1887
Volume 33, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238

Abstract

Abstract

Fluent L2 English speakers frequently use discourse markers (DMs) as a speech management strategy, but research has largely ignored how this develops across different proficiency levels and how it is related to immersive experiences. This study examines the developmental patterns of three DMs – , and  – in the speech of learners at A2-C1 in CEFR with and without immersive experiences in target language environments. The fluency-rated LINDSEI corpus (173 learners) and a parallel native corpus (50 speakers) provided approximately 350,000 tokens and 3,395 instances of the analyzed DMs. Overall, DM frequency (especially with and ) among C1 speakers increases with rising fluency levels up to almost native-like levels. Immersive experience correlates positively with overall and individual DM frequency (except for ). As the skillful use of DMs results in more fluent speech production, the didactic implications for L2 instructors should be developed.

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2022-06-13
2024-05-26
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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): CEFR; discourse marker; immersive experience; learner corpus; LINDSEI; speech fluency
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