1887
Volume 20, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238

Abstract

Noun phrase conjunction in Akan (Niger-Congo, Kwa) is performed by placing a connective between two noun phrases, but there is some variation in the forms used in the major dialects. In the Twi dialects the connective is , but Fante speakers may use or depending on whether a comitative or a coordinative interpretation is intended. This paper focuses on the historical origins of the noun phrase connective in Akan. It suggests that Akan patterns with other sub-saharan African languages such as Ewe, Ga, Yoruba and Hausa, which have noun phrase connectives originating from comitative verbs. This suggestion is based on the morpho-semantics of these connectives. In addition, the paper demonstrates that the origin of the connective could be further traced to an equative copula in the language. This conclusion is based on syntactic and semantic evidence available in the language and strengthened by the cross-linguistic tendency for copula verbs to develop into noun phrase connectives in a number of unrelated languages.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.20.1.02amf
2010-01-01
2019-10-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abdoulaye, Mahamane L
    (2004) Comitative, coordinating and inclusory constructions in Hausa. In Martin Haspelmath (ed.), Coordinating Constructions. (Typological Studies in Language (TSL), Vol 58) Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 165-193. doi: 10.1075/tsl.58.10abd
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.58.10abd [Google Scholar]
  2. Amfo, Nana Aba A
    (2007a) Noun phrase and clausal connectives in Akan. Studies in African Linguistics 36.1: 1-28.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. (2007b) The encoding of procedures: A pragmatic analysis of selected function words in Akan. Ph.D. thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
  4. (2007c) Clausal conjunction in Akan. Lingua117: 666-684. doi: 10.1016/j.lingua.2006.04.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2006.04.005 [Google Scholar]
  5. Dakubu, Mary Esther Kropp
    (1970) The categories of the Ga verbal group. Journal of African Linguistics9: 70-76.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ellis, Jeffrey , and Lawrence Boadi
    (1969) ‘To be’ in Twi. In John W.M. Verhaar (ed.), The Verb ‘be’ and its Synonyms. (Foundations of Language Supplementary Series, Vol 9). Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company, pp. 1-71. doi: 10.1007/978‑94‑011‑9804‑2_1
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-9804-2_1 [Google Scholar]
  7. Heine, Bernd , Ulrike Claudi , and Friederike Hünnemeyer
    (1991) From cognition to grammar. In Elizabeth C. Traugott and Bernd Heine (eds.), Approaches to Grammaticalization, Vol 1. (Typological Studies in Language (TSL), Vol 19). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 149-188. doi: 10.1075/tsl.19.1.09hei
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.1.09hei [Google Scholar]
  8. Heine, Bernd , and Mechthild Reh
    (1984) Grammaticalization and Reanalysis in African Languages. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hopper, Paul J
    (1991) On some principles of grammaticalization. In Elizabeth C. Traugott and Bernd Heine (eds.), Approaches to Grammaticalization, Vol. 1. (Typological Studies in Language (TSL), Vol.10). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 17-35. doi: 10.1075/tsl.19.1.04hop
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.19.1.04hop [Google Scholar]
  10. Hopper, Paul J. , and Elizabeth C. Traugott
    (2003) Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139165525
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165525 [Google Scholar]
  11. Lehmann, Christian
    (1985) Grammaticalization: Synchronic variation and diachronic change. Lingua e Stile 20.3: 303-318.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lord, Carol
    (1973) Serial verbs in transition. Studies in African Linguistics4: 269-295.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (1993) Historical change in serial verb constructions. (Typological Studies in Language (TSL), Vol 26). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/tsl.26
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.26 [Google Scholar]
  14. Lyons, John
    (1977) Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. McMahon, April M.S
    (1994) Understanding Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139166591
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139166591 [Google Scholar]
  16. Meillet, Antoine
    (1912) L’évolution des formes grammaticales. In Antoine Meillet , Linguistiques historique et linguistique général. Paris : Champion, pp. 130-148.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mithun, Marianne
    (1988) The grammaticization of coordination. In John Haiman and Sandra A. Thompson (eds.), Clause Combining in Grammar and Discourse. (Typological Studies in Language (TSL), Vol 18). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 331-359. doi: 10.1075/tsl.18.13mit
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.18.13mit [Google Scholar]
  18. Osam, E. Kweku
    (1994) Aspects of Akan grammar: A functional perspective. Ph.D. thesis, University of Oregon.
  19. (1996) The history of Akan complementizers. Journal of Asian and African Studies51: 93-103.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. (2004) The Trondheim Lectures: An Introduction to the Structure of Akan, Its Verbal and Multiverbal Systems. Legon: Department of Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Stassen, Leon
    (2000) AND-languages and WITH-languages. Linguistics Typology4: 1-54. doi: 10.1515/lity.2000.4.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lity.2000.4.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  22. (2003) Noun phrase conjunction: The coordinative and the comitative strategy. In Frans Plank (ed.), Noun Phrase Structure and the Languages of Europe. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 761-811.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Svorou, Soteria
    (1994) The grammar of space. (Typological Studies in Language (TSL), Vol 25). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/tsl.25
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/tsl.25 [Google Scholar]
  24. Trutenau, H.M.J
    (1973) The verbal status of the NP-linker in Ga. Studies in African Linguistics4: 71-86.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.20.1.02amf
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Akan , Comitative , Conjunction , Coordinative and Grammaticalization
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error