Volume 32, Issue 4
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238
Buy:$35.00 + Taxes



This study investigates the functions of (‘and’) as a discourse marker in Persian. More specifically, this study accounts for certain aspects of co-occurrences and their linearization order. Fraser’s model (forthcoming) was mainly employed to classify the multiple functions conveyed by . A corpus-based approach was taken to provide an overview of co-occurrences with other discourse markers. The data were collected from both written and spoken corpora. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to examine the frequency and the functional differences in the use of in the data – namely, elaboration, inferential, contrast, and alternation. The results of the study indicate the mobile nature of in its co-occurrences with other DMs. The findings also show that some modifications to Fraser’s (forthcoming) DM co-occurrence principles are required to handle certain cases of language-specific behavior of in Persian. The configuration suggested for uses and its multi-functionality will also shed some lights on cross-linguistic studies of its counterparts in other languages.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aijmer, Karin
    2002English Discourse Particles: Evidence from a Corpus. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/scl.10
    https://doi.org/10.1075/scl.10 [Google Scholar]
  2. Aijmer, Karin, and Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen
    2011 “Pragmatic Markers.” InDiscursive Pragmatics8, ed. byJan Zienkowski, Jan-Ola Östman, and Jef Verschueren, 223–247. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/hoph.8.13aij
    https://doi.org/10.1075/hoph.8.13aij [Google Scholar]
  3. Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.
    2012 “The Essence of Mirativity.” Linguistic Typology16 (3): 435–485. 10.1515/lity‑2012‑0017
    https://doi.org/10.1515/lity-2012-0017 [Google Scholar]
  4. Anvari, Hasan
    2001Færhænge Soxæn. Tehran: Soxæn. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bortfeld, Heather, Silvia D. Leon, Jonathan E. Bloom, Michael F. Schober, and Susan E. Brennan
    2001 “Disfluency Rates in Conversation: Effects of Age, Relationship, Topic, Role, and Gender.” Language and Speech44 (2): 123–147. 10.1177/00238309010440020101
    https://doi.org/10.1177/00238309010440020101 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bublitz, Wolfram
    2017 “Oral Features in Fiction.” InPragmatics of Fiction, ed. byMiriam A. Locher, and Andreas H. Jucker, 235–263. De Gruyter Mouton. 10.1515/9783110431094‑008
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110431094-008 [Google Scholar]
  7. Crible, Ludivine
    2017a “Discourse Markers and (Dis)fluency in English and French.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics22 (2): 242–269. 10.1075/ijcl.22.2.04cri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/ijcl.22.2.04cri [Google Scholar]
  8. 2017b “Towards an Operational Category of Discourse Marker: A Definition and Its Model.” InPragmatic Markers, Discourse Markers and Modal Particles, ed. byChiara Fedriani, and Andrea Sansó, 99–124. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.186.04cri
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.186.04cri [Google Scholar]
  9. 2018Discourse Markers and (Dis)fluency. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/pbns.286
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.286 [Google Scholar]
  10. Crible, Ludivine, and Maria-Josep Cuenca
    2017 “Discourse Markers in Speech Characteristics and Challenges for Corpus Annotation.” Dialogue and Discourse8 (2): 149–166. 10.5087/dad.2017.207
    https://doi.org/10.5087/dad.2017.207 [Google Scholar]
  11. Crible, Ludivine
    2020 “Weak and Strong Discourse Markers in Speech, Chat, and Writing: Do Signals Compensate for Ambiguity in Explicit Relations?” Discourse Processes57 (9): 793–807. 10.1080/0163853X.2020.1786778
    https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2020.1786778 [Google Scholar]
  12. Crible, Ludivine, and Liesbeth Degand
    2021 “Co-occurrence and Ordering of Discourse Markers in Sequences: A Multifactorial Study in Spoken French.” Journal of Pragmatics177: 18–28. 10.1016/j.pragma.2021.02.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.02.006 [Google Scholar]
  13. De Klerk, Vivian
    2005 “Procedural Meanings of ‘Well’ in a Corpus of Xhosa English.” Journal of Pragmatics37 (8): 1183–1205. 10.1016/j.pragma.2004.11.001
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2004.11.001 [Google Scholar]
  14. Dér, Csilla
    2010 “On the Status of Discourse Markers.” Acta Linguistica Hungarica57 (1): 3–28. 10.1556/ALing.57.2010.1.1
    https://doi.org/10.1556/ALing.57.2010.1.1 [Google Scholar]
  15. Faghiri, Pegah, and Pollet Samvelian
    2020 “Word Order Preferences and the Effect of Phrasal Length in SOV Languages: Evidence from Sentence Production in Persian.” Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics5 (1): 86. 10.5334/gjgl.1078
    https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.1078 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fraser, Bruce
    1996 “Pragmatic Markers.” Pragmatics6 (2): 167–190. 10.1075/prag.6.2.03fra
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.6.2.03fra [Google Scholar]
  17. 2009 “An Account of Discourse Markers.” International Review of Pragmatics1 (2): 293–320. 10.1163/187730909X12538045489818
    https://doi.org/10.1163/187730909X12538045489818 [Google Scholar]
  18. . forthcoming. “Canonical Sequences of Discourse Markers in English.”
