1887
Approaches to grammar for interactional linguistics
  • ISSN 1018-2101
  • E-ISSN: 2406-4238

Abstract

This paper aims to analyse the types of Japanese vocatives used in business situations, and demonstrate the characteristics of their distribution with different politeness levels as shown in films on human relationships in large traditional corporations in and around Tokyo. The discussion builds on the theory of “discernment or social indexing politeness” (Hill et al. 1986; Ide 2006; Ide et al. 1986; Kasper 1990; Geyer 2008), and positions that of “strategic or volitional politeness” (ibid.) with the variables of “power” and “distance” proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987). In a society of collectivism under a vertical structure with seniority system, people have their own (‘place’) (Nakane 2005) where they are expected to choose socially accepted language and behaviour according to whom they address; namely, seniors or juniors, and (‘in-group’) or (‘out-group’) members. The use of vocatives is fixed based primarily upon “power” (age and status) and “distance” (in- or out-group), and is hardly flexible to changes in form in business or private situations. “Power” prevails in addressing in-group members; whereas “distance” determines the choice of vocatives used between out-group people. Within a group, indirect polite forms are used to address superiors, whilst direct familiar forms are chosen when speaking to subordinates, which presents a nonreciprocal use of terms; power downwards and reserve upwards. The intentional individual use of last name+ (‘Mr./Ms.’) is also argued here as it has dichotomous aspects of politeness; sounding more polite to address a subordinate, and less polite when used with a boss. To out-group members, people tend to choose more of polite forms to each other. These vocative choices reflect the relative position of the Japanese interdependent “self” (Morisaki & Gudykunst 1994; Gudykunst et al. 1996; Spencer-Oatey & Franklin 2009) with “other- and mutual-face” (Ting-Toomey & Oetzel 2002), which follows social norms, striving to meet expectations made by groups it belongs to and identifies itself with.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1075/prag.23.3.04kit
2013-01-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Andersen, P.A. , M.L. Hecht , G.D. Hoobler , and M. Smallwood
    (2002) Nonverbal communication across cultures. In W.B. Gudykunst , and B. Mody (eds.), Handbook of international and intercultural communication, 2nd edition. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, pp. 89-106.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson, E
    (2000) Beyond homo economicus: New developments in theories of social norms. Philosophy and Public Affairs 29.2: 170-200. doi: 10.1111/j.1088‑4963.2000.00170.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1088-4963.2000.00170.x [Google Scholar]
  3. Aoki, T
    (1999, 2009) “Nihon bunka-ron” no henyô: Sengo-nihon no bunka (‘Changing image of “Japanese culture”: Post-war Japanese culture’). Tokyo: Chuokoron-shinsha.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arakawa, N
    (2008) Hito o yobu to iu gengo kôi (‘Language behaviour of addressing a person’). htttp://www.res.kute.kansai-u.ac.jp/-mkato/pdf/fa50018.pdf#search (April 5, 2011).
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Argyle, M
    (1994, 1995) The psychology of social class. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Axelson, E
    (2007) Vocatives: A double-edged strategy in intercultural discourse among graduate students. Pragmatics17.1: 95-122.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Backnik, J.M
    (1982) Deixis and self/other reference in Japanese discourse. Sociolinguistic Working Paper99: 1-36. Austin, Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baxter, L.A
    (1984) An investigation of compliance-gaining as politeness. Human Communication Research10.3: 427-456. doi: 10.1111/j.1468‑2958.1984.tb00026.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1984.tb00026.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Biber, D. , S. Johansson , G. Leech , S. Conrad , and E. Finegan
    (1999) Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Braun, F
    (1988) Terms of address: Problems of patterns and usage in various languages and cultures. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110848113
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110848113 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brown, P. , and S.C. Levinson
    (1978, 1987) Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brown, R. , and A. Gilman
    (1960, 1972) The pronouns of power and solidarity. In T.A. Sebeok (ed.), Style in language. London: Wiley & Sons, pp. 253-276.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Clyne, M. , C. Norrby , and J. Warren
    (2009) Language and human relations: Styles of address in contemporary language. NY: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511576690
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511576690 [Google Scholar]
  14. Coulmas, F
    (1992) Linguistic etiquette in Japanese society. In R. Watts , S. Ide , and K. Ehlich (eds.), Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 299-323.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Culpeper, J
    (2011) Impoliteness: Using language to cause offence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511975752
    https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511975752 [Google Scholar]
  16. Fraser, B
    (1990) Perspectives on politeness. Journal of Pragmatics14: 219-236. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90081‑N
