1887
image of Admonishing
USD
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes

Abstract

Abstract

This paper examines the pragmatic properties of what we define as a ritual act of ‘admonishing’. We argue that admonishing represents a historically embedded realisation type of the speech act Suggest. We explore admonishing in ancient Chinese political and governance texts dated before the 2nd century BC. The results of our analysis show that admonishing often not only affords but even triggers paradoxical pragmatic behaviour. This paradox stems from the fact that, in many historical linguacultures like the ancient Chinese, admonishing was directed at a recipient, most typically a ruler, who was more highly ranked than the admonisher himself. While this context normally precluded threatening the recipient’s face, admonishing was realised in a ritual frame in which such a face threat was deindividuated. In pragmatics, a research gap exists in the study of the historical act of admonishing, and so the current study fills a knowledge gap.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.20022.kad
2021-01-06
2021-01-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Cobbett’s Parliamentary History of England, Volume 1: From the Norman Conquest, in 1066, to the Year
    Cobbett’s Parliamentary History of England, Volume 1: From the Norman Conquest, in 1066, to the Year 1809 London: Curson Hansard.
  2. Guanzi (Master Guan)
    Guanzi (Master Guan) 2016 Edition. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  3. Guoyu (Discourses of the States)
    Guoyu (Discourses of the States) 2016 Edition. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  4. Lüshi Chunqiu (Master Lü’s Spring and Autumn Annals)
    Lüshi Chunqiu (Master Lü’s Spring and Autumn Annals) 2011 Edition. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  5. Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian)
    Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian) 2011 Edition. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  6. Yanzi Chunqiu (Annals of Master Yan)
    Yanzi Chunqiu (Annals of Master Yan) 2015 Edition. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  7. Zhan Guo Ce (Annals of the Warring States)
    Zhan Guo Ce (Annals of the Warring States) 2012 Edition. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  8. Zuozhuan (The Commentary of Zuo)
    Zuozhuan (The Commentary of Zuo) 2016 Edition. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.
  9. Agha, Asif
    1998 “Stereotypes and Registers of Honorific Language.” Language in Society27 (2): 151–193. 10.1017/S0047404500019849
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500019849 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bax, Marcel
    1981 “Rules for Ritual Challenges: A Speech Convention among Medieval Knights.” Journal of Pragmatics5 (5): 423–444. 10.1016/0378‑2166(81)90027‑8
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(81)90027-8 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brinton, Laurel J.
    2001 “Historical Discourse Analysis.” InThe Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. by Deborah Schiffrin , Deborah Tannen , and Heidi E. Hamilton , 138–160. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brown, Penelope , and Stephen C. Levinson
    1987Politeness: Some Universals of Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511813085
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813085 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bull, Peter , Anita Fetzer , and Dániel Z. Kádár
    2020 “Calling Mr Speaker ‘Mr Speaker’: The Strategic Use of Ritual References to The Speaker of The UK House of Commons.” Pragmatics30 (1): 64–87. 10.1075/prag.19020.bul
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.19020.bul [Google Scholar]
  14. Cai, Minglun 蔡明倫
    2009 “Mingdai guanyuan jinjian moshi ji qi tedian明代官員進諫模式及其特點 [The key features of admonishments in the Ming Dynasty].” Beijing Lianhe Daxue Xuebao北京聯合大學學報 [Journal of Beijing United University] 7 (4): 62–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Chen, Kuang-Yu
    2017 “ The Book of Odes: A Case Study of the Chinese Hermeneutic Tradition. InInterpretation and Intellectual Change: Chinese Hermeneutics in Historical Perspective, ed. by Ching-I Tu , 47–62. New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9780203788288‑4
    https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203788288-4 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chen, Xinren
    2019 “‘Family-culture’ and Chinese Politeness An Emancipatory Pragmatic Account.” Acta Linguistica Academica66 (2): 251–270. 10.1556/2062.2019.66.2.6
    https://doi.org/10.1556/2062.2019.66.2.6 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chen, Wei 陳瑋
    2011 “Richang hanyu guiquan yanyu xingwei ji celüeyanjiu日常漢語規勸言語行為及策略研究 [On admonishing speech acts and strategies adopted in daily Chinese communication].” Jixi daxue xuebao雞西大學學報 [Journal of Jixi University] 11 (2): 130–133.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dauphinais, Michael , and Matthew Levering
    2005Holy People, Holy Land: A Theological Introduction to the Bible. New York: Baker Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. DuBois, James M.
