1887
Volume 22, Issue 1
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238

Abstract

This paper investigates the external and internal modification devices used by native speakers and advanced learners of Greek, when making requests in formal and informal situations. The data are drawn from a discourse completion test completed by native speakers and learners of two different groups: one with extended length of residence in Greece but limited opportunities for interaction with native speakers and one with more frequent opportunities for interaction but limited length of residence in the target community. On the basis of the results, it is argued that learners with more opportunities for interaction approximate more closely to the native norm with respect to external modification and some aspects of internal modification of requests. Yet, it is shown that other aspects of internal modification remain underdeveloped, irrespective of frequency of contact with native speakers. This highlights the need for pedagogical intervention in order for the learners’ pragmatic development to be promoted.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.22.1.01bel
2012-01-01
2019-10-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Achiba, Machiko
    (2003) Learning to request in a second language: Child interlanguage pragmatics. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Al-Ali, Mohammed , and Rami Alawneh
    (2010) Linguistic mitigating devices in American and Jordanian students’ requests. Intercultural Pragmatics7: 311–339. doi: 10.1515/iprg.2010.014
    https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2010.014 [Google Scholar]
  3. Alcón, Eva
    (2005) Does instruction work for learning pragmatics in the EFL context?System33: 417–435. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2005.06.005
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.06.005 [Google Scholar]
  4. Antoniou, Maria , Maria Galazoula , Stavroula Dimitrakou , and Anastasia Mangana
    (2010) Madaivou/ue EXXrjviKâ: Axófia KoXmepa! [We learn Greek: Even Better!]. Athina: Kedros.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Arvanitakis Kleanthis, and Froso Arvanitaki
    (2002) EniKoivowfjme EXknvma 2 [Communicate in Greek 2]. Athina: Deltos.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Antonopoulou, Eleni
    (2001) Brief service encounters: Gender and politeness. In A. Bayractaroğlu , and M. Sifianou (eds.), Linguistic Politeness across Boundaries: The case of Greek and Turkish. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp.241–269. doi: 10.1075/pbns.88.10ant
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.88.10ant [Google Scholar]
  7. Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen
    (1999) Exploring the interlanguage of interlanguage pragmatics: A research agenda for acquisitional pragmatics. Language Learning49: 677–713. doi: 10.1111/0023‑8333.00105
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00105 [Google Scholar]
  8. (2001) Empirical evidence of the need for instruction in pragmatics. In K. Rose , and G. Kasper (eds.), Pragmatics in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp.13–32. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139524797.005
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524797.005 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bardovi-Harlig Kathleen, and Zoltan Dörnyei
    (1998) Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic versus grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly32: 233–262. doi: 10.2307/3587583
    https://doi.org/10.2307/3587583 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bargiela-Chiappini, Francesca
    (2003) Face and politeness: New (insights) for old (concepts). Journal of Pragmatics35: 1453–1469. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(02)00173‑X
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(02)00173-X [Google Scholar]
  11. Barron, Anne
    (2002) Acquisition in interlanguage pragmatics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/pbns.108
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.108 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bella, Spyridoula
    (2009) Invitations and politeness in Greek: The age variable. Journal of Politeness Research5: 243–271.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. (2011) Mitigation and politeness in Greek invitation refusals: Effects of length of residence in the target community and intensity of interaction on non-native speakers’ performance. Journal of Pragmatics43: 1718–1740. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2010.11.005
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.11.005 [Google Scholar]
  14. (forthcoming) KaOâpioe afiéaœç xnv KouÇiva napaxaldj!: Aixfuiaxa (laenxœv xnç EUnviKiîç œç Çévnç ykoooaç [Clean up the kitchen immediately please!: Requests by learners of Greek as a foreign language]. To be published in theProceedings of the 20th International Symposium of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics (ISTAL 20), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of English, Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, 1–3 April 2011.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Billmyer, Kristine , and Manka Varghese
    (2000) Investigating instrument-based pragmatic variability: Effects of enhancing discourse completion tests. Applied Linguistics21: 517–552. doi: 10.1093/applin/21.4.517
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/21.4.517 [Google Scholar]
  16. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana
    (2005 [1992]) The metapragmatics of politeness in Israeli society. In R. Watts , S. Ide , and R. Ehlich (eds.), Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp.255–280.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana , and Edward A. Levenston
    (1987) Lexical-grammatical pragmatic indicators. Studies in Second Language Acquisition9: 155–170. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100000450
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100000450 [Google Scholar]
  18. Blum-Kulka, Shoshana , and Elite Olshtain
    (1984) Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns. Applied Linguistics5: 196–213. doi: 10.1093/applin/5.3.196