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90081-N [Google Scholar]
  17. Gendai Nihon-go Kenkyûkai (‘The Society of Current Japanese’) (ed.) (1999) Josei no kotoba: Shokuba-hen (‘Women’s talk: Offices.’). Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gendai Nihon-go Kenkyûkai (‘The Society of Current Japanese’) (ed.) (2002, 2004) Dansei no kotoba: Shokuba-hen (‘Men’s talk: Offices.’) Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Geyer, N
    (2008) Discourse and politeness. London: Continuum International Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Goffman, E
    (1967) Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. New York: Pantheon Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Green, G
    (1992) The universality of Gricean accounts of politeness: You gotta have wa. Unpublished manuscript. University of Illinois.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gudykunst, W.B. , Y. Matsumoto , S. Ting-Toomey , T. Nishida , K.S. Kim , and S. Heyman
    (1996) The influence of cultural individualism-collectivism, self construals, and individual values on communication styles across cultures. Human Communication Research22: 510-543. doi: 10.1111/j.1468‑2958.1996.tb00377.x
    https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1996.tb00377.x [Google Scholar]
  23. Hamaguchi, E
    (1982) Kanjin-shugi no shakai Nihon (‘Japan, society of contextualism’). Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Shinposha.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Han, E
    (2006) O-mae’tte dare?: Nihon-go no dai-ni-ninshô daimeishi/taishôshi (‘Who is “you”?: Japanese second personal pronouns /nouns’). http://www.iie.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/Center/activities/japanese/pdf/JJC2006/JC2006iraiza.pdf (March 25, 2011).
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Hill, B. , S. Ide , A. Kawasaki , and T. Ogino
    (1986) Universals of linguistic politeness: Quantitative evidence from Japanese and American English. Journal of Pragmatics10.3: 347-371. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(86)90003‑2
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(86)90003-2 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hofstede, G
    (1991, 1994) Culture and organisations: Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. London: HarperCollins.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Holmes, J
    (1990) Apologies in New Zealand English. Language in Society19: 155-199. doi: 10.1017/S0047404500014366
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500014366 [Google Scholar]
  28. (1995) Women, men, and politeness. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. House, J
    (2003) Misunderstanding in intercultural university encounters. In J. House , G. Kasper , and S. Ross (eds.), Misunderstanding in social life: Discourse approaches to problematic talk. London: Longman, pp. 22-56.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ide, S
    (1982) Japanese sociolinguistics: Politeness and women’s language. Lingua57.2-4: 357-385. doi: 10.1016/0024‑3841(82)90009‑2
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3841(82)90009-2 [Google Scholar]
  31. (1989) Formal forms and discernment: Two neglected aspects of universals of linguistic politeness. Multilingua8.2-3: 223-248. doi: 10.1515/mult.1989.8.2‑3.223
    https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.1989.8.2-3.223 [Google Scholar]
  32. (2006) Wakimae no goyôron (‘Pragmatics of discernment’). Tokyo: Taishukan Shoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ide, S. , B. Hill , Y. Carnes , T. Ogino , and A. Kawasaki
    (1992) The concept of politeness: An empirical study of American English and Japanese. In R.J. Watts , S. Ide , and K. Ehlich (eds.), Politeness in language:Studies in its history, theory, and practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 281-297.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ide, S. , M. Hori , A. Kawasaki , S. Ikuta , and H. Haga
    (1986) Sex differences and politeness in Japanese. International Journal of the Sociology of Language58: 25-36.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Jackson, K. , and M. Tomioka
    (2004) The changing face of Japanese management. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Janney, R.W. , and H. Arndt
    (1992) Intracultural tact versus intercultural tact. In R.J. Watts , S. Ide , and K. Ehlich (eds.), Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 21-41.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Kajiwara, M
    (2004) Nihon-go ni okeru taishôshi “anata” no shiyô ryôiki ni tsuite (‘On the usage area of the Japanese second personal noun “you”’). Shinshû University International Students Center Journal5:47-57.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Kanai, H
    (2002a) Nihon-go ni okeru ‘Teikijutsu’ ni yoru ni-ninshô shiji: Metonimî no kanten kara (‘The second personal indication by ‘definite description’ in the Japanese language: In view of metonymy’). Rėsumė for oral presentation (the 124 conference). The Linguistic Society of Japan.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. (2002b) Shitsurei to iu kanten kara mita ni-nin-shô shiji no taikei (‘Structure of the second personal indication seen in the view of rudeness’). Waseda University Postgraduate Literature Course Journal48.3: 83-91.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kasper, G
    (1990) Linguistic politeness: Current research issues. Journal of Pragmatics 14.2: 193-218. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(90)90080‑W
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90080-W [Google Scholar]