    2002 “Adolf Reinach: Metaethics and The Philosophy of Law.” Phenomenological Approaches to Moral Philosophy47: 327–346. 10.1007/978‑94‑015‑9924‑5_17
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-9924-5_17 [Google Scholar]
  20. Edmondson, Willis
    1981Spoken Discourse: A Model for Analysis. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Edmondson, Willis , and Juliane House
    1981Let’s Talk and Talk About It: An Interactional Grammar of English. München: Urban & Schwarzenberg.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Galvany, Albert
    2012 “Sly Mouths and Silver Tongues: The Dynamics of Psychological Persuasion in Ancient China.” Extreme-Orient34: 15–40. 10.4000/extremeorient.250
    https://doi.org/10.4000/extremeorient.250 [Google Scholar]
  23. Garcés-Conejos Blitvich, Pilar
    2015 “Setting the Linguistics Research Agenda for the E-service Encounters Genre: Natively Digital versus Digitized Perspectives.” InA Multidisciplinary Approach to Service Encounters, ed. by Maria de la O Hernández-López , and Lucía Fernández Amaya , 13–36. Leiden: Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Green, Eugene
    1995 “On Syntactic and Pragmatic Features of Speech Acts in Wulfstan’s Homilies.” InInsights in Germanic Linguistics I: Methodology in Transition, ed. by Irmengard Rauch , and Gerald F. Carr , 109–126. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Han, Gaonian 韓高年
    2018 “Chunqiu ‘Lizhi’ yu ‘Jingguo-zhi-wen’ de shengcheng – Yi zhenglun, jianci, wendui santi wei hexin春秋“禮治”與“經國之文”的生成 – 以政論、諫辭、問對三體為核心 [‘Lizhi’ in the Spring and Autumn Period and the creation of ‘Jingguo Zhiwen’: Examining political commentary, admonishment rhetoric and question-answers].” Wen-Shi-Zhe文史哲 [Literature, History and Philosophy] 364 (1): 70–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. He, Taole 賀陶樂
    2003 “‘Zuozhuan’ jianshuo yingdui-de celüe yishu《左傳》諫說應對的策略藝術 [The art of persuasion tactics Zuozhuan].” Xibei nonglin-keji-daxue xuebao西北農林科技大學學報 [Journal of Northeast A&F University] 3 (5): 134–137.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. He, Ziran , and Wei Ren
    2016 “Current Address Behaviour in China.” East Asian Pragmatics1 (2): 163–180. 10.1558/eap.v1i2.29537
    https://doi.org/10.1558/eap.v1i2.29537 [Google Scholar]
  28. Hostetler, Margaret
    2012 “The Politeness of a Disciplining Text: Ideal Readers in Ancrene Wisse.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics13 (1): 29–49. 10.1075/jhp.13.1.02hos
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.13.1.02hos [Google Scholar]
  29. House, Juliane
    1986 “Acquiring Translational Competence in Interaction.” InInterlingual and Intercultural Communication: Discourse and Cognition in Translation and Second Language Acquisition Studies, ed. by Juliane House , and Shoshana Blum-Kulka , 179–192. Tubingen: Narr.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 1989 “Politeness in English and German: The Functions of Please and Bitte .” InCross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies, ed. by Shoshana Blum-Kulka , Juliane House , and Gabriele Kasper , 96–119. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. House, Juliane , and Dániel Z. Kádár
    2021Cross-Cultural Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Houston, Walter
    1993 “What Did the Prophets Think They Were Doing? Speech Acts and Prophetic Discourse in the Old Testament.” Biblical Interpretation1 (2): 167–188. 10.1163/156851593X00043
    https://doi.org/10.1163/156851593X00043 [Google Scholar]
  33. Ide, Sachiko
    1989 “Formal Forms and Discernment: Two Neglected Aspects of Universals of Linguistic Politeness.” Multilingua8 (2/3): 223–248. 10.1515/mult.1989.8.2‑3.223
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1989.8.2-3.223 [Google Scholar]
  34. Jacobs, Andreas , and Andreas H. Jucker
    1995 “The Historical Perspective in Pragmatics.” InHistorical Pragmatics: Pragmatic Developments in The History of English, ed. by Andreas H. Jucker , 3–33. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.35.04jac
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.35.04jac [Google Scholar]
