image of Japanese no datta and no de atta in written discourse
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



The present study examines and , which are the past-tense forms of and in written Japanese. The analysis demonstrates that the choice between the present-tense and the past-tense does not affect the temporal interpretation when they follow past-tense morphemes. However, a close examination has also revealed that the past-tense cannot follow a past-tense morpheme when the ongoing mode of discourse is non-narrative, while and are both available options when the discourse is in the mode of narrative. The present study also suggests that when is used in narrative, it indicates that the stated information is less impactful, less dramatic, and more temporally distant, compared to the cases where is used.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Alfonso, Anthony
    1966Japanese Language Patterns: A Structural Approach, Vol.. Tokyo: Sophia University LL Center of Applied Linguistics.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aoki, Haruo
    1986 “Evidentials in Japanese.” InEvidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology, ed. byWallace Chafe, and Johanna Nichols, –. Norwood: Ablex.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Genette, Gérard
    1982 “Frontiers of Narrative.” InFigures of Literary Discourse, trans. byAlan Sheridan, –. New York: Columbia University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Georgakopoulou, Alexandra, and Dionysis Goutsos
    2000 “Revisiting Discourse Boundaries: The Narrative and Non-Narrative Modes.” TEXT (): –.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Hasegawa, Yoko
    2015Japanese: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ijima, Masahiro
    2010 “Noda bun no kinoo to koozoo [Functions and structures of noda sentences].” Nihongogaku Ronshū: –.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ikegami, Yoshihiko
    2008 “Subjective Construal as a ‘Fashion of Speaking’ in Japanese.” InCurrent Trends in Contrastive Linguistics: Functional and Cognitive Perspectives, ed. byMaria de los Angeles Gomez Gonzalez, J. Lachlan Mackenzie, and Elsa M. Gonzalez Alvarez, –. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/sfsl.60.14ike
    https://doi.org/10.1075/sfsl.60.14ike [Google Scholar]
  8. Iori, Isao
    2000 “Kyooiku bunpoo ni kansuru oboegaki: ‘Sukoopu no no da’ o ree to shite [Remarks on pedagogical grammar: With special reference to sukoopu-no noda’].” Hitotsubashi Daigaku Ryuugakusee Sentaa Kiyoo: –.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Jorden, Eleanor Harz
    1963Beginning Japanese. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jorden, Eleanor Harz, and Mari Noda
    1987Japanese: The Spoken Language. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kudo, Mayumi
    1995Asupekuto, Tensu Taikee to Tekusuto [Aspect, tense system and text]. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Kuno, Susumu
    1983Shin Nihon Bunpoo Kenkyuu [New Japan Grammar Research]. Tokyo: Taishukan.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Maekawa, Kikuo
    2008 Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese. IJCNLP 2008: .
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Makino, Seiichi, and Michio Tsutsui
    1986A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar. Tokyo: The Japan Times.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Maynard, Senko. K.
    1992 “Cognitive and Pragmatic Messages of a Syntactic Choice: The Case of the Japanese Commentary Predicate n(o) da.” TEXT: –.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. McGloin, Naomi Hanaoka
    1980 “Some Observations Concerning no desu Expressions.” The Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese, (), –. 10.2307/488880
    https://doi.org/10.2307/488880 [Google Scholar]
  17. 1989A Students’ Guide to Japanese Grammar. Tokyo: Taishukan Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. McGloin, Naomi Hanaoka, Mutsuko Endo Hudson, Fumiko Nazikian, and Tomomi Kakegawa
    2013Modern Japanese Grammar: A Practical Guide. London/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mikami, Aakira
    1953/1972Gendai Gohoo Josetsu [Introduction to modern grammar]. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Miyazawa, Takaaki
    2018 “JCK sakubun koopasu ni okeru noda no tookatsu kinoo ni yoru bunmyaku tenkai no tokuchoo [Characteristics of text developments by the integrating function of noda in JCK essay corpus].” Chukyo Daigaku Bungakukai Ronso: –.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Mori, Atsushi
    2011 “Nihongo kakikotoba kinkoo koopasu koa deeta ni okeru shokyuu bunpoo koomoku no shutsugen hindo [The frequency of elementary-level grammar items in the core data in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese].” InNihongo Kyooiku Bunpoo no Tame no Tayoo na Apuroochi [Multiple approaches to Japanese pedagogy grammar], ed. byAtsushi Mori, and Isao Iori, –. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nara, Hiroshi
    2011 “Aspect and Discourse in Tense-Switching: A Case Study of Natsume Sōseki’s Botchan.” Japanese Language and Literature (): –.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nishi, Hironori
    2017 “Japanese n deshita in Discourse: Past Form of n desu.” Acta Linguistica Asiatica (): –. 10.4312/ala.7.1.41‑56
    https://doi.org/10.4312/ala.7.1.41-56 [Google Scholar]
  24. Noda, Harumi
    1992 “Fukubun ni okeru ‘no(da)’ no Kinoo: ‘no de wa naku(te),’ ‘no de wa,’ to ‘no daga’ [Functions of ‘no(da)’ in complex sentences: ‘no de wa naku(te)’ ‘no de wa’ and ‘no da kara’].” Handai Nihongo Kenkyuu: –.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 1999No da no Kinoo [Functions of no da]. Tokyo: Kuroshio.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Ono, Hitomi
    2016 “Nanki hoogen ni okeru ‘no da’ sootoo keeshiki to ‘ta’ no kyooki [Co-occurrence of ‘no da’ in Nanki dialect and ‘ta’].” Language and Civilization: –.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Rudrum, David
    2005 “From Narrative Representation to Narrative Use: Towards the Limits of Definition.” Narrative (), –. 10.1353/nar.2005.0013
    https://doi.org/10.1353/nar.2005.0013 [Google Scholar]
  28. Scholes, Robert
    1980 “Language, Narrative, and Anti-Narrative.” Critical Inquiry (): –. 10.1086/448096
    https://doi.org/10.1086/448096 [Google Scholar]
  29. Shirakawa, Hiroyuki, Isao Iori, Shino Takanashi, Kumiko Nakanishi, and Toshihiro Yamada
    2001Chuujookyuu o Oshieru Hito no Tame no Nihongo Bunpoo Handobukku [Grammar handbook for mid to upper-level Japanese language teachers]. Tokyo: 3A Network.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Smith, Carlota. S.
    2001 “Discourse Modes: Aspectual Entities and Tense Interpretation.” Cahiers de Grammaire, –.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 2003Modes of Discourse: The Local Structure of Texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511615108
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615108 [Google Scholar]
  32. 2005 “Aspectual Entities and Tense in Discourse.” Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory (): –. 10.1007/1‑4020‑3033‑9_10
    https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3033-9_10 [Google Scholar]
  33. Soga, Matsuo
    1983Tense and Aspect in Modern Colloquial Japanese. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Takatsu, Tamie
    1991 “A Unified Semantic Analysis of the NO DA Construction in Japanese.” The Journal of the Association of Teachers of Japanese (): –. 10.2307/489258
    https://doi.org/10.2307/489258 [Google Scholar]
  35. Tsujimura, Natsuko
    2007An Introduction to Japanese Linguistics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keywords: no de atta ; pragmatics ; discourse analysis ; no datta ; Japanese ; no de aru ; n(o) da
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error