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ghaderi, Soleiman
    2019 Baresi Mo’tarezeh Are/Na dar Zabane Farsi [The Thetical Aspects of Are/Na (Yes/No), in Persian]. PhD Thesis, University of Isfahan.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ghaderi, Soleiman, and Mohammad Amouzadeh
    2021 “Aspects of Are (Yes) in Persian Discourse: Its Functions, Positions, and Evolution.” Studia Linguistica75 (3): 623–658. 10.1111/stul.12173
    https://doi.org/10.1111/stul.12173 [Google Scholar]
  21. González, Montserrat
    2005 “Pragmatic Markers and Discourse Coherence Relations in English and Catalan Oral Narrative.” Discourse Studies7 (1): 53–86. 10.1177/1461445605048767
    https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605048767 [Google Scholar]
  22. Grice, Herbert P.
    1975 “Logic and Conversation.” InSyntax and Semantics Vol. 3: Speech Acts, ed. byPeter Cole, and Jerry L. Morgan, 41–58. Brill.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Habib, Rania
    2021 “The use of the Discourse Markers yaʕni and ʔinnu: ‘I mean’ in Syrian Arabic.” Journal of Pragmatics178: 245–257. 10.1016/j.pragma.2021.03.025
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.03.025 [Google Scholar]
  24. Halliday, Michael Alexander Kirkwood, and Ruqaiya Hasan
    1976Cohesion in English. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Haselow, Alexander
    2019 “Discourse Marker Sequences: Insights into the Serial Order of Communicative Tasks in Real-time Turn Production.” Journal of Pragmatics146: 1–18. 10.1016/j.pragma.2019.04.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.04.003 [Google Scholar]
  26. Heine, Bernd, Gunther Kaltenböck, Tania Kuteva, and Haiping Long
    2021The Rise of Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781108982856
    https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108982856 [Google Scholar]
  27. Horn, Paul
    1893Grundriss der Neupersischen Etymologie. Strassburg: Karl J. Trübner. 10.1515/9783111699394
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783111699394 [Google Scholar]
  28. Kassaei, Gholamreza, and Mohammad Amouzadeh
    2020 “The Combination of Discourse Markers in Persian.” International Review of Pragmatics12 (1): 135–163. 10.1163/18773109‑01201102
    https://doi.org/10.1163/18773109-01201102 [Google Scholar]
  29. Kent, Roland G.
    1953Old Persian: Grammar. Texts. Lexicon. New Haven: American Oriental Society.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kuteva, Tania, Bernd Heine, Peter Austin, Seongha Rhee, Marine Vuilermet, and Domenico Niclot
    2017 “The ‘Mirror’ of Insubordination.” Linguistics Departmental Seminar Series, SOAS University of London. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jfq1KcoRens
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lambton, Ann KS.