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/5.3.196 [Google Scholar]
  19. (1986) Too many words: Length of utterance and pragmatic failure. Studies in Second Language Acquisition8: 165–180. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100006069
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100006069 [Google Scholar]
  20. Bouton, Lawrence
    (1992) Culture, pragmatics and implicature. AFinLa Yearbook 1992, 35–61.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. (1994) Conversational implicature in the second language: Learned slowly when not deliberately taught. Journal of Pragmatics22: 157–167. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(94)90065‑5
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)90065-5 [Google Scholar]
  22. Brown, Penelope , and Stephen Levinson
    (1987) Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Charalambopoulou, Niki , and Agathoklis Charalambopoulos
    (1996) Ta EAArjvwa œç Aemeprj/Eévrj rXœaaa: Enineôo ApXapicov [Greek as a Second/Foreign Language: Beginners’ level]. Athina: Paratiritis.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Christie, Chris
    (2005) Editorial. Journal of Politeness Research1: 1–7.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Churchill, Eton , and Margaret DuFon
    (2006) Evolving threads in study abroad research. In M. DuFon , and E. Churchill (eds.), Language learners in study abroad contexts. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters, pp.1–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Codina, Victoria
    (2008) The immediate vs. delayed effect of instruction on mitigators in relation to the learners’ language proficiency in English. In E. Alcón (ed.), Learning how to request in an instructed language learning context. Bern: Peter Lang, pp.227–256.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Cohen, Andrew , and Rachel Shively
    (2007) Acquisition of requests and apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of study abroad and strategy-building intervention. The Modern Language Journal91: 189–212. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2007.00540.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00540.x [Google Scholar]
  28. Coperias Aguilar, Maria José
    (2008) Dealing with intercultural communicative competence in the foreign language classroom. In E. Alcón Soler , and M.P. Safont Jordá (eds.), Intercultural language use and language learning. New York/Heidelberg: Springer, pp.59–78.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Coulmas, Florian
    (1985) Diskursive Routinen im Fremdsprachenerwerb. Munich, Germany: Goethe Institut.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Economidou-Kogetsidis, Maria
    (2008) Internal and external mitigation in interlanguage requests production: The case of Greek learners of English. Journal of Politeness Research4: 111–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. (2009) Interlanguage request modification: The use of lexical/phrasal downgraders and mitigating supportive moves. Multilingua28: 79–112. doi: 10.1515/mult.2009.004
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/mult.2009.004 [Google Scholar]
  32. Edmondson, Willis , and Juliane House
    (1991) Do learners talk too much? The waffle phenomenon in interlanguage pragmatics. In R. Phillipson , E. Kellerman , L. Selinker , M. Sharwood Smith and M. Swain , (eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, pp.273–287.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Eelen, Gino
    (2001) A critique of politeness theories. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Faerch, Claus , and Gabriele Kasper
    (1989) Internal and external modification in interlanguage request realization. In S. Blum-Kulka, J. House , and G. Kasper (eds.), Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. New Jersey: Ablex, pp.221–247.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Félix-Brasdefer, César
    (2003) Declining an invitation: A cross-cultural study of pragmatic strategies in American English and Latin American Spanish. Multilingua22: 225–255. doi: 10.1515/mult.2003.012
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.2003.012 [Google Scholar]
  36. (2004) Interlanguage refusals: Linguistic politeness and length of residence in the target community. Language Learning54: 587–653. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‑9922.2004.00281.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00281.x [Google Scholar]
  37. (2007) Pragmatic development in the Spanish as a FL classroom: A cross-sectional study of learner requests. Intercultural Pragmatics4: 253–286. doi: 10.1515/IP.2007.013
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IP.2007.013 [Google Scholar]
  38. (2010) Data collection methods in speech act performance: DCTs, role plays and verbal reports. In A. Martínez-Flor , and E. Usó-Juan (eds.), Speech act performance: Theoretical, empirical and methodological issues. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp.41–56. doi: 10.1075/lllt.26.03fel
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.26.03fel [Google Scholar]
  39. Garcés-Conejos, Pilar , Patricia Bou-Franch , and Emilio García-Gómez
    (1992) Estudio pragmático-contrastivo del diminutive: Una propuesta methodologica. In F. Etxeberria and J. Arzamendi (eds.), Bilingüismo y Adquisición de Lenguas: Actas del IX Congreso Nacional de AESLA. Bilbao: Universidad del País Vasco, pp.247–257.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Gass, Susan , and Noël Houck
    (1999) Interlanguage refusals: A cross-cultural study of Japanese-English. New York: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110809879
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110809879 [Google Scholar]
  41. Goffman, Erving
    (1955) On face-work: An analysis of ritual elements in social interaction. Psychiatry18: 213–231.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Han, Sangkyung
    (2005) The interlanguage pragmatic development of the speech act of requests by Korean non-native speakers of English in an ESL setting. (Doctoral dissertation, UPenn). Dissertations available from ProQuest. Paper AAI3165689.
