1887
Volume 31, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

Studies on the development of interlanguage pragmatic markers (PMs) have attracted increasing interest recently. However, little research is available on the PM dynamic development in alignment with English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classroom contexts. Given the lacuna, this article, based on the Complexity and the Alignment theories, investigates how PMs develop and how aligning with film-situated un/equal role relationships influences development. The study with eight data collection points tracks 28 EFL learners’ PM production over around 1.5 year. Results revealed: (1) the employed PM functions fluctuated but developed from singular to multiple, with the interpersonal function use being regressive and the structural and the cognitive, progressive; (2) the PM development manifested a significant gain in aligning with the equal role relationships; and (3) different proficiency learners had dissimilar PM development. These findings corroborate the view of context-dependent dynamic development and provide strong evidence for aligning EFL learning with various role relationships.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.20013.xia
2021-07-23
2021-12-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Aijmer, Karin
    2013 “Analyzing Modal Adverbs as Modal Particles and Discourse Markers.” InDiscourse Markers and Modal Particles: Categorization and Description, edited byKirsten Fischer, 89–106. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.234.04aij
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.234.04aij [Google Scholar]
  2. Aijmer, Karin, and Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen
    2006 “Introduction.” InPragmatic Markers in Contrast, edited byKarin Aijmer, and Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen, 1–10. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 10.1163/9780080480299
    https://doi.org/10.1163/9780080480299 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ament, Jennifer, Carmen Pérez-Vidal, and Júlia Barón Parés
    2018 “The Effects of English-medium Instruction on the Use of Textual and Interpersonal Pragmatic Markers.” Pragmatics28(4):517–545. 10.1075/prag.17042.ame
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.17042.ame [Google Scholar]
  4. Atkinson, Dwight, Eton Churchill, Takako Nishino, and Hanako Okada
    2007 “Alignment and Interaction in a Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition.” The Modern Language Journal (91):169–188. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00539.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00539.x [Google Scholar]
  5. Atkinson, Dwight
    2010 “Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition.” Applied Linguistics31(5): 599–622. 10.1093/applin/amq009
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amq009 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bazzanella, Carla
    2006 “Discourse Markers in Italian: Towards a ‘Compositional’ Meaning.” InApproaches to Discourse Particles, edited byKerstin Fisher, 449–464. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Beeching, Kate
    2015 “Variability in Native and Non Native Use of Pragmatic Markers: the Example of Well in Role-Play Data.” InResearching Sociopragmatic Variation: Perspectives from Variational, Interlanguage and Contrastive Pragmatics, edited byKate Beeching, and Helen Woodfield, 174–197. New York: Palgrave Macmillian. 10.1057/9781137373953_8
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137373953_8 [Google Scholar]
  8. Brinton, Laurel J.
    1996Pragmatic Markers in English: Grammaticalization and Discourse Functions. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 10.1515/9783110907582
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110907582 [Google Scholar]
  9. Buysse, Lieven
    2018 “‘It Was a bit Stressy as well Actually’. The Pragmatic Markers Actually and In Fact in Spoken Learner English.” Journal of Pragmatics11(4):1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Eggins, Suzanne
    2004An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics. 2nd Edition. London: Continuum.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fung, Loretta, and Ronald Carter
    2007 “Discourse Markers and Spoken English: Native and Learner Use in Pedagogic Settings.” Applied Linguistics28(3):410–439. 10.1093/applin/amm030
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm030 [Google Scholar]
  12. Gruber, Helmut, and Peter Muntigl
    2005 “Generic and Rhetorical Structures of Texts: Two Sides of the Same Coin?” Folia Linguistica39 (1/2): 75–113. 10.1515/flin.2005.39.1‑2.75
    https://doi.org/10.1515/flin.2005.39.1-2.75 [Google Scholar]
  13. Haken, Hermann
    1977 “Synergetics: An Introduction Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions and Self- Organization in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. New York: Springer-Vertlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Haupt, Jaromír
    2014 “Contrastive Relations, Evaluation, and Generic Structure in Science News.” InPragmatics of Discourse Coherence: Theories and applications, edited byHelmut Gruber, and Gisela Redeker, 53–83. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.254.03hau
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.254.03hau [Google Scholar]
  15. Iwasaki, Noriko
    2011 “Filling Social Space with Fillers: Gains in Social Dimension After Studying Abroad in Japan.” Japanese Language and Literature45 (1):169–193.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 2013 “Getting over the Hedge: Acquisition of Mitigating Language in L2 Japanese.” InSocial and Cultural Aspects of Language Learning in Study Abroad, edited byCeleste Kinginger, 239–267. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.37.10iwa
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.37.10iwa [Google Scholar]
  17. Jackson, Jane
    2008Language, Identity, and Study Abroad: Sociocultural Perspectives. London: Equinox Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Jones, Christian
    2016 “Teaching Spoken Stance Markers: A Comparison of Receptive and Productive Practice.” The European Journal of Applied Linguistics and TEFL5(2), 83–100.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Jones, Christian, and Ronald Carter
    2014 “Teaching Spoken Discourse Markers Explicitly: A Comparison of III and PPP.” International Journal of English Studies14(2), 37–54. 10.6018/ijes/14/1/161001
    https://doi.org/10.6018/ijes/14/1/161001 [Google Scholar]
  20. Kramsch, Claire, and Anne Whiteside
    2008 “Language Ecology in Multilingual Settings. Towards a Theory of Symbolic Competence.” Applied Linguistics29(4):645–671. 10.1093/applin/amn022
