Im/politeness Assessments.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology34: 316–342. 10.1177/0261927X14556817
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X14556817 [Google Scholar]
  98. Watts, R. J.
    2009Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Wesselmann, E., F. Cardoso, S. Slater, and K. Williams
    2012 “To Be Looked at as Though Air: Civil Attention Matters.” Psychological Science23: 166–168. 10.1177/0956797611427921
    https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611427921 [Google Scholar]
  100. Wirth, L.
    1938 “Urbanism as a Way of Life.” American Journal of Sociology44: 1–24. www.jstor.org/stable/2768119
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Wuthnow, R.
    1989Meaning and Moral Order. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Zerubavel, E.
    2015Hidden in Plain Sight: The Social Structure of Irrelevance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199366606.001.0001
    https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199366606.001.0001 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error