  43. Hassall, Timothy
    (2001) Modifying requests in a second language. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (IRAL)39: 259–283.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. (2003) Requests by Australian learners of Indonesian. Journal of Pragmatics35: 1903–1928. doi: 10.1016/S0378‑2166(03)00115‑2
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(03)00115-2 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hendriks, Berna
    (2002) More on Dutch English … please? A study of request performance by Dutch native speakers, English native speakers and Dutch learners of English. Nijmegen: Nijmegen University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hill, Thomas
    (1997) The development of pragmatic competence in an EFL context. Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, Philadelphia.
  47. Hoffman-Hicks, Sheila
    (1999) The longitudinal development of French foreign language pragmatic competence: Evidence from study abroad participants. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University. Dissertation Abstracts International 61, 591.
  48. House, Juliane
    (1996) Developing pragmatic fluency in English as a foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition18: 225–253. doi: 10.1017/S0272263100014893
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100014893 [Google Scholar]
  49. House, Juliane , and Gabriele Kasper
    (1987) Interlanguage pragmatics: Requesting in a foreign language. In W. Lörscher and S. Rainer (eds.), Perspectives in Language Performance. Tübingen: Narr, pp.1250–1288.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Jalifar, Alireza
    (2009) Request strategies: Cross-sectional study of Iranian EFL learners and Australian native speakers. English Language Teaching2: 46–61.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Kallia, Alexandra
    (2005) Directness as a source of misunderstanding: The case of requests and suggestions. In R. Lakoff , and S. Ide (eds.), Broadening the horizon of linguistic politeness. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp.217–234. doi: 10.1075/pbns.139.19kal
    https://doi.org/10.1075/pbns.139.19kal [Google Scholar]
  52. Kasper, Gabriele
    (1997) Can pragmatic competence be taught?www.nflrc.hawaii.edu/networks/NW06.
  53. (2000) Data collection in pragmatics research. In H. Spencer-Oatey (ed.), Culturally speaking. London: Continuum, pp.316–341.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Kasper, Gabriele , and Kenneth Rose
    (2002) Pragmatic development in a second Language. Blackwell: University of Michigan.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Klein, Wolfgang , Rainer Dietrich , and Colette Noyau
    (1995) Conclusions. In R. Dietrich , W. Klein , and C. Noyau (eds.), The Acquisition of temporality in a second language. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp.261–280. doi: 10.1075/sibil.7
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/sibil.7 [Google Scholar]
  56. Kobayashi, Hiroe , and Carol Rinnert
    (2003) Coping with high imposition requests: High vs. low proficiency EFL students in Japan. In A. Martínez-Flor , E. Usó-Juan , and A. Fernández-Guerra (eds.), Pragmatic competence and foreign language teaching. Castelló: Universitat Jaume 1, pp.161–184.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Locher, Miriam
    (2006) Polite behaviour within relational work: The discursive approach to politeness. Multilingua25: 249–267. doi: 10.1515/MULTI.2006.015
    https://doi.org/10.1515/MULTI.2006.015 [Google Scholar]
  58. Marti, Leila
    (2006) Indirectness and politeness in Turkish-German bilingual and Turkish monolingual requests. Journal of Pragmatics38: 1836–1869. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2005.05.009
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2005.05.009 [Google Scholar]
  59. Martínez-Flor, Alicia , and Esther Usó-Juan
    (2006) Learners’ use of request modifiers across two University ESP disciplines. Ibérica12: 23–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Matsumura, Shoichi
    (2001) Learning the rules of offering advice: A quantitative approach to second language socialization. Language Learning51: 635–679. doi: 10.1111/0023‑8333.00170
    https://doi.org/10.1111/0023-8333.00170 [Google Scholar]
  61. Owen, Jeanette
    (2002) Interlanguage pragmatics in Russian: A study of the effects of study abroad and proficiency levels on request strategies. Doctoral dissertation, Bryn Mawr College.
  62. Pearson, Lynn
    (2006) Patterns of development in Spanish L2 pragmatics acquisition: An analysis of novice learners’ production of directives. The Modern Language Journal90: 473–495. doi: 10.1111/j.1540‑4781.2006.00427.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2006.00427.x [Google Scholar]
  63. Rose, Kenneth
    (1992) Speech acts and questionnaires: The effect of hearer response. Journal of Pragmatics17: 49–62. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(92)90028‑A
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(92)90028-A [Google Scholar]
  64. (2005) On the effects of instruction in second language pragmatics. System33: 385–399. doi: 10.1016/j.system.2005.06.003
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.06.003 [Google Scholar]
  65. Rose, Kenneth , and Connie Kwai-fun Ng
    (2001) Inductive and deductive teaching of compliments and compliment responses. In K. Rose and G. Kasper (eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.145–170. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139524797.013
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524797.013 [Google Scholar]
  66. Safont, Maria Pilar
    (2003) Instructional effects on the use of request act modification devices by EFL learners. In A. Martínez-Flor , E. Usó-Juan and A. Fernández-Guerra (eds.), Pragmatic competence and foreign language teaching. Castelló: Universitat Jaume 1, pp.211–232.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Salazar, Patricia
    (2003) Pragmatic instruction in the EFL context. In A. Martínez-Flor , E. Usó-Juan , and A. Fernández-Guerra (eds.), Pragmatic competence and foreign language teaching. Castelló: Universitat Jaume 1, pp.233–246.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Scarcella, Robin
    (1979) On speaking politely in a second language. In C. Yorio , K. Perkins , and J. Schachter (eds.), On TESOL ‘79: The Learner in Focus. Washington, DC: TESOL, pp.275–287.