  41. (1997) Linguistic etiquette. In F. Coulmas (ed.), The handbook of sociolinguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 374-385.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Kataoka, Y
    (1997) Nihon-go no soto e (‘Out of the Japanese Language.’). Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Kimura, S
    (1972) Hito to hito to no aida: Seishin-byôrigaku-teki Nihon-ron (‘Between people: Japan from mental pathology’). Tokyo: Kobundo.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Kinsui, S
    (1989, 1991)  Daimeishi to ninshô (‘Pronouns and persons’). In Y. Miyaji (ed.), Kôza Nihon-go to Nihon-go kyôiku, vol.4: Nihon-go no bunpô/buntai (Jô) (‘Japanese language and its education 4: Japanese grammar and style (I)’). Tokyo: Meiji Shoin, pp. 98-116.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Kitayama, T
    (2004) A study of politeness in American films: Analysis of requests appearing in business sceness in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Kinki University Department of Language Education Journal4.1: 65-125.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. (2010)  Tatemae (‘stated principle’) and Honne (‘real intent’) appearing in terms of address: Analysing their usage in business scenes in American, British and Japanese films. Kinki University Department of Language Education Journal 6.2: 3-24.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Kobayashi, M
    (2002, 2004) Shokuba de tsukawareru “koshô” (‘Address forms used in offices’). InGendai Nihon-go Kenkyûkai (‘The Society of Current Japanese’) (ed.), Dansei no kotoba shokuba-hen (‘Men’s talk: Offices’). Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo, pp. 99-119.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Koizumi, T
    (2001) Nyûmon goyôron kenkyû: Riron to ôyô (‘Introduction to pragmatic researches: Theory and application’). Tokyo: Kenkyusha.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Kokuritsu Koku-go Kenkyûsho
    (‘National Institute for Japanese Language’) (1982) Kokuritsu Koku-go Kenkyûsho Hôkoku 73: Kigyô no naka no keigo (‘National Institute for Japanese Language Report 73: Honorifics in companies’). Tokyo: Nihon Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Lakoff, R.T
    (1973) The logic of politeness; or minding your p’s and q’s. In C. Corum , T.C. Smith-Stark , and A. Weiser (eds.), Papers from the ninth regional meeting of Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguistic Society, pp. 292-305.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lebra, T.S
    (1976) Japanese patterns of behavior. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Leech, G
    (1983) Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. (1999) The distribution and function of vocatives in American and British English conversation. In H. Hasselgård , and S. Oksefjull (eds.), Out of corpora: Studies in honour of Stig Johansson. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 107-118.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Leeds-Hurwitz, W
    (1980) The use and analysis of uncommon forms of address. Sociolinguisitc Working Paper8: 1-18.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Levinson, S.C
    (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lin, C
    (2006) Nihon-bunka ni okeru “mentsu”: Sono gainen to shinri-teki taijin-tekl igi (‘“Face” in Japanese culture: Its concept and psychological/personal significance’). www.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/postgraduate/database/2007/535.html (February 15, 2012).
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Loveday, L
    (1986) Explorations in Japanese sociolinguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/pb.vii.1
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/pb.vii.1 [Google Scholar]
  58. MaConnell-Ginet, S
    (2003, 2006) “What’s in a name?”: Social labeling and gender practices. In J. Holmes , and M. Meyerhoff (eds.), The handbook of language and gender. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 69-97.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Matsumoto, Y
    (1988) Reexamination of the universality of face: Politeness phenomena in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics12: 403-426. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(88)90003‑3
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(88)90003-3 [Google Scholar]
  60. Maynard, S.K
    (2001) Expressivity in discourse: Vocatives and themes in Japanese. Language Sciences 23.6: 679-705. doi: 10.1016/S0388‑0001(00)00024‑3
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0388-0001(00)00024-3 [Google Scholar]
  61. Mead, R
    (1998) International management. Oxford: Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Morisaki, S. , and W. Gudykunst
    (1994) Face in Japan and the United States. In S. Ting-Toomey (ed.), The Challenge of facework. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 47-93.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Nakane, C
    (1967, 2005) Tate shakai no ningen kankei: Tan’itsu shakai no riron (‘Human relationship in vertical society: Theory of homogeneous society’). Tokyo: Kodansha.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. (1970, 1973, 1998) Japanese society.Tokyo: Charles G. Tuttle.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Nakazaki, Y
    (2002) Morau-kei komyunikêshon ni okeru “hanashite shukansei” to ninshô hairâkî (‘Speaker subjectivity and personal hierarchy in communication of receiving’). Gengo to Bunka (‘Language and Culture’)15: 1-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. NHK
    (1995) Kotoba terebi: ○△buchô soretomo ○△sân! (‘Language TV: Last name & position title (department manager) or last name with -sân!’). (September 3).