  35. Kádár, Dániel Z.
    2007Terms of (Im)Politeness: On the Communicational Properties of Traditional Chinese Terms of Address. Budapest: Eötvös Loránd University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 2017Politeness, Impoliteness and Ritual: Maintaining the Moral Order in Interpersonal Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781107280465
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107280465 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kádár, Dániel Z. , and Juliane House
    2020 “Ritual Frames: A Contrastive Pragmatic Approach.” Pragmatics30 (1): 142–168. 10.1075/prag.19018.kad
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.19018.kad [Google Scholar]
  38. Kádár, Dániel Z. , Juliane House , Fengguang Liu , and Wenrui Shi
    2020 “Reporting Ritual Political Advice in the Chinese State Media: A study of the National People’s Congress.” Discourse, Context & Media35. 10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100388
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcm.2020.100388 [Google Scholar]
  39. Kallia, Alexandra
    2005 “Directness as a Source of Misunderstanding: The Case of Requests and Suggestions.” InBroadening the Horizon of Linguistic Politeness, ed. by Robin Lakoff and Sachiko Ide , 217–234. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.139.19kal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.139.19kal [Google Scholar]
  40. Ke, Zhenchang 柯鎮昌
    2012 “Xian-Qin jian-tiwen ji qi wenhua yiyun先秦諫體文及其文化意蘊 [Admonishing literary pieces and their cultural impact in Pre-Qin China].” Wenyi pinglun文藝評論 [Literature and Art Criticism] 10: 4–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kerbrat-Orecchioni, Catherine
    2011 “From Good Manners to Facework: Politeness Variations and Constants in France, From the Classic Age to Today.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics12 (1/2): 133–155. 10.1075/jhp.12.1‑2.06ker
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.12.1-2.06ker [Google Scholar]
  42. Kohnen, Thomas
    1999 “Corpora and Speech Acts: The Study of Performatives.” InCorpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, ed. by Christian Mair , and Marianne Hundt , 177–186. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Lichtheim, Miriam
    1976Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Mao, Zhixiang 冒誌祥 , and Jiyong Hou 侯吉永
    2007 “Gudai jinjian gongwen de shuofu xiuci古代進諫公文的說服修辭 [On persuasive rhetoric in ancient admonishment sources]”. Xiuci xuexi修辭學習 [Rhetoric Study] 144 (6): 76–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. McCabe, David R.
    2008 How to Kill Things with Words: Ananias and Sapphira Under the Apostolic-Prophetic Speech-Act of Divine Judgment (Acts 4:32–5:11). PhD Thesis, Edinburgh, The University of Edinburgh.
  46. Ning, Dengguo 寧登國
    2012 “Xian-Qin tingzheng zhidu yu jianti wenxue de xingsheng先秦聽證制度與諫體文學的興盛 [The hearing system of the Pre-Qin period and the development of the admonishment literature].” Xueshu luntan學術論壇 [Academic Forum] 6 (1): 158–162.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Pan, Yuling , and Kádár, Dániel Z. Kádár
    2011aPoliteness in Historical and Contemporary Chinese. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 2011b “Historical vs. Contemporary Chinese Linguistic Politeness.” Journal of Pragmatics43 (6): 1525–1539. 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.018
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.018 [Google Scholar]
  49. Petersen, David L.
    2002The Prophetic Literature: An Introduction. Westminster: John Know Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Shen, Xingchen , and Xinren Chen
    2019 “Doing Power Threatening Acts (PTAs) in Ancient China: An Empirical Study of Chinese Jian Discourse.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics20 (1): 132–156. 10.1075/jhp.17002.she
    https://doi.org/10.1075/jhp.17002.she [Google Scholar]
  51. Stanley, Christopher D.
    2004Arguing with Scripture: The Rhetoric of Quotations in the Letters of Paul. London: Bloomsbury.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Tasca, Luisa
    2004Galatei. Buone maniere e cultura borghese nell’Italia dell’Ottocento [Etiquette. Good manners and bourgeois culture in nineteenth-century Italy] Florence: Le Lettere.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Zeng, Qing Gong
    2019 “Democracy Wisdom in Ancient China: Remonstrating with the Emperor.” Paper presented at theRSU International Research Conference 2019. Retrieved from: https://rsucon.rsu.ac.th/files/proceedings/inter2019/IN19-202.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Zhu, Ling 朱玲
    2005 “Gudai fengjian de yuyong celüe he xiuci renzhi古代諷諫的語用策略和修辭認知 [The pragmatic strategies and rhetoric cognition of admonishment in ancient China].” Huadong shifan daxue xuebao華東師範大學學報 [Journal of East China Normal University] (37) 6: 85–90.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.20022.kad
Loading
/content/journals/10.1075/prag.20022.kad
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: admonishing; ancient China; speech act; Suggest; ritual
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error