Volume 31, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238



This paper investigates the use of as part of address formulae by means of a corpus consisting of eight British English plays published between 1899 and 1912. For each conversational turn, address terms, speaker, addressee, power and solidarity dynamics, and speech acts have been identified. The address terms most frequently modified by have been selected for further investigation, which allows an analysis of the alternation between and , as well as and . Results show that, when has impact on the power dimension, the address formula with construes the addressee as less powerful than the speaker. When has impact on the solidarity dimension, the address formula with construes the addressee as a close interlocutor. The functional import of varies depending on the address term it modifies, which is consistent with its function as a modulating element.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): 20th century; address system; British English; drama texts; modulation; speech act analysis
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