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Oda, N
    (2010) Eigo no yobikake-go (‘English vocatives’). Osaka: Osaka Kyoiku Tosho.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. O’Driscoll, J
    (1996) About face: A defence and elaboration of universal dualism. Journal of Pragmatics25.1: 1-32. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(94)00069‑X
    https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)00069-X [Google Scholar]
  69. Oetzel, J.G. , S. Ting-Toomey , and M. Chew
    (1999) Face and facework in conflicts with parents and siblings: A cross-cultural comparison of German, Japanese, Mexican, and U. S. Americans. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Oetzel, S.G. , S. Ting-Toomey , T. Matsumoto , Y. Yokochi , X. Pan , J. Takai , and R. Wilcox
    (2000) Face and facework in conflict: A cross-cultural comparison of China, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Acapulco, Mexico.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Okamoto, S
    (2000, 2010) Kotoba no shakai-shinrigaku (‘Socio-psychology of language’). Kyoto: Nakanishiya Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Ôhama, R. , C. Aramaki , and G. So
    (2001) Nihon-go kyôkasho ni mirareru jidôshi/ tadôshi no shiyô ni tsuite (‘On the first and the second personal nouns in Japanese textbooks’). Chûgoku/Shikoku Kyôiku Gakkai Kyôiku Kenkyû Kiyô (‘The Chugoku-Shikoku Society for the Study of Education’): Annals of Educational Research47.2: 342-352.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Peng, F.C
    (1982) Koshô no shakaigaku (‘Sociology of address forms’). In T. Kunihiro (ed.), Nichi-ei hikaku kôza, vol.5: Bunka to shakai (‘Comparative studies of Japanese and English language 5: Culture and society’). Tokyo: Taishukan Shoten, pp. 61-82.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Quirk, R. , S. Greebaum , G. Leech , and J. Svartvik
    (eds.) (1985) A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Saito, K
    (1999) Ni-ninshô daimeishi to keii hyôgen: Nichi-ei-go taishô kenkyû (‘Politeness and the second person pronoun: A contrastive study of English and Japanese’). Baika Joshi Daigaku Bungakubu Kiyô 33: Hikaku Bunka (‘Baika Literary Bulletin 33: Comparative Culture’): 1-11.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Sawyer, J.F.A
    (1994) Names: religious beliefs. In R.E. Asher (ed.), Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 2672-2674.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Schneider, D.M. , and G.C. Homans
    (1955) Kinship terminology and the American kinship system. American Anthropologist57.6: 1194-1208. doi: 10.1525/aa.1955.57.1.02a00190
    https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1955.57.1.02a00190 [Google Scholar]
  78. Scollon, R. , S.W. Scollon , and R.H. Jones
    (1995, 2001, 2012) Intercultural communication: A discourse approach. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Spencer-Oatey, H
    (1996) Reconsidering power and distance. Journal of Pragmatics26: 1-24. doi: 10.1016/0378‑2166(95)00047‑X
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(95)00047-X [Google Scholar]
  80. (ed.) (2000, 2009, 2011) Culturally speaking: Culture, communication and politeness theory. London: Continuum International Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  81. (2005) (Im)politeness, face and perception of rapport: Unpackaging their bases and interrelationships. Journal of Politeness Research1.1: 95-119.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Spencer-Oatey, H. , and P. Franklin
    (2009) Intercultural interaction: A multidisciplinary approach to intercultural communication. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1057/9780230244511
    https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230244511 [Google Scholar]
  83. Slugoski, B.R
    (1985) Grice’s theory of conversation as a social psychological model. Ph.D. dissertation. Oxford.