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amn022 [Google Scholar]
  21. Larsen-Freeman, Diane
    1997 “Chaos/Complexity Science and Second Language Acquisition.” Applied Linguistics18(2):141–165. 10.1093/applin/18.2.141
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/18.2.141 [Google Scholar]
  22. 2006 “The Emergence of Complexity, Fluency, and Accuracy in the Oral and Written Production of Five Chinese Learners of English.” Applied Linguistics27(4):590–619. 10.1093/applin/aml029
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/aml029 [Google Scholar]
  23. 2017a “Complexity and ELF” InThe Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca, edited byJennifer Jenkins, Will Baker, and Martin Dewey, Chapter 4 in Part 1. London: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315717173‑5
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315717173-5 [Google Scholar]
  24. 2017b “Complexity Theory: The Lessons Continue.” InComplexity Theory and Language Development: In Celebration of Diane Larsen-Freeman, edited byLourdes Ortega and Zhaohong Han, 11–50. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/lllt.48.02lar
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.48.02lar [Google Scholar]
  25. 2019 “Second Language Development in Its Time: Expanding Our Scope of Inquiry.” Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics42(3):267–284. 10.1515/CJAL‑2019‑0017
    https://doi.org/10.1515/CJAL-2019-0017 [Google Scholar]
  26. Liao, Silvie
    2009 “Variation in the Use of Discourse Markers by Chinese Teaching Assistants in the US.” Journal of Pragmatics41 (7): 1313–1328. 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.026
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2008.09.026 [Google Scholar]
  27. Magliacane, Annarita
    2020 “Erasmus Students in an Irish Study Abroad Context: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Use of ‘well’ and ‘like’” Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education5 (1):89–117. 10.1075/sar.18008.mag
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.18008.mag [Google Scholar]
  28. Magliacane, Annarita, and Martin Howard
    2019 “The Role of Learner Status in the Acquisition of Pragmatic Markers during Study Abroad: The Use of ‘Like’ in L2 English.” Journal of Pragmatics146 (6):72–86. 10.1016/j.pragma.2019.01.026
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.01.026 [Google Scholar]
  29. McCarthy, Michael
    1998Spoken Language and Applied Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Martín-Laguna, Sofía and Eva Alcón-Soler
    2018 “Development of Discourse-pragmatic Markers in the Multilingual Classroom: A Mixed Method Research Approach.” System (75):68–80. 10.1016/j.system.2018.03.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2018.03.009 [Google Scholar]
  31. Maschler, Yael
    1994 “Metalanguaging and Discourse Markers in Bilingual Conversation.” Language in Society23(3):325–366. 10.1017/S0047404500018017
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500018017 [Google Scholar]
  32. Müller, Simone
    2005Discourse Markers in Native and Non-native English Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.138
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.138 [Google Scholar]
  33. National Curriculum
    National Curriculum 2004Introducing the Grammar of Talk. London: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Pickering, Martin J., and Simon Garrod
    2004 “Toward a Mechanistic Psychology of Dialogue.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences27(2): 169–26. 10.1017/S0140525X04000056
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X04000056 [Google Scholar]
  35. 2006 “Alignment as the Basis for Successful Communication.” Research on Language and Computation4(2–3): 203–28. 10.1007/s11168‑006‑9004‑0
    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11168-006-9004-0 [Google Scholar]
  36. Polat, Brittany
    2011 “Investigation Acquisition of Discourse Markers through a Developmental Learner Corpus.” Journal of Pragmatics43(15):3745–3756. 10.1016/j.pragma.2011.09.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.09.009 [Google Scholar]
  37. Redeker, Gisela
    1990 “Ideational and Pragmatic Markers of Discourse Structure.” Journal of Pragmatics14 (3):367–381. 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90095‑U
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90095-U [Google Scholar]
  38. Taguchi, Naoko
    2011 “Pragmatic Development as a Dynamic, Complex Process: General Patterns and Case Histories.” The Modern Language Journal95(4): 605–627. 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2011.01246.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01246.x [Google Scholar]
  39. 2015 “‘Contextually’ Speaking: A Survey of Pragmatic Learning Abroad, in Class, and Online.” System (48): 3–20. 10.1016/j.system.2014.09.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.09.001 [Google Scholar]
  40. van Geert, Paul, and Henderien Steenbeek
    2005 “Explaining After by Before: Basic Aspects of a Dynamic Systems Approach to the Study of Development.” Developmental Review25(3–4): 408–42. 10.1016/j.dr.2005.10.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2005.10.003 [Google Scholar]
  41. Verspoor, Marjolijn, Monika S. Schmid, and Xiaoyan Xu
    2012 “A Dynamic Usage-based Perspective on L2 Writing.” Journal of Second Language Writing21(3):239–263. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.03.007
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2012.03.007 [Google Scholar]
  42. Wang, Chuming, and Min Wang
    2015 “Effect of Alignment on L2 Written Production.” Applied Linguistics36(5): 503–526.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Xiao, Hao-Zhang
    2012 “Effects of Explicit Attention to the Learning of Discourse Markers on the Production and Construal of Discourse.” Modern Foreign Languages35(4):393–400.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Xiao, Hao-Zhang, Mei-Zhen Zhou, and Qian-Wen Liu
    2017 Sustainability Alignment Effects of Role-Based Interaction Learning. Technology Enhanced Foreign Language Education178(6):56–63.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Zwaan, Rolf A., and Gabriel A. Radvansky
    1998 “Situation Models in Language Comprehension and Memory.” Psychological Bulletin123(2):162–85. 10.1037/0033‑2909.123.2.162
    https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.123.2.162 [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.20013.xia
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/prag.20013.xia
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error