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Schauer, Gila
    (2006) Pragmatic awareness in ESL and EFL contexts: Contrast and Development. Language Learning56: 269–318. doi: 10.1111/j.0023‑8333.2006.00348.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0023-8333.2006.00348.x [Google Scholar]
  70. (2007) Finding the right words in a study abroad context: The development of German learners’ use of external modifiers in English. Intercultural Pragmatics4: 193–220. doi: 10.1515/IP.2007.011
    https://doi.org/10.1515/IP.2007.011 [Google Scholar]
  71. Scollon, Ron , and Suzanne Scollon
    (2001) Intercultural communication. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Searle, John
    (1969) Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139173438
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173438 [Google Scholar]
  73. Shively, Rachel , and Andrew Cohen
    (2008) Development of Spanish requests and apologies during study abroad. Ikala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura30: 57–118.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Siegal, Meryl
    (1994) Looking east: Learning Japanese as a second language and the interaction of race, gender, and social context. Doctoral dissertation, Berkeley, University of California.
  75. Sifianou, Maria
    (1992) Politeness phenomena in England and Greece: A cross-cultural perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. (2010) Linguistic politeness: Laying the foundations. In M.A. Locher , and S.L. Graham (eds.), Interpersonal Pragmatics. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp.17–41.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Simopoulos, Giorgos , Irene Pathiadaki , Rita Kanellopoulou , and Aglaia Pavlopoulou
    (2010) EAArjvwa A ‘ [Greek A’]. Athina: Patakis.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Symeon, Despina
    (2000) Apologies in Greek and English. Doctoral dissertation, University of Athens.
  79. Takahashi, Satomi
    (2001) The role of input enhancement in developing pragmatic competence. In K. Rose , and G. Kasper (eds.), Pragmatics in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.171–199. doi: 10.1017/CBO9781139524797.014
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524797.014 [Google Scholar]
  80. Thomas, Jenny
    (1983) Cross-cultural pragmatic failure. Applied Linguistics4: 91–112. doi: 10.1093/applin/4.2.91
    https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/4.2.91 [Google Scholar]
  81. Trosborg, Anna
    (1995) Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints and Apologies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110885286
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110885286 [Google Scholar]
  82. Turner, Ken
    (1996) The principal principles of pragmatic inference: Politeness. Language Teaching29: 1–13. doi: 10.1017/S0261444800008211
    https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444800008211 [Google Scholar]
  83. Usó-Juan, Esther
    (2010) Requests: A sociopragmatic approach. In A. Martínez-Flor , and E. Usó-Juan (eds.), Speech act performance: Theoretical, empirical and methodological issues. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp.237–256. doi: 10.1075/lllt.26.14uso
    https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.26.14uso [Google Scholar]
  84. Usó-Juan, Esther and Alicia Martínez-Flor
    (2008) Teaching learners to appropriately mitigate requests. ELT Journal62: 349–357.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Valsamaki, Fanni , and Dimitra Manavi
    (2004) Opiate!: EUrjviKâ yia Ap/apiovc [There you go!: Greek for beginners]. Thessaloniki: Institute for Modern Greek Studies [Manolis Triandafyllidis Foundation].
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Watts, Richard
    (2003) Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511615184
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615184 [Google Scholar]
  87. Wolfson, Nessa
    (1981) Invitations, compliments and the competence of the native speakers. International Journal of Psycholinguistics25: 7–22.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Woodfield, Helen
    (2008) Interlanguage requests in English: A contrastive study. In M. Pütz & J. Neff Van Aertselaer (eds.), Contrastive pragmatics: Interlanguage and cross-cultural perspectives. Berlin//New York: Mouton De Gruyter, pp.231–264.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Zhang, Yanyin
    (1995) Indirectness in Chinese requesting. In G. Kasper (ed.), Pragmatics of Chinese as native and target language. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, pp.69–118.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.22.1.01bel
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Interaction intensity , L2 Greek , Length of residence , Modification and requests
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error