  84. Slugoski, B.R. , and W. Turnbull
    (1988) Cruel to be kind and kind to be cruel: Sarcasm, banter, and social relations. Journal of Language and Social Psychology7: 101-121. doi: 10.1177/0261927X8800700202
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X8800700202 [Google Scholar]
  85. Suzuki, T
    (1973, 2010) Kotoba to bunka (‘Language and culture’). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. (1982) Jishôshi to taishôshi no hikaku (‘Comparison between the first and the second personal nouns’). In T. Kunihiro (ed.), Nichi-ei hikaku kôza, vol.5: Bunka to shakai (‘Comparative studies of Japanese and English language 5: Culture and society’). Tokyo: Taishukan Shoten, pp. 17-60.
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Takanashi, H
    (2011) Complementary stylistic resonance in Japanese play framing. Pragmatics 21.2: 231-264.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Takiura, M
    (2005) Nihon no keigoron: Poraitonesu riron kara no saikentô (‘Japanese honorifics: Review of politeness theory’). Tokyo: Taishukan Shoten.
    [Google Scholar]
  89. (2007) Koshô no poraitonesu: ‘Hito o yobu koto’ no goyôron (‘Politeness of address forms: Pragmatics on ‘addressing people’). Gekkan Nihongo (‘Japanese Language Monthly’) 36.12: 32-39.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Takubo, Y
    (1997, 2007) Shiten to gengo-kôdô (‘Viewpoint and language behaviour’). Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Tannen, D
    (1986) That’s not what I meant. New York: Ballantine Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Tao, L
    (2002) Nihon-go, Chûgoku-go, Eigo ni okeru teinei hyôgen no hikaku kenkyû (‘A comparative study on politeness in Japanese, Chinese and English’). aspace.lib.kanazawa-u.ac.jp/dspace/ (February 15, 2012).
  93. (2008) Chûgoku-go to Eigo ni okeru ‘mentsu’/‘face’ gainen no hikaku (‘A comparative study on the perception of “face” in Chinese and English’). Gengo Bunka Ronsô (‘Kanazawa University Language and Culture’) 12: 49-75.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Thomas, J
    (1995) Meaning in interaction: An introduction to pragmatics. London: Longman.
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Ting-Toomey, S. , and J.G. Oetzel
    (2002) Cross-cultural face concerns and conflict styles. In W.B. Gudykunst , and B. Mody (eds.), Handbook of international and intercultural communication, 2ndedition. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, pp. 143-163.
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Tsukimoto, H
    (2008) Nihon-jin no nô ni shugo wa iranai (‘No subjects needed for Japanese brain’). Tokyo: Kodansha.
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Van De Walle, L
    (1993) Pragmatics and classical sanskrit: A pilot study in linguistic politeness. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/pbns.28
    https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/pbns.28 [Google Scholar]
  98. Yamagishi, K
    (1995) Nichi-ei gengo bunka ronkô (‘Studies on Japanese and English language and culture’). Tokyo: Kobian Shobo.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Yoneda, M
    (1990) Aru shakai soshiki no naka no koshô: Fûfu no yobikata to shokuba de no yobikake ni tsuite (‘Address forms in a social structure: On vocatives between married couples and those among business people’). Nihon-go-gaku (‘Study of Japanese Language’) 9.9: 19-24.
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Yui, M
    (2007) Nihon-go oyobi eigo ni okeru taishôshi no kinô: Poraitonesu to no kanrensei (‘Functions of the second personal nouns in Japanese and English: In relation to politeness’). Surugadai Daigaku Ronshû (‘Surugadai University Review’) 33: 19-30.
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Wales, K
    (2001) A Dictionary of stylistics. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Watanabe, T
    (1998) Koshô to iu ronten (‘Discussion on address forms’). Nihon-go-gaku (‘Study of Japanese Language’) 17.9: 4-11.
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Wetzel, P.J
    (1985) In-group/out-group deixis: Situational variation in the verbs of giving and receiving in Japanese. In J.P. Forgas (ed.), Language and social situations. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 141-157. doi: 10.1007/978‑1‑4612‑5074‑6_8
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5074-6_8 [Google Scholar]
  104. Wierzbicka, A
    (2003) Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. doi: 10.1515/9783110220964
    https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110220964 [Google Scholar]
  105. Wikipedia. ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%AE%BF (April 17, 2012).
  106. Zwicky, A.M
    (1974) “Hey, whatsyourname!” Chicago Linguistic Society10: 787-801.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/prag.23.3.04kit
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was successful
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error