    1953Persian Grammar: Including Key. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lazard, Gilbert
    1992A Grammar of Contemporary Persian. Cosa Mesa: Mazda Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Levy, Roger, and T. Florian Jaeger
    2007 “Speakers Optimize Information Density through Syntactic Reduction.” InAdvances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), ed. byBernhard Schölkopf, John Platt, and Thomas Hofmann, 849–856. MA: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lohmann, Arne, and Christian Koops
    2016 “Aspects of Discourse Marker Sequencing – Emprical Challenges and Theoretical Implications.” InOutside the Clause: Forms and Functions of Extra-clausal Constituents, ed. byGunther Kaltenbock, Evelien Keizer, and Arne Lohmann, 417–446. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/slcs.178.14loh
    https://doi.org/10.1075/slcs.178.14loh [Google Scholar]
  35. Mahootian, Shahrzad, and Lewis Gebhardt
    1997Persian. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Norén, Kerstin, and Per Linell
    2007 “Meaning Potentials and the Interaction between Lexis and Contexts: An Empirical Substantiation.” Pragmatics17 (3): 387–416. 10.1075/prag.17.3.03nor
    https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.17.3.03nor [Google Scholar]
  37. Oates, Sarah Louise
    2000 “Multiple Discourse Marker Occurrence: Creating Hierarchical for Natural Language.” InProcedding of the 3rd CLUK Colloquium, 41–45. Brighton.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 2001 Multiple Discourse Occurrence: Creating Hierarchicies for Natural Languages Generation. MA dissertation. University of Brighton.
  39. Onea, Edgar, and Anna Volodina
    2011 “Between Specification and Explanation: About a German Discourse Particle.” International Review of Pragmatics3 (1): 3–32. 10.1163/187731011X561036
    https://doi.org/10.1163/187731011X561036 [Google Scholar]
  40. Pinto, Derrin, and Donny Vigil
    2020 “Spanish Clicks in Discourse Marker Combinations.” Journal of Pragmatics159: 1–11. 10.1016/j.pragma.2020.01.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2020.01.009 [Google Scholar]
  41. Redeker, Gisela
    1990 “Ideational and Pragmatic Markers of Discourse Structure.” Journal of Pragmatics14 (3): 367–381. 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90095‑U
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90095-U [Google Scholar]
  42. Schiffrin, Deborah
    2001 “Discourse Markers: Language, Meaning, and Context.” InThe Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. byDeborah Schiffrin, Deborah Tannen, and Heidi E. Hamilton, 54–74. Malden. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 2006 “Discourse Marker Research and Theory: Revisiting and. InApproaches to Discourse Particles, ed. byKerstin Fischer, 315–338. Oxford: Elsevier.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Schourup, Lawrence
    1999 “Discourse Markers.” Lingua, 107 (3–4): 227–265. 10.1016/S0024‑3841(96)90026‑1
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3841(96)90026-1 [Google Scholar]
  45. Siebold, Kathrin
    2021 “German dann – From Adverb to Discourse Marker.” Journal of Pragmatics175: 129–145. 10.1016/j.pragma.2021.01.010
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2021.01.010 [Google Scholar]
  46. Stilo, Donald
    2004 “Coordination in Three Western Iranian Languages: Vafsi, Persian and Gilaki.” InCoordinating Constructions, ed. byMartin Haspelmath, 269–330. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/tsl.58.16sti
    https://doi.org/10.1075/tsl.58.16sti [Google Scholar]
  47. Sweetser, Eve
    1990From Etymology to Pragmatics: Metaphorical and Cultural Aspects of Semantic Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/CBO9780511620904
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620904 [Google Scholar]
  48. Vanderbauwhede, Gudrun, and Béatrice Lamiroy
    2020 “On Two French Discourse Markers and Their Dutch Equivalents: d’ailleurs and par ailleurs.” Journal of Pragmatics156: 168–175. 10.1016/j.pragma.2019.06.006
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.06.006 [Google Scholar]
  49. Zoghdar-Moghadam, Reza, and Mohammad Dabirmoghadam
    2002 “Contrastive Discourse Markers: The Case of “but” in English and “amma” in Persian.” Language Researches7 (12), 55–76. [in Persian]
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): DM co-occurrence; Multifunctionality; Pragmatic functions; væ discourse marker
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error